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    Authors: Sagnard, Maxime; Berthe, Laurent; ECAULT, Romain; Touchard, Fabienne; +1 Authors

    International audience

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    Other literature type . 2017
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    Authors: Belghit, Khadidja Ikram;

    Très peu de données sont aujourd’hui disponibles sur le rôle des nutriments et de leurs interactions in vivo dans la régulation de l’autophagie. L'objectif principal de cette thèse était donc d’étudier l’effet de la qualité nutritionnelle de l’aliment sur le contrôle de cette fonction cellulaire. Une première étude a permis de montrer que les différents ratios en protéines et en glucides influencent significativement les mécanismes de contrôle de l’autophagie dans le muscle de truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ces résultats ont été renforcés par une étude sur culture primaire de myoblaste de truite montrant que l’addition d’acides aminés dans le milieu de culture inhibe l’autophagie alors que le glucose à un effet inverse (article 1). Une seconde étude a porté sur la fraction protéique de l’aliment et notamment sur la teneur en méthionine, dont le niveau est trop faible dans les aliments pour poissons à base de végétaux. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que la machinerie autophagosomale mais également les principaux facteurs du renouvellement des protéines musculaires sont sensible aux variations de la teneur en méthionine de l’aliment et que la réponse qui en résulte peut fortement affecter la croissance (article 2). L’ensemble des données obtenues dans les deux premières études reposaient sur la mesure du taux d’un marqueur de l’autophagie (LC3-II) qui est à la fois produite et dégradée au cours du processus (flux) autophagique. Ainsi, dans l’optique de préciser les résultats obtenus dans les deux premiers articles, une troisième étude a été effectuée afin de déterminer s’il est possible de bloquer le flux autophagique dans le muscle de truite par l’emploi de différents agents pharmacologiques (inhibiteurs du flux autophagique). Il s’agissait également de déterminer les limites de l’utilisation de tels inhibiteurs chez cette espèce. Les essais effectués n’ont pas permis de mesurer le flux autophagique dans le muscle. En revanche, l’injection intrapéritonéale de colchicine a bien bloqué le flux autophagique dans le foie, ouvrant ainsi un nouveau champ d’investigations sur le rôle de l’autophagie dans le métabolisme intermédiaire. En conclusion, l’ensemble de ces travaux montre que l’autophagie n’est pas uniquement sensible à l’état nutritionnel (jeûne/nourris) mais également à la nature des aliments consommés. Outre leurs intérêts agronomique et thérapeutique, ces résultats ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives pour une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes d’action de l’autophagie au niveau cellulaire et métabolique mais également de son rôle dans l’adaptation des espèces au cours l’évolution Few data has been published on the role of nutrients and their interactions in vivo in the regulation of autophagy. The main objective of this thesis was therefore to characterize the response of the autophagic/lysosomal pathway to the macronutrients composition of the diets. The first study showed that different ratio of proteins and carbohydrates in the diet significantly affect the controls of autophagy in the muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These results were strengthened by study on primary culture of trout myoblasts showing that the addition of amino acids in cell culture medium inhibited the formation of autophagosomes, whereas the addition of glucose had an opposite effect (paper 1). A second study focused on the protein fraction of the diet and specifically on the content of methionine, whose the levels are low in fish feed plant-based diets. The obtained results showed that both autophagy machinery and the main factors of muscle protein turnover are significantly sensitive to change in dietary methionine levels and the resulting response may strongly affect growth and feed utilization (paper 2). The data obtained in these two first studies were based on measuring the level of autophagy marker (LC3-II), which is both produced and degraded during autophagic (flux) process. Thus, in view to clarify the results obtained in the two first studies, we conducted a third study to determine whether it is possible to block the autophagic flux in trout muscle by using different lysosomotropic agents (autophagic flux inhibitors). The objective was also to determine the limits of autophagic flux inhibitors utilisation in vivo. Different tests failed to measure autophagic flux in the muscle of rainbow trout. In contrast, intraperitoneal injection of colchicine blocked the autophagic flux in the liver. This study allowed us to investigate the function of autophagy in the intermediary metabolism. In conclusion, these studies show that autophagy is not only sensitive to the nutritional status (fasting/fed) but also to the nature of the consumed diets. In addition to their therapeutic and agricultural interests, these results open new perspectives to better understand the mechanisms of autophagy at metabolic and cellular level but also its role in the adaptation of species during evolution.

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    Thesis . 2015
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      Thesis . 2015
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    Authors: Gorioux, Henri;

    L'objectif de cette étude est de comparer deux stratégies de création de populations de blé tendre génétiquement diversifiées : la composite cross population (CCP) et la population dynamique (PopDyn), en termes d'évolution de la diversité au cours du temps et de potentiel agronomique. En plus de l'influence de la stratégie, l'impact du lieu et de la sélection humaine est étudié. The objective of the study is to compare two strategies of creation of soft wheat population genetically diversified : composite cross population (CCP) and dynamic population (PopDyn), in terms of evolution of the diversity though time and agronomic potential. Also, the influence of the environment as well as the influence of human's selection on the population is studied.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    ZENODO
    Thesis . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019
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      Thesis . 2019
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    Authors: LEMICHEZ, Solène;

    Within the framework of the European project LIVESEED, this study aims at establishing the influence of the type of pruning applied to trees in an agroforestry system and of the grown variety of tomato on the composition of the tomato root microbiome, as well as the effect of the microbiome's structuration on the physical-biochemical quality of tomatoes. The results show an effect of pruning intensity on the biochemical profile of tomatoes, which have higher amounts of sugars, vitamin C and phenolic compounds in the non agroforestry control environment, and higher concentrations of acids under tree shade. The two tomato varieties tested (Rose de Berne and Coeur de Boeuf) have different biochemical profiles, resulting from farmer selection. The fungal communities are little influenced by the tomato variety but reveal different assemblages depending on the intensity of tree pruning, both at the community and phyla levels (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Glomeromycetes). These differentiations are explained from an ecological point of view in order to lead to a better understanding of plant-microorganism interactions in agroforestry systems. The correlations between the physico-biochemical quality of the fruits and the structuration of the mycobiome show an impact of the diversity of Ascomycetes and the specific richness of Glomeromycetes on the biochemical profile of tomatoes. The results are discussed under the holobionte hypothesis and its influence on plant breeding, in connection with on-farm selection.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2020
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    Thesis . 2020
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      Other literature type . Article . 2020
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  • Authors: Michel, Goujon; Maufroy, Alexandra, J; Relot-Stirnemann, Aude; Moec, Emilie; +4 Authors

