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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kordelas, Georgios A.; Manakos, Ioannis; Aragonés, David; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo; +1 Authors

    Satellite data offer the opportunity for monitoring the temporal flooding dynamics of seasonal wetlands, a parameter that is essential for the ecosystem services these areas provide. This study introduces an unsupervised approach to estimate the extent of flooded areas in a satellite image relying on the physics of light interaction with water, vegetation and their combination. The approach detects automatically thresholds on the Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) band and on a Modified-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MNDVI), derived from radiometrically-corrected Sentinel-2 data. Then, it combines them in a meaningful way based on a knowledge base coming out of an iterative trial and error process. Classes of interest concern water and non-water areas. The water class is comprised of the open-water and water-vegetation subclasses. In parallel, a supervised approach is implemented mainly for performance comparison reasons. The latter approach performs a random forest classification on a set of bands and indices extracted from Sentinel-2 data. The approaches are able to discriminate the water class in different types of wetlands (marshland, rice-paddies and temporary ponds) existing in the Doñana Biosphere Reserve study area, located in southwest Spain. Both unsupervised and supervised approaches are examined against validation data derived from Landsat satellite inundation time series maps, generated by the local administration and offered as an online service since 1983. Accuracy assessment metrics show that both approaches have similarly high classification performance (e.g., the combined kappa coefficient of the unsupervised and the supervised approach is 0.8827 and 0.9477, and the combined overall accuracy is 97.71% and 98.95, respectively). The unsupervised approach can be used by non-trained personnel with a potential for transferability to sites of, at least, similar characteristics. This study is supported and funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement No. 641762, ECOPOTENTIAL.

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    Authors: Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma; Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Martinez Ríos, Marina; Gafrej, Raoudha; +5 Authors

    This report aims to provide a revision of the water related goals within the international agreements joined by the three case study countries,Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, while emphasizing the critical points that should be developed and reinforced in the near future through an integrated approach for water policies, initiatives and management.

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    Other ORP type . 2017
    License: CC BY NC
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    Authors: Vila, Magda; Berdalet, Elisa; Viure Feliu, Laia; Vicioso, M.;

    El calentamiento global y las actividades humanas están favoreciendo la expansión geográfica de las especies marinas tropicales y subtropicales a latitudes más altas. Para la detección de estos organismos es de gran relevancia la participación ciudadana, la cual debe estar debidamente informada. El caso que se presenta es el de la proliferación de la microalga tropical Ostreopsis cuya detección desde finales de los años 90 ha ido en aumento en la costa Mediterránea, alcanzando, en algunas áreas, grandes concentraciones de células. Algunas proliferaciones de Ostreopsis son nocivas y se han relacionado con diferentes impactos en los ecosistemas y en la salud y el bienestar humano, incluidas mortalidades masivas de fauna bentónica, mucílagos que cubren los fondos marinos, espumas en la superficie del agua e irritaciones respiratorias leves en personas expuestas a los aerosoles marinos de las playas donde prolifera. La prevención de estos impactos requiere enfoques multidisciplinares que involucren a científicos, autoridades de salud pública y ambiental, y a las personas potencialmente afectadas. Hemos llegado al público objetivo mediante múltiples actividades de divulgación para proporcionarles la información básica sobre estas proliferaciones, sus efectos y cómo reconocerlas en la playa. Estas actividades se han realizado a través de diferentes canales de comunicación como son 1) folletos informativos; 2) sitio web ICMDivulga (http://icmdivulga.icm.csic.es/); 3) vídeos de corto formato (3 a 4 minutos) en tres idiomas (español, catalán e inglés); 4) participación en ferias y festivales del mar mediante pósters y talleres con microscopios; y finalmente, 5) comunicación con la ciudadanía mediante dos plataformas de ciencia ciudadana a través de ICMDivulga (http://icmdivulga.icm.csic.es/colabora-con-ostreorisk/) y Observadores del Mar y se discuten los logros y dificultades de estas actividades La investigación presentada en este trabajo ha sido financiada por el Proyecto Nacional OstreoRisk 2015-2017 (Proliferaciones nocivas de Ostreopsis en el Mediterráneo Noroccidental: evaluación de los riesgos potenciales para la salud, CTM2014-53818-R, AEI/FEDER, UE), el proyecto CoCliME 2017-2020 (Co-development of Climate services for adaptation to changing Marine Ecosystems; ERA4CS, con co-financiación de FORMAS, Suecia y la UE Grant 690462) VII Congreso de Comunicación Social de la Ciencia, 9-11 October 2019, Burgos.-- 5 pages, 2 figures

