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Basic and Applied Ecology
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Basic and Applied Ecology
Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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Economic gain, stability of pollination and bee diversity decrease from southern to northern Europe

Authors: Sara D. Leonhardt; Nicola Gallai; Lucas Alejandro Garibaldi; Michael Kuhlmann; Alexandra-Maria Klein;

Economic gain, stability of pollination and bee diversity decrease from southern to northern Europe

Abstract

Bees are in decline potentially leading to reduced pollination and hence production of insect-pollinated crops in many countries. It is however still unclear whether the consequences of pollinator shortages differ among countries with different environmental and societal conditions. Here, we calculated economic gains attributed to insect (particularly bee) pollination (EVIP) as well as their contribution to the total value of crop production (vulnerability), and analyzed their temporal trends and inter-annual variability from 1991 to 2009 for each country of the European Union (EU). To understand which factors drive country-specific differences in pollinator dependency and stability of insect-dependent crop yields, we further asked whether EVIP, vulnerability and stability of yields were influenced by a country’s climate, the number of wild bee species and/or managed honeybee hives per country, and (agricultural) gross domestic product (GDP). Across Europe, crop pollination by insects accounted for 14.6 [±3.3] billion EURannually (EVIP), which equaled 12 (±0.8)% of the total economic value of annual crop production. Gains strongly varied among countries. Both EVIP and vulnerability increased (and the inter-annual variation of vulnerability decreased) significantly from the colder northern to the warmer Mediterranean EU countries, in parallel with increases in the number of wild bee species. Across years, economic importance of pollination increased in all but three EU countries. Apples were the most important insect-pollinated crop in the EU, accounting for 16% of the EU’s total EVIP. Our results show that whereas dependency on insect pollination increased from the colder north to the warmer south, variation in economic gain from insect pollination decreased, indicating that Mediterranean countries had more stable yields of pollinator-dependent crops across years and thus more reliable gains from pollination services. Seit einigen Jahren nimmt die Bienendiversität in zahlreichen Ländern ab. Mögliche Folgen dieses Artenrückgangs sind eine Abnahme der Bestäubungsleistung und ein dadurch verringerter Ertrag bei insektenbestäubten Kulturpflanzen. Unklar ist, ob die Bedeutung der Bestäuberleistung und damit deren Auswirkung auf Ernteerträge mit den gesellschaftlichen und/oder Umweltbedingungen eines Landes zusammenhängen. In der hier vorgelegten Studie berechneten wir für die Länder der Europäischen Union (EU) den Wirtschaftsgewinn, welcher durch Bestäubungsleistungen (insbesondere von Bienen) erzielt wird (Wirtschaftswert der Insektenbestäubung, WWIB), sowie dessen Anteil am Gesamtgewinn aus dem Ertrag von allen Kulturpflanzen. Aus letzterem ergibt sich ein Wert, der dem landesspezifischen ,,Risiko” von Wirtschaftseinbußen durch einen Bestäuberrückgang entspricht. Darüber hinaus untersuchten wir jahreszeitliche Schwankungen von WWIB und dem Risikowert sowie deren Entwicklung über die Jahre 1991 bis 2001. Um besser zu verstehen, welche Faktoren landesspezifische Unterschiede in der Abhängigkeit von Bestäubungsleistungen sowie der Stabilität von Ernteerträgen bei insektenbestäubten Kulturpflanzen verursachen, analysierten wir die Zusammenhänge zwischen WWIB, Risiko und Etragsstabilität mit dem Klima, der Bienendiversität und Honigbienenvölkeranzahl jedes EU Landes sowie des Teils seines Bruttoinlandproduktes, der auf den Agrarsektor entfällt. Die Bestäubung von Kulturpflanzen durch Insekten machte innerhalb der gesamten EU jährlich 14.6 [±3.3] Milliarden EUR (WWIB) aus, was einem Anteil von 12 (±0.8)% des durchschnittlichen Jahesgesamtgewinns aus der Ernte von Kulturpflanzen entspricht. Die Gewinne waren von Land zu Land stark unterschiedlich. Sowohl WWIB als auch der Risikowert nahmen von den kälteren nördlichen Ländern zu den wärmeren Mittelmeerstaaten hin zu, ebenso wie die Bienendiversität, während jährliche Schwankungen des Risikowerts abnahmen. Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Bestäubung nahm von 1991 bis 2001 in fast allen EU-Ländern zu. Äpfelmachten, als wichtigste in der EU produzierte Feldfrucht, 16% des aufBestäubungsleistungen basierenden Gesamtgewinns aus. Unsere Berechnungen verdeutlichen, dass sowohl die Abhängigkeit von der Insektenbestäubung als auch dieErtragsstabilität vomkalten europäischen Norden zu den Mittelmeerländern hin zunimmt. Mittelmeerstaaten erzielen folglich stabilere Gewinne aus insektenbestäubten Kulturpflanzen und damit aus Bestäubungsleistungen. Fil: Leonhardt, Sara Diana. Leuphana University of Lüneburg; Alemania Fil: Gallai, Nicola. Ecole Nationale de Formation Agronomique; Francia Fil: Garibaldi, Lucas Alejandro. Universidad Nacional de Rio Negro. Sede Andina; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina Fil: Kuhlmann, Michael. Natural History Museum; Reino Unido Fil: Klein, Alexandra Maria. Leuphana University of Lüneburg; Alemania. University of Freiburg; Alemania

Countries
Argentina, France, Germany
Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Pollination Biology Gross domestic product Ecosystem services Pollinator media_common.cataloged_instance European union media_common Agroforestry business.industry Crop yield Total economic value Agriculture business

Keywords

Ecosystem service, Climate, Economic vulnerability, Economiv vulnerability, Ciencias Biológicas, Honeybees, [SHS.ECO] Humanities and Social Sciences/Economics and Finance, /dk/atira/pure/core/keywords/biology, Biology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, /dk/atira/pure/core/keywords/559922418, Ecología, stability, [SHS.ECO]Humanities and Social Sciences/Economics and Finance, Otras Agricultura, Silvicultura y Pesca, [SDE.BE] Environmental Sciences/Biodiversity and Ecology, Ecosystems Research, CIENCIAS AGRÍCOLAS, Crop pollination, Wild bees, [SDE.BE]Environmental Sciences/Biodiversity and Ecology, Agricultura, Silvicultura y Pesca, ecosystem services, CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS

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    82
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    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 1%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Top 10%
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
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    visibility views 2
  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    82
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 1%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Top 10%
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
    Powered byBIP!BIP!
  • 2
    views
    Powered byOpenAIRE UsageCounts
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visibility
citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
views
OpenAIRE UsageCountsViews provided by UsageCounts
82
Top 1%
Top 10%
Top 10%
2
Green
hybrid
Funded by
EC| STEP
Project
STEP
Status and Trends of European Pollinators
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 244090
  • Funding stream: FP7 | SP1 | ENV
Related to Research communities
Sustainable Development Solutions Network - Greece
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