    International audience; In order to comply with the different regulations and commitments requesting the presence of scientific observers onboard French purse seiners, and since it is not possible to embark more than one observer during a fishing trip, ORTHONGEL has imagined and implemented since July 2013 a program to facilitate and optimize the boarding of well-trained scientific observers. This voluntary program, called OCUP for "Observateur Commun Unique et Permanent" (Common Permanent Unique Observer) was conducted with the Institute for Research and Development (IRD), Oceanic Développement (OD) and several coastal countries. It was implemented in both Atlantic and Indian Oceans where the fleet adherent to ORTHONGEL is active. This paper describes the methodology of the OCUP program and presents and discusses its main results, focusing on the Atlantic Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, 43 scientific observers from 6 African countries have been trained as OCUP. Together with 39 French observers from IRD and OD, 37 of these African scientific observers have covered more than 300 trips until September 1 st , 2017 and the coverage of the French fleet has reached 100% since 2015. Since 2013, the OCUP program allows a better coverage of many fishing information such as bycatch or incidental catch and discards data but also provides the boat-owners information on the implementation of best practices aboard their vessels. Lessons learned from this program allow the authors to suggest a few recommendations.; Afin de satisfaire aux différentes régulations et aux différents engagements pris par la flotte française de thoniers senneurs tropicaux, et puisqu'il n'est pas possible d'embarquer plus d'un observateur par marée, ORTHONGEL a imaginé et mis en place depuis 2013 un programme pour faciliter et optimiser l'embarquement d'observateurs scientifiques de bonne qualité. The programme volontaire, appelé OCUP (Observateur Commun Unique et Permanent) a été développé en collaboration avec l'Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Oceanic Dévelopement (OD) et plusieurs pays côtiers. Le programme a été mis en place dans les océans Atlantique et Indien où est active la flotte de senneurs adhérente d'ORTHONGEL. Ce document décrit la méthodologie du programme OCUP et présente et discute ses principaux résultats, en se concentrant sur le cas de l'Océan Atlantique. Dans cet océan, 43 observateurs de 6 pays Africains ont été formés comme observateur OCUP. En complément des 39 observateurs français employés par l'IRD et OD, 37 de ces observateurs africains ont réalisé plus de 300 marées d'observation à ce jour et le taux de couverture des marées observées a atteint 100% en 2015. Depuis 2013, le programme OCUP permet une meilleure couverture de nombreuses informations telles que les prises accessoires, les prises accidentelles d'espèces sensibles ou encore les rejets. Le programme fournit également aux armements des informations utiles sur le respect des bonnes pratiques à bord. Sur la base du retour d'expérience du programme, les auteurs formulent quelques recommandations.

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    Authors: Lévy, Léa;