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    Since the start of the HERMES and the HERMIONE projects, the margin of the Bay of Biscay has received special attention with respect to benthic ecosystems and sedimentary processes. The area is also known to be the historical cradle of cold-water coral studies by Joubin (1922) and Le Danois (1948). Already at that time the relationship between cold-water corals and fisheries were being discussed (with corals being a nuisance for fisheries!). Having performed previous work in the Whittard canyon (R/V Belgica 2006) and the Guilvinec canyon (R/V Belgica 2008), a joint marine geology and biology cruise was organized by the Renard Centre of Marine Geology and the Section of Marine Biology from Ghent University from 7 to 28 June 2010. The first leg (7-16 June, Zeebrugge-La Rochelle) focused on the Guilvinec canyon, while the second leg (19-28 June, La Rochelle-Zeebrugge) revisited several sites in the central Whittard canyon. The main objectives of this cruise were to (a) map and observe cold-water coral ecosystems on the canyon flanks with ROV Genesis, (b) obtain hydrographic data from CTD casts and water samples and (c) perform seabed multicoring for biology (descriptive and experimental research), biogeochemistry and sedimentology. In total, 23 scientists participated in this cruise, representing 10 institutes, among which were IFREMER, University College Cork and IFM-GeoMAR. The HERMIONE project is funded by the European Commission's Framework 7 Programme, under the theme "Environment (including climate change)". EC contract no. 226354. Peer reviewed 11 páginas

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    Authors: Beck, Lisa J.; Sarnela, Nina; Junninen, Heikki; Hoppe, C. J. M.; +45 Authors

    The authors acknowledge European Research Council (GASPARCON, Grant no. 714621 and COALA, Grant no. 638703), Academy of Finland (Project nos. 296628, 306853, 317380, 316114, and 320094), INTERACT, European Regional Development Fund (project MOBTT42), Austrian Science Fund (FWF, Project J3951-N36), the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (Grant no. 689443) via project iCUPE (Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments) and Project ERC-2016- COG 726349 CLIMAHAL, National Research Foundation (NRF) of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2018R1A2A1A19019281), Knut-and-Alice-Wallenberg Foundation within the Arctic Climate Across Scales (Project No. \,2016.0024), the Swedish EPA's (Naturvårdsverket) Environmental monitoring program (Miljöövervakning), the Swedish Research Council FORMAS (Project "Interplay between water, clouds and Aerosols in the Arctic," \# 2016-01427), Climate Change Tower – Integrated Project of the National Research Council of Italy and the National Interest Project by the Italian Minister of Education, University and Research (PRIN2007 and PRIN2009). The authors thank Department of Earth System Sciences and Technologies for the Environment, Department of Earth Sciences and Technology of the Environment of CNR and the doctoral program in atmospheric sciences at the University of Helsinki for financial support. Aarhus University acknowledge financial support from Danish Ministry of Environment and food and Ministry of Climate, Energy and Utilities by means of DANCEA. New particle formation in the Arctic atmosphere is an important source of aerosol particles. Understanding the processes of Arctic secondary aerosol formation is crucial due to their significant impact on cloud properties and therefore Arctic amplification. We observed the molecular formation of new particles from low-volatility vapors at two Arctic sites with differing surroundings. In Svalbard, sulfuric acid (SA) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) contribute to the formation of secondary aerosol and to some extent to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). This occurs via ion-induced nucleation of SA and NH and subsequent growth by mainly SA and MSA condensation during springtime and highly oxygenated organic molecules during summertime. By contrast, in an ice-covered region around Villum, we observed new particle formation driven by iodic acid but its concentration was insufficient to grow nucleated particles to CCN sizes. Our results provide new insight about sources and precursors of Arctic secondary aerosol particles. 11 pags., 4 figs. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: AirMontech Consortium;

