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CNRS

French National Centre for Scientific Research
Country: France
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3,742 Projects, page 1 of 749
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101110412
    Funder Contribution: 195,915 EUR

    Previous research on palaeolandscapes has overlooked a main driver of landscape change: the mobility of human societies. When groups move they take with them their technology and ideas, but also plants, or land-uses which merge with native environments and practices to give birth to transported landscapes. This can lead to significant and long-lasting landscape changes -i.e. deforestation, introduction of exotic plants, erosion- that can be traced back through the use of combined palaeoenvironmental and archaeological techniques. However, the study of transported landscapes and their environmental impact has only rarely been addressed so far, and it is especially needed in Mediterranean coastal areas where migratory and colonial processes have had a particularly active role in the modelling of landscapes for millennia. ACROSS will fill this existing gap in current research by analysing two areas at the two sides of the Mediterranean Basin: Abdera (Thrace) and Emporion (Catalonia). They account for a long history of prehistoric peopling, and have ancient colonial relationships with the foundation of the Greek colonies of Abdera and of Emporion by same cultural group, the Ionian tribe. An innovative approach combining multi-proxy palaeoecological analyses (pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, plant macroremains, high-temporal fire reconstructions), and Landscape Archaeology datasets will be applied in both areas to reconstruct changes in vegetation, land-uses and landscapes following prehistoric migratory processes and colonial settling between the 6th millennia cal BC and the 4th century AD. A particular focus will be put in reconstructing landscape changes following Graeco-Roman colonial settling to assess 1) common and diverging trends in land-use and landscape shaping in culturally similar colonial landscapes over long distances, and 2) the interaction, integration and resilience of autochthonous and colonial practices and landscapes across the Mediterranean.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 703512
    Overall Budget: 185,076 EURFunder Contribution: 185,076 EUR

    A limited number of molecules have been characterized as plant growth regulators or hormones, usually identified due to the strong effect that they exert on plant architecture or development. Most of the metabolic pathways leading to their biosynthesis and catabolism are now well characterized, and all but one involve oxygenases belonging to the family of cytochrome P450 (P450) oxygenases. The increasing set of sequenced plant genomes reveals the evolutionary history and complex phylogeny of the P450 superfamily. It shows that some P450 genes are specific to taxa or evolutionary branches, which correlates with the versatility of plant metabolomes when different species are compared. But comparative analysis of plant genomes also point to ancient genes, highly conserved and under strong purifying selection. Those are most often involved in the metabolism of molecules essential for plant development and with signaling function. Taking advantage of the increasing power of comparative genomics, we propose to identify P450s that share similar evolutionary characteristics with their counterparts in known hormone metabolism. We propose to perform a comprehensive functional analysis of a set of candidates, using the easiest plant model Arabidopsis thaliana, and to assess their role in the biosynthesis or degradation of signaling compounds. This includes establishing a detail map of candidates’ expressions to evaluate their place and time of action, and a phenotypic analysis of inactivation mutants and overexpressors to assess the consequences of gene misexpression on plant development. Based on gene expression and potential mutant phenotypes, we will select tissues to be analyzed for metabolic changes associated with gene mutation using high-definition analytical tools. Enzyme activity will be assessed with recombinant proteins. We are confident that this innovative multidisciplinary approach will be a powerful tool to identify new and overlooked plant signaling pathways.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 618492
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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 235878
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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101069301
    Funder Contribution: 150,000 EUR

    Iron is essential for all life forms as it is a core component of many vital metabolic processes. In humans, iron homeostasis is controlled by sophisticated processes regulating its storage, transport, and export. More recently, the role of iron in diseases also emerged with ferroptosis being a form of cell death that is implicated for instance in the onset and progression of cancer or neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we focus on another intriguing type of iron in the body: the magnetic iron, which seems to be involved in both homeostasis and crippling pathologies, but which goes largely unnoticed to date. And yet, the presence and role of such biomagnetic iron offer a significant opportunity for novel therapeutic approaches. One explanation as to why this an unmet need most certainly stems from the lack of existing technologies that can detect the signature of biomagnetic iron in live human cells in real time. The solution brought by BioMag PoC project is to make possible the in operando monitoring of intracellular biogenesis of magnetic iron in human cells, in advanced cancer and Alzheimer’s models. To do so, the project proposes a unique (ultra)sensitive magnetic sensor integrated with bioreactors to enable the real-time measurement of magnetic nanoparticles biosynthesis in the cellular environment. The usefulness of this device goes well beyond the scope of our main ERC research, as it can have a significant impact on (i) identifying novel therapeutic approaches to diseases by detecting iron-based new druggable targets, (ii) addressing key questions related to iron metabolism towards novel diagnostics, and (iii) proposing a novel type of biogenic nanomedicines.

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