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  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • French

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    Authors: Gorioux, Henri;

    L'objectif de cette étude est de comparer deux stratégies de création de populations de blé tendre génétiquement diversifiées : la composite cross population (CCP) et la population dynamique (PopDyn), en termes d'évolution de la diversité au cours du temps et de potentiel agronomique. En plus de l'influence de la stratégie, l'impact du lieu et de la sélection humaine est étudié. The objective of the study is to compare two strategies of creation of soft wheat population genetically diversified : composite cross population (CCP) and dynamic population (PopDyn), in terms of evolution of the diversity though time and agronomic potential. Also, the influence of the environment as well as the influence of human's selection on the population is studied.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Thesis . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Organic Eprintsarrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019
      License: CC BY NC ND
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      Thesis . 2019
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    Authors: LEMICHEZ, Solène;

    Within the framework of the European project LIVESEED, this study aims at establishing the influence of the type of pruning applied to trees in an agroforestry system and of the grown variety of tomato on the composition of the tomato root microbiome, as well as the effect of the microbiome's structuration on the physical-biochemical quality of tomatoes. The results show an effect of pruning intensity on the biochemical profile of tomatoes, which have higher amounts of sugars, vitamin C and phenolic compounds in the non agroforestry control environment, and higher concentrations of acids under tree shade. The two tomato varieties tested (Rose de Berne and Coeur de Boeuf) have different biochemical profiles, resulting from farmer selection. The fungal communities are little influenced by the tomato variety but reveal different assemblages depending on the intensity of tree pruning, both at the community and phyla levels (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Glomeromycetes). These differentiations are explained from an ecological point of view in order to lead to a better understanding of plant-microorganism interactions in agroforestry systems. The correlations between the physico-biochemical quality of the fruits and the structuration of the mycobiome show an impact of the diversity of Ascomycetes and the specific richness of Glomeromycetes on the biochemical profile of tomatoes. The results are discussed under the holobionte hypothesis and its influence on plant breeding, in connection with on-farm selection.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2020
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Thesis . 2020
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Other literature type . Article . 2020
      License: CC BY NC ND
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      Thesis . 2020
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    Authors: Lévy, Léa;