    we are now in the final year of AirMonTech. Since the Barcelona workshop in April 2012, the Consortium made a lot of progress. Much energy has been invested in the roadmap for future research and monitoring and the recommendations are near completion. Another product, the AirMonTech database, ready since September 2012, offers you a flexible portal to all the information for all stakeholders. We strongly believe that these are the right ingredients to open up the road to a new and refocused monitoring strategy in Europe. The Consortium was very pleased to give an update of her work at the 3rd AirMonTech workshop in Duisburg (4 and 5 March). Similar to the first workshop in London and the second in Barcelona 2012 more than 100 participants attended the workshop. In this Newsletter the most important outcomes of the workshop have been summarized. I hope it will encourage you to participate in the widening AirMonTech network, and in particular to have a look in the AirMonTech database. If you have comments of any kind please contact us via the website www.airmontech.eu. If you wish to jpin us at our final conference on 16 May in Brussels (in conjunction with the EFCA workshop), you can register at the same site. AirMontech (Air Pollution Monitoring Technology for Urban Areas) Newsletter is funded under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission. Peer reviewed 6 páginas

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    Authors: Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B.; Martín, Jacobo; +4 Authors

    Bottom trawling is a nonselective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the seafloor, modifying the physical properties of seafloor sediments and altering natural sediment fluxes. Most studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor sediments coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Recent studies conducted on the Catalan margin have demonstrated that on continental slopes —where the sediment dynamics is less energetic— the reworking of the deep seafloor by bottom trawling produces periodic resuspension of surface sediments, and ultimately modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. Trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep seafloor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity. These results suggest that during the last decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution Les dades presentades en aquest treball es van obtenir en el marc de diversos projectes de recerca: HERMIONE (226354 i CTM2010-11084-E), DOS MARES (CTM2010- 21810-C03), OASIS DEL MAR - Obra Social “la Caixa”, GRACCIE-CONSOLIDER (CSD2007- 00067) i REDECO (CTM2008-04973-E). Agraïm també el suport rebut per part del Govern Català als Grups de Recerca Consolidats (2009 SGR 899 i 1305) i l’ajut i assistència tècnica de les tripulacions dels vaixells oceanogràfics Hespérides, Sarmiento de Gamboa i García del Cid 8 pages, 9 figures Peer reviewed

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    Authors: AirMontech Consortium; Moeltgen, J.; Quass, U.; Torseth, K.; +12 Authors

    This Newsletter aims to highlight developments of Airmontech project. Ambient Air Quality (AQ) is still a major issue of concern in Europe, particularly in urbanised environments where most of the European population lives. Measurements are therefore important for Member States to demonstrate compliance with air quality limits set by the respective EU directives, in some cases to demonstrate the reduction of pollutant levels, and to assess the effect of mitigation measures. The AQ monitoring networks operated by the member states are challenged with continuously increasing quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) demands on the one hand and on-going innovations and novel monitoring technologies on the other. Moreover, toxicological and epidemiological studies reveal that additional pollutants or characteristics of known pollutants may also be of importance for public health and thus should be included into a comprehensive AQ monitoring strategy. The EU project AirMonTech, funded by DG Research, was specifi cally initiated to tackle and to give advice to the above tasks. Airmontech Consortium includes the following researchers: J. Moeltgen (UDE), U. Quass (IUTA), K. Torseth (NILU), K. Katsouyanni (NKUA), B. Vogel (UDE), R. Otjes (ECN), E. Weijers (ECN), P. Woods (NPL), T. Kuhlbusch (IUTA, Coordinator), P. Quincey (NPL), M. Viana (CSIC), R. Gehrig (EMPA), X. Querol(CSIC,) A. Borowiak (JRC), C. Hueglin (EMPA). AirMontech (Air Pollution Monitoring Technology for Urban Areas) Newsletter is funded under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission Peer reviewed 8 páginas