    The electrical signature of volcanoes is affected by several characteristics of rocks: volume and salinity of pore fluid, abundance of conductive minerals, rock temperature and presence of molten crust (magma). Electromagnetic soundings are widely used to image the underground structure of volcanoes and look for high-temperature geothermal resources. However, the relative contribution of the above-mentioned elements to the measured resistivity is often an unsolved question when interpreting resistivity inversions. This thesis aims at improving the interpretation of electrical resistivity structures at active volcanoes, in order to develop innovative tools for the assessment of high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Focus is on conductive minerals, which can either be solid ionic conductors (clay minerals, in particular smectite) or electronic semi-conductors (pyrite and iron-oxides). Also investigated are the effects of porosity, salinity, temperature and melting. Iron-oxides are mostly formed during the primary crystallization of magma, while smectite and pyrite are formed upon hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks, thereby witnessing hydrothermal convections. Krafla volcano, Iceland, is used as a laboratory area, where extensive literature, borehole data, core samples, surface soundings and infrastructures are available. The contribution of smectite to the electrical conductivity of volcanic samples saturated with pore water at different salinity is first investigated in the laboratory (room temperature) by electrical impedance spectroscopy, also called complex resistivity. Non-linear variations of the conductivity at 1 kHz with salinity are observed and interfoliar conduction is suggested as an important mechanism by which smectite conducts electrical current. The influence of pyrite and iron-oxides on the charge-storage (capacitive) properties of the rock is then analyzed, using the frequency-dependent phase-angle of the impedance. Maximum phase-angle (MPA) higher than 20 mrad can be attributed to pyrite if the rock is conductive and to iron-oxides if the rock is resistive. Moreover, the MPA increases by about 22 mrad for each additional volumetric per cent of pyrite or iron-oxide. These laboratory frequency-domain findings are partly upscaled to interpret field time-domain complex resistivity tomography at Krafla: smectite, pyrite and iron-oxides can be identified down to about 200 m with the measurements carried out. The in-situ temperature, higher than in laboratory conditions, appears to significantly increase the conductivity associated to smectite. In general, time-domain complex resistivity measurements are recommended as a complementary method to electromagnetic soundings for geothermal exploration. Rafeiginleikar bergs, bæði eðlisviðnám og fasvik, á eldfjallasvæðum eru m.a. háðir póruhluta (holrýmd) bergs, styrk uppleystra jóna í póruvökvanum (seltu), magni rafleiðandi steinda í berginu, hita þess og hvort það er bráðið eða storkið. Rafsegulmælingar eru notaðar til þess að skoða innri gerð eldfjalla og kanna háhitasvæði með því að búa til viðnámslíkön af þeim. Túlkun þeirra er oft flókin og vandasamt er að greina á milli fyrrnefndra þátta sem hafa áhrif á eðlisviðnám og fasa. Þessari ritgerð er ætlað að auka skilning á eðlisviðnámi jarðlaga í virkum eldstöðvum í því skyni að þróa þá tækni sem notuð er til þess að meta stærð og eiginleika háhitasvæða. Ritgerðin fjallar einkum um rafleiðandi steindir, sem eru annað hvort málmleiðarar (leirsteindir, einkum smektít) eða hálfleiðarar (pýrít og járnoxíð). Einnig eru rannsökuð áhrif póruhluta, styrks jóna í póruvökva, hita og bráðnunar bergs. Járnoxíð eru að mestu frumsteindir, þ.e.a.s. þau kristallast þegar bergkvikan kólnar. Smektít og pýrít myndast hins vegar sem útfellingar eða við ummyndun og bera vitni um hringrás jarðhitavökva. Notuð eru gögn frá eldstöðvakerfi Kröflu en þar eru til miklar heimildir eins og borholugögn, borkjarnar og yfirborðsmælingar og góð aðstaða til rannsókna. Áhrif smektíts í bergi á eðlisviðnám bergsýna voru mæld við stofuhita í tilraunastofu. Pórur þeirra voru mettaðar vökva með breytilegum styrk jóna og áhrifin könnuð með litrófsmælingu á eðlisviðnámi og fasa (tvinntöluviðnám). Niðurstöður sýna ólínulegar breytingar í viðnámi við 1 kHz tíðni sem fall af seltu vökvans. Sú tilgáta er sett fram að leiðni milli atómlaga í kristöllum, interfoliar conduction, eigi mikilvægan þátt í rafleiðni smektíts. Áhrif pýríts- og járnoxíðsteinda á rafrýmd bergs var könnuð með því að skoða hvernig fasahorn tvinntöluviðnáms er háð tíðni. Ef hámark fasahornsins (MPA) er stærra en 20 mrad stafar það af tilvist pýríts ef bergið er velleiðandi en járnoxíða ef bergið er torleiðandi. Þá eykst MPA um 22 mrad við hverja prósentu-aukningu í rúmmáli pýrits- eða járnoxíðsteinda. Þessar niðurstöður úr tilraunastofumælingum á tíðniháðu tvinntöluviðnámi voru nýttar til þess að túlka yfirborðsmælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi á Kröflusvæðinu. Tvinntöluviðnámslíkan frá Kröflusvæðinu sýnir að greina má tilvist smektíts, pýríts og járnoxíðs niður á um 200 m dýpi í mælingunum sem gerðar voru. Hiti jarðlaga, sem er hærri en í tilraunastofumælingum, virðist hækka verulega leiðni bergs sem inniheldur smektít. Lagt er til að mælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi verði notaðar til viðbótar við hefðbundnar rafleiðnimælingar við jarðhitarannsóknir vegna þeirra viðbótarupplýsinga sem fást með slíkum mælingum. Paris Sciences et Lettres; IMAGE FP7 European Project (grant agreement 608553); GEMex H2020 European Project (grant agreement 727550). Final thesis

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    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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  • Authors: Betoko, Aisha, Siewe;

