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Introduction and adaptation of an emerging pathogen to olive trees in Italy

Authors: Anne Sicard; Maria Saponari; Mathieu Vanhove; Andreina I. Castillo; Annalisa Giampetruzzi; Giuliana Loconsole; Pasquale Saldarelli; +3 Authors

Introduction and adaptation of an emerging pathogen to olive trees in Italy

Abstract

The invasive plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa currently threatens European flora through the loss of economically and culturally important host plants. This emerging vector-borne bacterium, native to the Americas, causes several important diseases in a wide range of plants including crops, ornamentals, and trees. Previously absent from Europe, and considered a quarantine pathogen, X. fastidiosa was first detected in Apulia, Italy in 2013 associated with a devastating disease of olive trees (Olive Quick Decline Syndrome, OQDS). OQDS has led to significant economic, environmental, cultural, as well as political crises. Although the biology of X. fastidiosa diseases have been studied for over a century, there is still no information on the determinants of specificity between bacterial genotypes and host plant species, which is particularly relevant today as X. fastidiosa is expanding in the naive European landscape. We analysed the genomes of 79 X . fastidiosa samples from diseased olive trees across the affected area in Italy as well as genomes of the most genetically closely related strains from Central America. We provided insights into the ecological and evolutionary emergence of this pathogen in Italy. We first showed that the outbreak in Apulia is due to a single introduction from Central America that we estimated to have occurred in 2008 [95 % HPD: 1930–2016]. By using a combination of population genomic approaches and evolutionary genomics methods, we further identified a short list of genes that could play a major role in the adaptation of X. fastidiosa to this new environment. We finally provided experimental evidence for the adaptation of the strain to this new environment.

Countries
France, France, United States, Italy
Keywords

highest posterior density, Pathogens and Epidemiology, adaptation, Xylella, OQDS, olive quick decline syndrome, Olea, emerging pathogen. Abbreviations: APL, X. fastidiosa, Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS), emerging pathogen, Phylogeny, Research Articles, Plant Diseases, Xylella fastidiosa, Whole Genome Sequencing, outbreak, Apulia, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Central America, General Medicine, sequence type 53, [SDV.MP.BAC]Life Sciences [q-bio]/Microbiology and Parasitology/Bacteriology, Adaptation, Physiological, ST53, population genomics, adaptation, Olive Quick Decline Syndrome, Phylogeography, Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS), Italy, adaption, HPD, [SDV.MP.BAC] Life Sciences [q-bio]/Microbiology and Parasitology/Bacteriology, [INFO.INFO-BI]Computer Science [cs]/Bioinformatics [q-bio.QM], Genome, Bacterial, [SDV.EE.IEO]Life Sciences [q-bio]/Ecology, environment/Symbiosis

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    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    15
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Top 10%
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    15
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Top 10%
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
15
Top 10%
Top 10%
Top 10%
Green
gold
Funded by
EC| XF-ACTORS
Project
XF-ACTORS
Xylella Fastidiosa Active Containment Through a multidisciplinary-Oriented Research Strategy
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 727987
  • Funding stream: H2020 | RIA
,
EC| XYL-EID
Project
XYL-EID
Determinants of Xylella fastidiosa host specificity
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 707013
  • Funding stream: H2020 | MSCA-IF-GF
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Sustainable Development Solutions Network - Greece
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