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    Authors: Pasqual, C.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Zúñiga, D.; Calafat, A.; +6 Authors

    Settling particles were collected using sediment traps deployed along three transects in the Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus canyons and the adjacent southern open slope from October 2005 to October 2006. The settling material was analyzed to obtain total mass fluxes and main constituent contents (organic matter, opal, calcium carbonate, and siliciclastics). Cascades of dense shelf water from the continental shelf edge to the lower continental slope occurred from January to March 2006. They were traced through strong negative near-bottom temperature anomalies and increased current speeds, and generated two intense pulses of mass fluxes in January and March 2006. This oceanographic phenomenon appeared as the major physical forcing of settling particles at almost all stations, and caused both high seasonal variability in mass fluxes and important qualitative changes in settling material. Fluxes during the dense shelf water cascading (DSWC) event ranged from 90.1 g m−2 d−1 at the middle Cap de Creus canyon (1000 m) to 3.2 g m−2 d−1 at the canyon mouth (1900 m). Fractions of organic matter, opal and calcium carbonate components increased seaward, thus diminishing the siliciclastic fraction. Temporal variability of the major components was larger in the canyon mouth and open slope sites, due to the mixed impact of dense shelf water cascading processes and the pelagic biological production. Results indicate that the cascading event remobilized and homogenized large amounts of material down canyon and southwardly along the continental slope contributing to a better understanding of the off-shelf particle transport and the internal dynamics of DSWC events.

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    Authors: Casals Missio, Joan; Rivera Pinzano, Ana; Simó Cruanyes, Joan; Pons, Clara;

    El tomàquet pertany a la família de les sola-nàcies, gènere Solanum L., secció Lycopersi-con. Aquesta secció inclou 13 espècies, una de les quals és el tomàquet conreat, Solanum lycopersicum L.. Les espècies silvestres em-parentades amb el tomàquet són nadives de l’oest de l’Amèrica del Sud, des del nord de l’Equador fins al nord de Xile, travessant tot el Perú i també les Illes Galápagos.

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    Authors: Kordelas, Georgios A.; Manakos, Ioannis; Aragonés, David; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo; +1 Authors

    Satellite data offer the opportunity for monitoring the temporal flooding dynamics of seasonal wetlands, a parameter that is essential for the ecosystem services these areas provide. This study introduces an unsupervised approach to estimate the extent of flooded areas in a satellite image relying on the physics of light interaction with water, vegetation and their combination. The approach detects automatically thresholds on the Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) band and on a Modified-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MNDVI), derived from radiometrically-corrected Sentinel-2 data. Then, it combines them in a meaningful way based on a knowledge base coming out of an iterative trial and error process. Classes of interest concern water and non-water areas. The water class is comprised of the open-water and water-vegetation subclasses. In parallel, a supervised approach is implemented mainly for performance comparison reasons. The latter approach performs a random forest classification on a set of bands and indices extracted from Sentinel-2 data. The approaches are able to discriminate the water class in different types of wetlands (marshland, rice-paddies and temporary ponds) existing in the Doñana Biosphere Reserve study area, located in southwest Spain. Both unsupervised and supervised approaches are examined against validation data derived from Landsat satellite inundation time series maps, generated by the local administration and offered as an online service since 1983. Accuracy assessment metrics show that both approaches have similarly high classification performance (e.g., the combined kappa coefficient of the unsupervised and the supervised approach is 0.8827 and 0.9477, and the combined overall accuracy is 97.71% and 98.95, respectively). The unsupervised approach can be used by non-trained personnel with a potential for transferability to sites of, at least, similar characteristics. This study is supported and funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement No. 641762, ECOPOTENTIAL.

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    Authors: Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma; Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Martinez Ríos, Marina; Gafrej, Raoudha; +5 Authors

    This report aims to provide a revision of the water related goals within the international agreements joined by the three case study countries,Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, while emphasizing the critical points that should be developed and reinforced in the near future through an integrated approach for water policies, initiatives and management.