    Background: Early eating patterns can determine later eating habits and food preferences and they have been related child growth. In the literature, the determinants and health effects of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices have often been analyzed separately. Yet, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are interrelated and there are arguments to suggest that both influence later health. Objectives : We aimed to characterize feeding practices over the first year of life and to examine their associations with family and infant characteristics, with growth changes in the first 3 years of life, and their relations with food intake at 3 years of age. Methodes : Subjects were participants of the EDEN mother-child cohort. The study recruited 2,002 pregnant women aged 18-45 years attending their prenatal visit before 24 weeks’ gestation at Nancy and Poitiers University Hospitals between 2003 and 2006. Dietary practices and anthropometric measurements were collected through maternal self-report and clinical examinations at birth, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 36 months. Principal component analysis was applied to derive patterns from breastfeeding duration, age of introduction of complementary foods (CF) and type of food used at 1y (ready-prepared baby foods, home-made foods, ready-prepared ordinary foods). Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to analyze associations between feeding patterns, growth and food intake at 3 years of age. Results : i) The type infant formula (partially hydrolyzed, thickened, enriched in pre- or probiotic and others) used in the first four months of life was related to maternal return to employment, parity but not to infant growth in the same period. ii) Three major feeding patterns were identified in the EDEN study. The main source of variability in infant feeding was characterized by a pattern labeled ‘Late weaning and use of ready-prepared baby foods’. Older, more educated, primiparous women with high monthly income and recruited in Nancy ranked high on this pattern. The second pattern, labeled ‘Longer breastfeeding, late CF introduction and use of home-made foods’ was the closest to infant feeding guidelines. Mothers with high scores on this pattern were older, more educated and recruited in Poitiers. The third pattern labeled ‘Use of ordinary foods’ is more suggestive of infants having a less age-specific diet. Mothers ranking high on this pattern were often younger, multiparous and recruited in Nancy. iii) High scores on the second pattern were related to significant lower 0-1y weight and height change, higher 1-3y weight and height change and to a significant higher fruit and vegetables intake at 3 years of age after controlling for a wide range of potential confounding variables. An additional adjustment on breastfeeding duration attenuated the relationships without making them disappear completely, suggesting an effect of the overall feeding practices in the first year of life on the parameters that we studied. Conclusions : Our results confirm the importance of socio-cultural determinants on feeding practices over the first year of life. They also confirm the relations between early nutrition and growth in the first three years of life and later eating habits. Our results emphasize the need to consider infant feeding over the first year of life including breastfeeding duration, age of complementary foods introduction as well as type of foods used when examining effects of early infant feeding practices on later health.; Contexte : L’alimentation précoce a une influence sur la croissance et le développement des habitudes alimentaires. Dans la littérature, les déterminants et les effets sur la santé des pratiques d’allaitement et de diversification alimentaire (introduction des aliments autres que le lait) ont souvent été analysés en dissociant ces deux pratiques pourtant très liées. Objectifs : Caractériser par une approche plus globale l’alimentation dans la première année de vie, mettre en évidence ses principaux déterminants et comprendre son influence sur la croissance dans les trois premières années de vie de l’enfant et ses habitudes alimentaires à 3 ans. Méthodes : Les données de la cohorte EDEN qui a recruté 2002 femmes enceintes en début de grossesse, entre 2003 et 2006 dans deux hôpitaux à Nancy et à Poitiers, ont été utilisées. L’alimentation et les paramètres anthropométriques de l’enfant ont été recueillis par questionnaires et examens cliniques à la naissance, 4, 8, 12, 24 et 36 mois. Une analyse en composantes principales a permis d’identifier des profils de pratiques alimentaires dans la première année de vie à partir de la durée d’allaitement, de l’âge d’introduction de différents groupes d’aliments et du mode de préparation des aliments utilisés (préparations « maison », plats préparés « spécifiques bébé » et plats préparés ordinaires du commerce). Des régressions linéaires et logistiques multiples ont été utilisées pour analyser les associations entre profils de pratiques alimentaires, croissance et habitudes alimentaires à 3 ans. Résultats : i) Le type de préparation infantile utilisée de manière prédominante les 4 premiers mois de vie était associé à la parité, l’éducation et le retour à l’emploi maternels mais pas à la croissance de l’enfant sur cette même période. ii) Trois profils de pratiques alimentaires dans la première année de vie ont été identifiés dans la cohorte EDEN. Des scores élevés sur le profil 1 « Diversification tardive et utilisation d’aliments spécifiques bébé » étaient associés à un revenu familial élevé, un âge et un niveau d’études maternels élevés, une parité faible et un recrutement à Nancy. Des scores élevés sur le profil 2 « Allaitement maternel long, diversification tardive et utilisation d’aliments faits maison » étaient associés un âge et un niveau d’études maternels élevés et un recrutement à Poitiers. Des scores élevés sur le profil 3 « Utilisation fréquente d’aliments ordinaires du commerce » étaient associés à un âge maternel plus faible, une parité plus élevée et un recrutement à Nancy. iii) Un score élevé sur le profil 2 était associé à une croissance staturo-pondérale plus lente entre 0 et 1 an et plus rapide entre 1 et 3 ans après ajustement sur les facteurs de confusion potentiels. Ce même profil était associé positivement à la consommation de fruits et légumes à 3 ans. Un ajustement supplémentaire sur la durée d’allaitement maternel atténuait les relations sans pour autant les faire disparaître totalement, suggérant un effet de l’ensemble de pratiques alimentaires dans la première année de vie sur les paramètres que nous avons étudiés. Conclusions : Ces résultats confirment l’importance des déterminants socioculturels sur les pratiques d’alimentation dans la première année de vie. Ils confirment également les liens entre l’alimentation précoce et d’une part la croissance dans les trois premières années de vie et d’autre part l’apprentissage des habitudes alimentaires ultérieures. La prise en compte dans la recherche de l’ensemble des pratiques alimentaires dans la première année de vie, lorsque l’on s’intéresse à leurs effets sur le développement de l’enfant doit être encouragée.

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    Authors: Navez, Brigitte; Cottet, Valentine; Tisiot, Raphael; Causse, Mathilde; +1 Authors

    Événement(s) lié(s) : - La journée de l'innovation serre; Carquefou (FRA) - (2016-09-15 - 2016-09-15); National audience

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    Research . 2016
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      Research . 2016
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    Authors: Basu, Kaustav;

    Nous abordons dans ces travaux l'identification non intrusive des chargesdes bâtiments résidentiels ainsi que la prédiction de leur état futur. L'originalité de ces travaux résidedans la méthode utilisée pour obtenir les résultats voulus, à savoir l'analyse statistique des données(algorithmes de classification). Celle-ci se base sur des hypothèses réalistes et restrictives sans pourautant avoir de limitation sur les modèles comportementaux des charges (variations de charges oumodèles) ni besoin de la connaissance des changements d'état des charges. Ainsi, nous sommes enmesure d'identifier et/ou de prédire l'état des charges consommatrices d'énergie (et potentiellementcontrôlables) en se basant uniquement sur une phase d'entrainement réduite et des mesures de puissanceactive agrégée sur un pas de mesure de dix minutes, préservant donc la vie privée des habitants.Dans cette communication, après avoir décrit la méthodologie développée pour classifier les charges etleurs états, ainsi que les connaissances métier fournies aux algorithmes, nous comparons les résultatsd'identification pour cinq algorithmes tirés de l'état de l'art et les utilisons comme support d'applicationà la prédiction. Les algorithmes utilisés se différencient par leur capacité à traiter des problèmes plus oumoins complexe (notamment la prise en compte de relations entre les charges) et se ne révèlent pas tousappropriés à tout type de charge dans le bâtiment résidentiel. Smart metering is one of the fundamental units of a smart grid, as many further applicationsdepend on the availability of fine-grained information of energy consumption and production.Demand response techniques can be substantially improved by processing smart meter data to extractrelevant knowledge of appliances within a residence. The thesis aims at finding generic solutions for thenon-intrusive load monitoring and future usage prediction of residential loads at a low sampling rate.Load monitoring refers to the dis-aggregation of individual loads from the total consumption at thesmart meter. Future usage prediction of appliances are important from the energy management point ofview. In this work, state of the art multi-label temporal classiffication techniques are implemented usingnovel set of features. Moreover, multi-label classiffers are able to take inter-appliance correlation intoaccount. The methods are validated using a dataset of residential loads in 100 houses monitored over aduration of 1-year.

