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Kitchen layouts and consumers’ food hygiene practices: Ergonomics versus safety

ergonomics versus safety
Authors: Octavian Augustin Mihalache; Trond Møretrø; Daniela Borda; Loredana Dumitraşcu; Corina Neagu; Christophe Nguyen-The; Isabelle Maître; +9 Authors

Kitchen layouts and consumers’ food hygiene practices: Ergonomics versus safety

Abstract

Our paper emphasizes the importance of the kitchen layout in facilitating consumers' food hygiene practices. A significant correlation was found between the sink placement (inside or outside the kitchen) and hygienic practices during food handling based on a survey performed on consumers from ten European countries, indicating that those who had the sink in the kitchen were more likely to perform proper hygiene practices than those who have not. The self-reported practices were supported by observed practices in 64 households from five European countries. The observational study combined with the examination of kitchen layouts revealed that the kitchen work triangle with its apexes represented by the kitchen sink, cooking stove and refrigerator, which is recommended for ergonomic reasons by architects and designers, did not necessarily support food hygiene practices in kitchens. Cross-contamination events were associated with the sink – countertop distances longer than 1 m. Based on this, a new kitchen triangle with its apexes represented by the kitchen sink, working place (usually countertop) and cooking stove, with the distance between the sink and the working place less than 1 m is proposed to be used as norm in kitchen designs for combining ergonomics with safety. This triangle is proposedly named the food safety triangle and is aimed to mitigate the risks of foodborne illnesses by creating an arrangement that facilitates hygiene practices. This study is the first to highlight the importance of implementing the concept of food safety in the kitchen design based on significant correlations between kitchen equipment placement and consumers’ food safety practices.

Highlights • Sink placement in kitchens correlates with self-reported food handling practices. • Sink placement is also correlated with observed cross-contamination events. • Kitchen layouts based on the work triangle do not support food hygiene practices. • A new triangle named food safety triangle is suggested for kitchens' organisation. • Sink – countertop distances ≤1 m favour consumers' food hygiene practices.

Graphical abstract Image 1

Countries
France, Portugal, Portugal, Norway, Portugal
Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: media_common.quotation_subject Food handling Foodborne Illnesses Hygiene Marketing media_common Food hygiene business.industry Human factors and ergonomics Food safety Work (electrical) Stove Business

Keywords

Design, Sink, Cross contamination, Article, Food safety triangle, Cross-contamination, Kitchen work triangle, Hand washing, [SHS.ANTHRO-SE]Humanities and Social Sciences/Social Anthropology and ethnology, Zinc, [SDV.SPEE]Life Sciences [q-bio]/Santé publique et épidémiologie, Food Science, Biotechnology

37 references, page 1 of 4

Adams, C. (2018). What is the kitchen triangle? ThoughCo. https://www.thoughtco.co m/kitchen-work-triangle-1206604. (Accessed 12 February 2021).

Al-Sakkaf, A. (2015). Domestic food preparation practices: A review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices. Health Promotion International, 30(3), 427-437. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dat051

Azevedo, I., Albano, H., Silva, J., & Teixeira, P. (2014). Food safety in the domestic environment. Food Control, 37, 272-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. foodcont.2013.09.058

Bae, D., Seo, K. S., Zhang, T., & Wang, C. (2013). Characterization of a potential Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor Associated with attachment to fresh produce. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(22), 6855-6861. https://doi.org/ 10.1128/AEM.01006-13

Beamish, J., Parrott, R. K., Emmel, J., & Peterson, M. J. (2013). Kitchen planning: Guidelines, codes, standards (2nd ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.

Camp, W. (2017). The work triangle: Does it still work? Kitchen & bath design news. htt ps://www.kitchenbathdesign.com/the-work-triangle-does-it-still-work/. (Accessed 19 January 2021).

Carpiano, R. M. (2009). Come take a walk with me: The 'go-along' interview as a method for studying the implications of place for health and wellbeing. Health and Place, 15 (1), 263-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.05.003

Castro-Rosas, J., Cerna-Cortes, J. F., Mendez-Reyes, E., Lopez-Hernandez, D., GomezAldapa, C. A., & Estrada-Garcia, T. (2012). Presence of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes in ready-to-eat salads, from an area where crops are irrigated with untreated sewage water. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 156(2), 176-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.03.025

Didier, P., Nguyen-The, C., Martens, L., Foden, M., Dumitrascu, L., Mihalache, A. O., et al. (2021). Washing hands and risk of cross-contamination during Chicken preparation among Domestic practitioners in five European countries. Food Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108062 [OpenAIRE]

https://www.dimensions.guide/. (Accessed 20 January 2021).

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  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    14
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Top 10%
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
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  • 200
    views
    498
    downloads
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visibility
download
citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
views
OpenAIRE UsageCountsViews provided by UsageCounts
downloads
OpenAIRE UsageCountsDownloads provided by UsageCounts
14
Top 10%
Top 10%
Top 10%
200
498
Green
hybrid
Funded by
EC| SafeConsumE
Project
SafeConsumE
SafeConsumE: Safer food through changed consumer behavior: Effective tools and products, communication strategies, education and a food safety policy reducing health burden from foodborne illnesses
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 727580
  • Funding stream: H2020 | RIA
Validated by funder
Related to Research communities
Sustainable Development Solutions Network - Greece
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