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    Archivo Digital UPM
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      Archivo Digital UPM
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    Authors: Vila, Magda; Berdalet, Elisa; Viure Feliu, Laia; Vicioso, M.;

    El calentamiento global y las actividades humanas están favoreciendo la expansión geográfica de las especies marinas tropicales y subtropicales a latitudes más altas. Para la detección de estos organismos es de gran relevancia la participación ciudadana, la cual debe estar debidamente informada. El caso que se presenta es el de la proliferación de la microalga tropical Ostreopsis cuya detección desde finales de los años 90 ha ido en aumento en la costa Mediterránea, alcanzando, en algunas áreas, grandes concentraciones de células. Algunas proliferaciones de Ostreopsis son nocivas y se han relacionado con diferentes impactos en los ecosistemas y en la salud y el bienestar humano, incluidas mortalidades masivas de fauna bentónica, mucílagos que cubren los fondos marinos, espumas en la superficie del agua e irritaciones respiratorias leves en personas expuestas a los aerosoles marinos de las playas donde prolifera. La prevención de estos impactos requiere enfoques multidisciplinares que involucren a científicos, autoridades de salud pública y ambiental, y a las personas potencialmente afectadas. Hemos llegado al público objetivo mediante múltiples actividades de divulgación para proporcionarles la información básica sobre estas proliferaciones, sus efectos y cómo reconocerlas en la playa. Estas actividades se han realizado a través de diferentes canales de comunicación como son 1) folletos informativos; 2) sitio web ICMDivulga (http://icmdivulga.icm.csic.es/); 3) vídeos de corto formato (3 a 4 minutos) en tres idiomas (español, catalán e inglés); 4) participación en ferias y festivales del mar mediante pósters y talleres con microscopios; y finalmente, 5) comunicación con la ciudadanía mediante dos plataformas de ciencia ciudadana a través de ICMDivulga (http://icmdivulga.icm.csic.es/colabora-con-ostreorisk/) y Observadores del Mar y se discuten los logros y dificultades de estas actividades La investigación presentada en este trabajo ha sido financiada por el Proyecto Nacional OstreoRisk 2015-2017 (Proliferaciones nocivas de Ostreopsis en el Mediterráneo Noroccidental: evaluación de los riesgos potenciales para la salud, CTM2014-53818-R, AEI/FEDER, UE), el proyecto CoCliME 2017-2020 (Co-development of Climate services for adaptation to changing Marine Ecosystems; ERA4CS, con co-financiación de FORMAS, Suecia y la UE Grant 690462) VII Congreso de Comunicación Social de la Ciencia, 9-11 October 2019, Burgos.-- 5 pages, 2 figures

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    Since the start of the HERMES and the HERMIONE projects, the margin of the Bay of Biscay has received special attention with respect to benthic ecosystems and sedimentary processes. The area is also known to be the historical cradle of cold-water coral studies by Joubin (1922) and Le Danois (1948). Already at that time the relationship between cold-water corals and fisheries were being discussed (with corals being a nuisance for fisheries!). Having performed previous work in the Whittard canyon (R/V Belgica 2006) and the Guilvinec canyon (R/V Belgica 2008), a joint marine geology and biology cruise was organized by the Renard Centre of Marine Geology and the Section of Marine Biology from Ghent University from 7 to 28 June 2010. The first leg (7-16 June, Zeebrugge-La Rochelle) focused on the Guilvinec canyon, while the second leg (19-28 June, La Rochelle-Zeebrugge) revisited several sites in the central Whittard canyon. The main objectives of this cruise were to (a) map and observe cold-water coral ecosystems on the canyon flanks with ROV Genesis, (b) obtain hydrographic data from CTD casts and water samples and (c) perform seabed multicoring for biology (descriptive and experimental research), biogeochemistry and sedimentology. In total, 23 scientists participated in this cruise, representing 10 institutes, among which were IFREMER, University College Cork and IFM-GeoMAR. The HERMIONE project is funded by the European Commission's Framework 7 Programme, under the theme "Environment (including climate change)". EC contract no. 226354. Peer reviewed 11 páginas

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