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    Other literature type . 2014
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      Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: Laurent-monpetit, Christophe; Chavance, Pierre; Bourjea, Jerome; Chassot, Emmanuel;

    Les outre-mer français de l’Océan indien incluent Mayotte, Département depuis le 31 mars 2011 et les îles Eparses qui sont rattachées à l’administration supérieure des Terres australes et antarctiques françaises (TAAF). Depuis janvier 2010, Mayotte dispose d’un parc naturel marin (PNM) doté d’un conseil de gestion dont les limites maritimes sont celles de la ZEE de Mayotte. Un second parc naturel marin a été créé le 22 février 2012 (décret n°2012-245 du 22 février 2012), il s’agit du PNM des Glorieuses, qui dépend des îles Eparses, qui s’étend sur l’ensemble de la ZEE des Glorieuses. Les captures totales dans l’océan Indien des senneurs français immatriculés à Mayotte se sont élevées en 2011 à 26 610 tonnes, soit une augmentation sensible de 45% par rapport à 2010 (18 357 t) due à une augmentation de l’effort de pêche. Le programme observateur mis en place en 2005 puis interrompu en 2009 pour raison de sécurité face au développement de la piraterie somalienne, a repris en 2011 en particulier sur les plus grands senneurs de la flottille, grâce à une collaboration mise en place avec les TAAF. La flotte de pêche côtière artisanale de Mayotte, composée d’un grand nombre de pirogues et de barques pratiquant essentiellement la pêche à la palangrotte, à la traîne et au filet, et de quatre petits palangriers (palangre pélagique dérivante) ciblant les thons et espadons essentiellement. Les captures réalisées par cette flotte dans les eaux de Mayotte sont estimées à 110 (2010) et 52 (2011) tonnes respectivement et sont en augmentation. Le dispositif de recherche thonière actuel de la France (IRD & Ifremer principalement) couvre des activités de type observatoire, l’étude des comportements migratoires des grands pélagiques, des études génétiques pour la délimitation des stocks, des études sur la biologie de la reproduction, la mise au point de mesures d’atténuations des prises accessoires et l’étude de la dynamique de l’écosystème tropical. La plupart des projets sont financés sur appel d’offre international, européen ou national. On trouvera dans le rapport la liste des différents projets qui se sont poursuivis ou ont débuté en 2010-2012. Dans l’ensemble, la France a participé activement à tous les groupes de travail organisés par la CTOI, notamment en y présentant 26 contributions scientifiques en 2012.

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    Authors: Sagnard, Maxime; Berthe, Laurent; ECAULT, Romain; Touchard, Fabienne; +1 Authors

    International audience

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    Other literature type . 2017
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    Authors: Belghit, Khadidja Ikram;

    Très peu de données sont aujourd’hui disponibles sur le rôle des nutriments et de leurs interactions in vivo dans la régulation de l’autophagie. L'objectif principal de cette thèse était donc d’étudier l’effet de la qualité nutritionnelle de l’aliment sur le contrôle de cette fonction cellulaire. Une première étude a permis de montrer que les différents ratios en protéines et en glucides influencent significativement les mécanismes de contrôle de l’autophagie dans le muscle de truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ces résultats ont été renforcés par une étude sur culture primaire de myoblaste de truite montrant que l’addition d’acides aminés dans le milieu de culture inhibe l’autophagie alors que le glucose à un effet inverse (article 1). Une seconde étude a porté sur la fraction protéique de l’aliment et notamment sur la teneur en méthionine, dont le niveau est trop faible dans les aliments pour poissons à base de végétaux. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que la machinerie autophagosomale mais également les principaux facteurs du renouvellement des protéines musculaires sont sensible aux variations de la teneur en méthionine de l’aliment et que la réponse qui en résulte peut fortement affecter la croissance (article 2). L’ensemble des données obtenues dans les deux premières études reposaient sur la mesure du taux d’un marqueur de l’autophagie (LC3-II) qui est à la fois produite et dégradée au cours du processus (flux) autophagique. Ainsi, dans l’optique de préciser les résultats obtenus dans les deux premiers articles, une troisième étude a été effectuée afin de déterminer s’il est possible de bloquer le flux autophagique dans le muscle de truite par l’emploi de différents agents pharmacologiques (inhibiteurs du flux autophagique). Il s’agissait également de déterminer les limites de l’utilisation de tels inhibiteurs chez cette espèce. Les essais effectués n’ont pas permis de mesurer le flux autophagique dans le muscle. En revanche, l’injection intrapéritonéale de colchicine a bien bloqué le flux autophagique dans le foie, ouvrant ainsi un nouveau champ d’investigations sur le rôle de l’autophagie dans le métabolisme intermédiaire. En conclusion, l’ensemble de ces travaux montre que l’autophagie n’est pas uniquement sensible à l’état nutritionnel (jeûne/nourris) mais également à la nature des aliments consommés. Outre leurs intérêts agronomique et thérapeutique, ces résultats ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives pour une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes d’action de l’autophagie au niveau cellulaire et métabolique mais également de son rôle dans l’adaptation des espèces au cours l’évolution Few data has been published on the role of nutrients and their interactions in vivo in the regulation of autophagy. The main objective of this thesis was therefore to characterize the response of the autophagic/lysosomal pathway to the macronutrients composition of the diets. The first study showed that different ratio of proteins and carbohydrates in the diet significantly affect the controls of autophagy in the muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These results were strengthened by study on primary culture of trout myoblasts showing that the addition of amino acids in cell culture medium inhibited the formation of autophagosomes, whereas the addition of glucose had an opposite effect (paper 1). A second study focused on the protein fraction of the diet and specifically on the content of methionine, whose the levels are low in fish feed plant-based diets. The obtained results showed that both autophagy machinery and the main factors of muscle protein turnover are significantly sensitive to change in dietary methionine levels and the resulting response may strongly affect growth and feed utilization (paper 2). The data obtained in these two first studies were based on measuring the level of autophagy marker (LC3-II), which is both produced and degraded during autophagic (flux) process. Thus, in view to clarify the results obtained in the two first studies, we conducted a third study to determine whether it is possible to block the autophagic flux in trout muscle by using different lysosomotropic agents (autophagic flux inhibitors). The objective was also to determine the limits of autophagic flux inhibitors utilisation in vivo. Different tests failed to measure autophagic flux in the muscle of rainbow trout. In contrast, intraperitoneal injection of colchicine blocked the autophagic flux in the liver. This study allowed us to investigate the function of autophagy in the intermediary metabolism. In conclusion, these studies show that autophagy is not only sensitive to the nutritional status (fasting/fed) but also to the nature of the consumed diets. In addition to their therapeutic and agricultural interests, these results open new perspectives to better understand the mechanisms of autophagy at metabolic and cellular level but also its role in the adaptation of species during evolution.