    The electrical signature of volcanoes is affected by several characteristics of rocks: volume and salinity of pore fluid, abundance of conductive minerals, rock temperature and presence of molten crust (magma). Electromagnetic soundings are widely used to image the underground structure of volcanoes and look for high-temperature geothermal resources. However, the relative contribution of the above-mentioned elements to the measured resistivity is often an unsolved question when interpreting resistivity inversions. This thesis aims at improving the interpretation of electrical resistivity structures at active volcanoes, in order to develop innovative tools for the assessment of high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Focus is on conductive minerals, which can either be solid ionic conductors (clay minerals, in particular smectite) or electronic semi-conductors (pyrite and iron-oxides). Also investigated are the effects of porosity, salinity, temperature and melting. Iron-oxides are mostly formed during the primary crystallization of magma, while smectite and pyrite are formed upon hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks, thereby witnessing hydrothermal convections. Krafla volcano, Iceland, is used as a laboratory area, where extensive literature, borehole data, core samples, surface soundings and infrastructures are available. The contribution of smectite to the electrical conductivity of volcanic samples saturated with pore water at different salinity is first investigated in the laboratory (room temperature) by electrical impedance spectroscopy, also called complex resistivity. Non-linear variations of the conductivity at 1 kHz with salinity are observed and interfoliar conduction is suggested as an important mechanism by which smectite conducts electrical current. The influence of pyrite and iron-oxides on the charge-storage (capacitive) properties of the rock is then analyzed, using the frequency-dependent phase-angle of the impedance. Maximum phase-angle (MPA) higher than 20 mrad can be attributed to pyrite if the rock is conductive and to iron-oxides if the rock is resistive. Moreover, the MPA increases by about 22 mrad for each additional volumetric per cent of pyrite or iron-oxide. These laboratory frequency-domain findings are partly upscaled to interpret field time-domain complex resistivity tomography at Krafla: smectite, pyrite and iron-oxides can be identified down to about 200 m with the measurements carried out. The in-situ temperature, higher than in laboratory conditions, appears to significantly increase the conductivity associated to smectite. In general, time-domain complex resistivity measurements are recommended as a complementary method to electromagnetic soundings for geothermal exploration. Rafeiginleikar bergs, bæði eðlisviðnám og fasvik, á eldfjallasvæðum eru m.a. háðir póruhluta (holrýmd) bergs, styrk uppleystra jóna í póruvökvanum (seltu), magni rafleiðandi steinda í berginu, hita þess og hvort það er bráðið eða storkið. Rafsegulmælingar eru notaðar til þess að skoða innri gerð eldfjalla og kanna háhitasvæði með því að búa til viðnámslíkön af þeim. Túlkun þeirra er oft flókin og vandasamt er að greina á milli fyrrnefndra þátta sem hafa áhrif á eðlisviðnám og fasa. Þessari ritgerð er ætlað að auka skilning á eðlisviðnámi jarðlaga í virkum eldstöðvum í því skyni að þróa þá tækni sem notuð er til þess að meta stærð og eiginleika háhitasvæða. Ritgerðin fjallar einkum um rafleiðandi steindir, sem eru annað hvort málmleiðarar (leirsteindir, einkum smektít) eða hálfleiðarar (pýrít og járnoxíð). Einnig eru rannsökuð áhrif póruhluta, styrks jóna í póruvökva, hita og bráðnunar bergs. Járnoxíð eru að mestu frumsteindir, þ.e.a.s. þau kristallast þegar bergkvikan kólnar. Smektít og pýrít myndast hins vegar sem útfellingar eða við ummyndun og bera vitni um hringrás jarðhitavökva. Notuð eru gögn frá eldstöðvakerfi Kröflu en þar eru til miklar heimildir eins og borholugögn, borkjarnar og yfirborðsmælingar og góð aðstaða til rannsókna. Áhrif smektíts í bergi á eðlisviðnám bergsýna voru mæld við stofuhita í tilraunastofu. Pórur þeirra voru mettaðar vökva með breytilegum styrk jóna og áhrifin könnuð með litrófsmælingu á eðlisviðnámi og fasa (tvinntöluviðnám). Niðurstöður sýna ólínulegar breytingar í viðnámi við 1 kHz tíðni sem fall af seltu vökvans. Sú tilgáta er sett fram að leiðni milli atómlaga í kristöllum, interfoliar conduction, eigi mikilvægan þátt í rafleiðni smektíts. Áhrif pýríts- og járnoxíðsteinda á rafrýmd bergs var könnuð með því að skoða hvernig fasahorn tvinntöluviðnáms er háð tíðni. Ef hámark fasahornsins (MPA) er stærra en 20 mrad stafar það af tilvist pýríts ef bergið er velleiðandi en járnoxíða ef bergið er torleiðandi. Þá eykst MPA um 22 mrad við hverja prósentu-aukningu í rúmmáli pýrits- eða járnoxíðsteinda. Þessar niðurstöður úr tilraunastofumælingum á tíðniháðu tvinntöluviðnámi voru nýttar til þess að túlka yfirborðsmælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi á Kröflusvæðinu. Tvinntöluviðnámslíkan frá Kröflusvæðinu sýnir að greina má tilvist smektíts, pýríts og járnoxíðs niður á um 200 m dýpi í mælingunum sem gerðar voru. Hiti jarðlaga, sem er hærri en í tilraunastofumælingum, virðist hækka verulega leiðni bergs sem inniheldur smektít. Lagt er til að mælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi verði notaðar til viðbótar við hefðbundnar rafleiðnimælingar við jarðhitarannsóknir vegna þeirra viðbótarupplýsinga sem fást með slíkum mælingum. Paris Sciences et Lettres; IMAGE FP7 European Project (grant agreement 608553); GEMex H2020 European Project (grant agreement 727550). Final thesis

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    Opin visindi
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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    Authors: de Vries, Hugo; Donner, Mechthild; Axelos, Monique;

    International audience

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    Authors: Arncken, Christine;

    Bio Suisse n’autorisera plus, à partir de 2022, que 100 % d’aliments bio suisses pour les ruminants. Il en résultera une hausse de la demande de légumineuses à graines, dont font aussi partie les lupins. Le lupin (bleu) à folioles étroites a besoin de sols sans calcaire (pH inférieur à 6,5). Deux nouvelles variétés de lupin blanc sont prometteuses.