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      Thesis . 2015
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    Authors: Gorioux, Henri;

    L'objectif de cette étude est de comparer deux stratégies de création de populations de blé tendre génétiquement diversifiées : la composite cross population (CCP) et la population dynamique (PopDyn), en termes d'évolution de la diversité au cours du temps et de potentiel agronomique. En plus de l'influence de la stratégie, l'impact du lieu et de la sélection humaine est étudié. The objective of the study is to compare two strategies of creation of soft wheat population genetically diversified : composite cross population (CCP) and dynamic population (PopDyn), in terms of evolution of the diversity though time and agronomic potential. Also, the influence of the environment as well as the influence of human's selection on the population is studied.

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    ZENODO
    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    ZENODO
    Thesis . 2019
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    Authors: LEMICHEZ, Solène;

    Within the framework of the European project LIVESEED, this study aims at establishing the influence of the type of pruning applied to trees in an agroforestry system and of the grown variety of tomato on the composition of the tomato root microbiome, as well as the effect of the microbiome's structuration on the physical-biochemical quality of tomatoes. The results show an effect of pruning intensity on the biochemical profile of tomatoes, which have higher amounts of sugars, vitamin C and phenolic compounds in the non agroforestry control environment, and higher concentrations of acids under tree shade. The two tomato varieties tested (Rose de Berne and Coeur de Boeuf) have different biochemical profiles, resulting from farmer selection. The fungal communities are little influenced by the tomato variety but reveal different assemblages depending on the intensity of tree pruning, both at the community and phyla levels (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Glomeromycetes). These differentiations are explained from an ecological point of view in order to lead to a better understanding of plant-microorganism interactions in agroforestry systems. The correlations between the physico-biochemical quality of the fruits and the structuration of the mycobiome show an impact of the diversity of Ascomycetes and the specific richness of Glomeromycetes on the biochemical profile of tomatoes. The results are discussed under the holobionte hypothesis and its influence on plant breeding, in connection with on-farm selection.

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  • Authors: Michel, Goujon; Maufroy, Alexandra, J; Relot-Stirnemann, Aude; Moec, Emilie; +4 Authors

    International audience; In order to comply with the different regulations and commitments requesting the presence of scientific observers onboard French purse seiners, and since it is not possible to embark more than one observer during a fishing trip, ORTHONGEL has imagined and implemented since July 2013 a program to facilitate and optimize the boarding of well-trained scientific observers. This voluntary program, called OCUP for "Observateur Commun Unique et Permanent" (Common Permanent Unique Observer) was conducted with the Institute for Research and Development (IRD), Oceanic Développement (OD) and several coastal countries. It was implemented in both Atlantic and Indian Oceans where the fleet adherent to ORTHONGEL is active. This paper describes the methodology of the OCUP program and presents and discusses its main results, focusing on the Atlantic Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, 43 scientific observers from 6 African countries have been trained as OCUP. Together with 39 French observers from IRD and OD, 37 of these African scientific observers have covered more than 300 trips until September 1 st , 2017 and the coverage of the French fleet has reached 100% since 2015. Since 2013, the OCUP program allows a better coverage of many fishing information such as bycatch or incidental catch and discards data but also provides the boat-owners information on the implementation of best practices aboard their vessels. Lessons learned from this program allow the authors to suggest a few recommendations.; Afin de satisfaire aux différentes régulations et aux différents engagements pris par la flotte française de thoniers senneurs tropicaux, et puisqu'il n'est pas possible d'embarquer plus d'un observateur par marée, ORTHONGEL a imaginé et mis en place depuis 2013 un programme pour faciliter et optimiser l'embarquement d'observateurs scientifiques de bonne qualité. The programme volontaire, appelé OCUP (Observateur Commun Unique et Permanent) a été développé en collaboration avec l'Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Oceanic Dévelopement (OD) et plusieurs pays côtiers. Le programme a été mis en place dans les océans Atlantique et Indien où est active la flotte de senneurs adhérente d'ORTHONGEL. Ce document décrit la méthodologie du programme OCUP et présente et discute ses principaux résultats, en se concentrant sur le cas de l'Océan Atlantique. Dans cet océan, 43 observateurs de 6 pays Africains ont été formés comme observateur OCUP. En complément des 39 observateurs français employés par l'IRD et OD, 37 de ces observateurs africains ont réalisé plus de 300 marées d'observation à ce jour et le taux de couverture des marées observées a atteint 100% en 2015. Depuis 2013, le programme OCUP permet une meilleure couverture de nombreuses informations telles que les prises accessoires, les prises accidentelles d'espèces sensibles ou encore les rejets. Le programme fournit également aux armements des informations utiles sur le respect des bonnes pratiques à bord. Sur la base du retour d'expérience du programme, les auteurs formulent quelques recommandations.

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    Authors: Lévy, Léa;

    The electrical signature of volcanoes is affected by several characteristics of rocks: volume and salinity of pore fluid, abundance of conductive minerals, rock temperature and presence of molten crust (magma). Electromagnetic soundings are widely used to image the underground structure of volcanoes and look for high-temperature geothermal resources. However, the relative contribution of the above-mentioned elements to the measured resistivity is often an unsolved question when interpreting resistivity inversions. This thesis aims at improving the interpretation of electrical resistivity structures at active volcanoes, in order to develop innovative tools for the assessment of high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Focus is on conductive minerals, which can either be solid ionic conductors (clay minerals, in particular smectite) or electronic semi-conductors (pyrite and iron-oxides). Also investigated are the effects of porosity, salinity, temperature and melting. Iron-oxides are mostly formed during the primary crystallization of magma, while smectite and pyrite are formed upon hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks, thereby witnessing hydrothermal convections. Krafla volcano, Iceland, is used as a laboratory area, where extensive literature, borehole data, core samples, surface soundings and infrastructures are available. The contribution of smectite to the electrical conductivity of volcanic samples saturated with pore water at different salinity is first investigated in the laboratory (room temperature) by electrical impedance spectroscopy, also called complex resistivity. Non-linear variations of the conductivity at 1 kHz with salinity are observed and interfoliar conduction is suggested as an important mechanism by which smectite conducts electrical current. The influence of pyrite and iron-oxides on the charge-storage (capacitive) properties of the rock is then analyzed, using the frequency-dependent phase-angle of the impedance. Maximum phase-angle (MPA) higher than 20 mrad can be attributed to pyrite if the rock is conductive and to iron-oxides if the rock is resistive. Moreover, the MPA increases by about 22 mrad for each additional volumetric per cent of pyrite or iron-oxide. These laboratory frequency-domain findings are partly upscaled to interpret field time-domain complex resistivity tomography at Krafla: smectite, pyrite and iron-oxides can be identified down to about 200 m with the measurements carried out. The in-situ temperature, higher than in laboratory conditions, appears to significantly increase the conductivity associated to smectite. In general, time-domain complex resistivity measurements are recommended as a complementary method to electromagnetic soundings for geothermal exploration. Rafeiginleikar bergs, bæði eðlisviðnám og fasvik, á eldfjallasvæðum eru m.a. háðir póruhluta (holrýmd) bergs, styrk uppleystra jóna í póruvökvanum (seltu), magni rafleiðandi steinda í berginu, hita þess og hvort það er bráðið eða storkið. Rafsegulmælingar eru notaðar til þess að skoða innri gerð eldfjalla og kanna háhitasvæði með því að búa til viðnámslíkön af þeim. Túlkun þeirra er oft flókin og vandasamt er að greina á milli fyrrnefndra þátta sem hafa áhrif á eðlisviðnám og fasa. Þessari ritgerð er ætlað að auka skilning á eðlisviðnámi jarðlaga í virkum eldstöðvum í því skyni að þróa þá tækni sem notuð er til þess að meta stærð og eiginleika háhitasvæða. Ritgerðin fjallar einkum um rafleiðandi steindir, sem eru annað hvort málmleiðarar (leirsteindir, einkum smektít) eða hálfleiðarar (pýrít og járnoxíð). Einnig eru rannsökuð áhrif póruhluta, styrks jóna í póruvökva, hita og bráðnunar bergs. Járnoxíð eru að mestu frumsteindir, þ.e.a.s. þau kristallast þegar bergkvikan kólnar. Smektít og pýrít myndast hins vegar sem útfellingar eða við ummyndun og bera vitni um hringrás jarðhitavökva. Notuð eru gögn frá eldstöðvakerfi Kröflu en þar eru til miklar heimildir eins og borholugögn, borkjarnar og yfirborðsmælingar og góð aðstaða til rannsókna. Áhrif smektíts í bergi á eðlisviðnám bergsýna voru mæld við stofuhita í tilraunastofu. Pórur þeirra voru mettaðar vökva með breytilegum styrk jóna og áhrifin könnuð með litrófsmælingu á eðlisviðnámi og fasa (tvinntöluviðnám). Niðurstöður sýna ólínulegar breytingar í viðnámi við 1 kHz tíðni sem fall af seltu vökvans. Sú tilgáta er sett fram að leiðni milli atómlaga í kristöllum, interfoliar conduction, eigi mikilvægan þátt í rafleiðni smektíts. Áhrif pýríts- og járnoxíðsteinda á rafrýmd bergs var könnuð með því að skoða hvernig fasahorn tvinntöluviðnáms er háð tíðni. Ef hámark fasahornsins (MPA) er stærra en 20 mrad stafar það af tilvist pýríts ef bergið er velleiðandi en járnoxíða ef bergið er torleiðandi. Þá eykst MPA um 22 mrad við hverja prósentu-aukningu í rúmmáli pýrits- eða járnoxíðsteinda. Þessar niðurstöður úr tilraunastofumælingum á tíðniháðu tvinntöluviðnámi voru nýttar til þess að túlka yfirborðsmælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi á Kröflusvæðinu. Tvinntöluviðnámslíkan frá Kröflusvæðinu sýnir að greina má tilvist smektíts, pýríts og járnoxíðs niður á um 200 m dýpi í mælingunum sem gerðar voru. Hiti jarðlaga, sem er hærri en í tilraunastofumælingum, virðist hækka verulega leiðni bergs sem inniheldur smektít. Lagt er til að mælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi verði notaðar til viðbótar við hefðbundnar rafleiðnimælingar við jarðhitarannsóknir vegna þeirra viðbótarupplýsinga sem fást með slíkum mælingum. Paris Sciences et Lettres; IMAGE FP7 European Project (grant agreement 608553); GEMex H2020 European Project (grant agreement 727550). Final thesis

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    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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  • Authors: Betoko, Aisha, Siewe;

    Background: Early eating patterns can determine later eating habits and food preferences and they have been related child growth. In the literature, the determinants and health effects of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices have often been analyzed separately. Yet, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are interrelated and there are arguments to suggest that both influence later health. Objectives : We aimed to characterize feeding practices over the first year of life and to examine their associations with family and infant characteristics, with growth changes in the first 3 years of life, and their relations with food intake at 3 years of age. Methodes : Subjects were participants of the EDEN mother-child cohort. The study recruited 2,002 pregnant women aged 18-45 years attending their prenatal visit before 24 weeks’ gestation at Nancy and Poitiers University Hospitals between 2003 and 2006. Dietary practices and anthropometric measurements were collected through maternal self-report and clinical examinations at birth, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 36 months. Principal component analysis was applied to derive patterns from breastfeeding duration, age of introduction of complementary foods (CF) and type of food used at 1y (ready-prepared baby foods, home-made foods, ready-prepared ordinary foods). Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to analyze associations between feeding patterns, growth and food intake at 3 years of age. Results : i) The type infant formula (partially hydrolyzed, thickened, enriched in pre- or probiotic and others) used in the first four months of life was related to maternal return to employment, parity but not to infant growth in the same period. ii) Three major feeding patterns were identified in the EDEN study. The main source of variability in infant feeding was characterized by a pattern labeled ‘Late weaning and use of ready-prepared baby foods’. Older, more educated, primiparous women with high monthly income and recruited in Nancy ranked high on this pattern. The second pattern, labeled ‘Longer breastfeeding, late CF introduction and use of home-made foods’ was the closest to infant feeding guidelines. Mothers with high scores on this pattern were older, more educated and recruited in Poitiers. The third pattern labeled ‘Use of ordinary foods’ is more suggestive of infants having a less age-specific diet. Mothers ranking high on this pattern were often younger, multiparous and recruited in Nancy. iii) High scores on the second pattern were related to significant lower 0-1y weight and height change, higher 1-3y weight and height change and to a significant higher fruit and vegetables intake at 3 years of age after controlling for a wide range of potential confounding variables. An additional adjustment on breastfeeding duration attenuated the relationships without making them disappear completely, suggesting an effect of the overall feeding practices in the first year of life on the parameters that we studied. Conclusions : Our results confirm the importance of socio-cultural determinants on feeding practices over the first year of life. They also confirm the relations between early nutrition and growth in the first three years of life and later eating habits. Our results emphasize the need to consider infant feeding over the first year of life including breastfeeding duration, age of complementary foods introduction as well as type of foods used when examining effects of early infant feeding practices on later health.; Contexte : L’alimentation précoce a une influence sur la croissance et le développement des habitudes alimentaires. Dans la littérature, les déterminants et les effets sur la santé des pratiques d’allaitement et de diversification alimentaire (introduction des aliments autres que le lait) ont souvent été analysés en dissociant ces deux pratiques pourtant très liées. Objectifs : Caractériser par une approche plus globale l’alimentation dans la première année de vie, mettre en évidence ses principaux déterminants et comprendre son influence sur la croissance dans les trois premières années de vie de l’enfant et ses habitudes alimentaires à 3 ans. Méthodes : Les données de la cohorte EDEN qui a recruté 2002 femmes enceintes en début de grossesse, entre 2003 et 2006 dans deux hôpitaux à Nancy et à Poitiers, ont été utilisées. L’alimentation et les paramètres anthropométriques de l’enfant ont été recueillis par questionnaires et examens cliniques à la naissance, 4, 8, 12, 24 et 36 mois. Une analyse en composantes principales a permis d’identifier des profils de pratiques alimentaires dans la première année de vie à partir de la durée d’allaitement, de l’âge d’introduction de différents groupes d’aliments et du mode de préparation des aliments utilisés (préparations « maison », plats préparés « spécifiques bébé » et plats préparés ordinaires du commerce). Des régressions linéaires et logistiques multiples ont été utilisées pour analyser les associations entre profils de pratiques alimentaires, croissance et habitudes alimentaires à 3 ans. Résultats : i) Le type de préparation infantile utilisée de manière prédominante les 4 premiers mois de vie était associé à la parité, l’éducation et le retour à l’emploi maternels mais pas à la croissance de l’enfant sur cette même période. ii) Trois profils de pratiques alimentaires dans la première année de vie ont été identifiés dans la cohorte EDEN. Des scores élevés sur le profil 1 « Diversification tardive et utilisation d’aliments spécifiques bébé » étaient associés à un revenu familial élevé, un âge et un niveau d’études maternels élevés, une parité faible et un recrutement à Nancy. Des scores élevés sur le profil 2 « Allaitement maternel long, diversification tardive et utilisation d’aliments faits maison » étaient associés un âge et un niveau d’études maternels élevés et un recrutement à Poitiers. Des scores élevés sur le profil 3 « Utilisation fréquente d’aliments ordinaires du commerce » étaient associés à un âge maternel plus faible, une parité plus élevée et un recrutement à Nancy. iii) Un score élevé sur le profil 2 était associé à une croissance staturo-pondérale plus lente entre 0 et 1 an et plus rapide entre 1 et 3 ans après ajustement sur les facteurs de confusion potentiels. Ce même profil était associé positivement à la consommation de fruits et légumes à 3 ans. Un ajustement supplémentaire sur la durée d’allaitement maternel atténuait les relations sans pour autant les faire disparaître totalement, suggérant un effet de l’ensemble de pratiques alimentaires dans la première année de vie sur les paramètres que nous avons étudiés. Conclusions : Ces résultats confirment l’importance des déterminants socioculturels sur les pratiques d’alimentation dans la première année de vie. Ils confirment également les liens entre l’alimentation précoce et d’une part la croissance dans les trois premières années de vie et d’autre part l’apprentissage des habitudes alimentaires ultérieures. La prise en compte dans la recherche de l’ensemble des pratiques alimentaires dans la première année de vie, lorsque l’on s’intéresse à leurs effets sur le développement de l’enfant doit être encouragée.

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