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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
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      Other ORP type . 2020
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    Authors: Enjalbert, Jerome; Litrico, Isabelle; Fournier, Elisabeth; Médiène, Safia; +13 Authors

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019.article issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/CIAg-Environnement/Biodiversite-et-agricultures; To reduce the negative impacts of agricultural systems, the agro-ecological transition first calls for the use of greater cultivated biodiversity. Such diversification can be implemented at the field scale, mixing different species, or different varieties of the same species. We discuss the advantages of this intra-field diversification by developing 5 examples: (1) varietal mixtures of wheat in France, (2) rice populations in YuanYang, (3) oilseed rape associated with service plants, (4) mixtures of forage species and (5) cereal and legume intercrops for grain production. We discuss the benefits conferred by this diversification on: (i) optimization and stabilization of production, (ii) interactions with cultural practices, (iii) breeding activity, and (iv) the impact of these stands and practices on associated wild biodiversity.; Pour réduire les impacts négatifs des systèmes agricoles, la transition agroécologique appelle en premier lieu à l’utilisation d’une plus grande biodiversité cultivée. Une telle diversification peut être conduite à l'échelle de la parcelle, en associant différentes espèces, ou différentes variétés d'une même espèce. Nous abordons les avantages de cette diversification intra-parcellaire, en développant 5 exemples : (1) les mélanges variétaux de blé en France, (2) les populations de riz au YuanYang, (3) le colza associé à des plantes de services, (4) les mélanges d’espèces fourragères et (5) les associations céréales-légumineuses à graines. Nous discutons des avantages conférés par cette diversification sur : (i) l’optimisation et la stabilisation des productions, (ii) les interactions avec les pratiques culturales, (iii) la sélection variétale, et (iv) l’impact de ces peuplements et pratiques sur la biodiversité sauvage associée.

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    ProdInra
    Article . 2019
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    Authors: MADEC, Camille;

    This INCOVER presentation was given by OIEau during CYCL’EAU show in Bordeaux, in April 2019. This show was an opportunity to meet water stakeholders of Adour-Garonne region. Public and private utilities attended this show, as well as technology providers, etc. This presentation introduces each technology developed within INCOVER project, according to the kind of bioproducts obtained.

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    Presentation . 2019
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    Authors: Chênais, Nathalie; Nóbrega, Rafael; Thomas, Manon; Porcon, Béatrice; +6 Authors

    National audience; Les mécanismes impliqués dans le renouvèlement des cellules germinales souches chez les mâles immatures ou chez les individus adultes sexuellement matures restent très mal connus, en particulier chez les poissons. La production d'organoïdes testiculaires est une approche de choix pour étudier les interactions moléculaires entre les cellules somatiques et les cellules germinales ainsi que les modes de divisions symétriques et/ou asymétriques des cellules souches germinales. En effet, au contraire des cultures 2D, les organoïdes pourraient permettre de reproduire une niche germinale plus proche de celle rencontrée in vivo.

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    Authors: Enjalbert, J.; Litrico, I.; Fournier, E.; Médiène, S.; +13 Authors
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    Authors: Carton, N.; Viguier, L.; Bedoussac, L.; Journet, E.P.; +4 Authors
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    Authors: Gorioux, Henri;

    L'objectif de cette étude est de comparer deux stratégies de création de populations de blé tendre génétiquement diversifiées : la composite cross population (CCP) et la population dynamique (PopDyn), en termes d'évolution de la diversité au cours du temps et de potentiel agronomique. En plus de l'influence de la stratégie, l'impact du lieu et de la sélection humaine est étudié. The objective of the study is to compare two strategies of creation of soft wheat population genetically diversified : composite cross population (CCP) and dynamic population (PopDyn), in terms of evolution of the diversity though time and agronomic potential. Also, the influence of the environment as well as the influence of human's selection on the population is studied.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    Thesis . 2019
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019
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      Thesis . 2019
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    Authors: LEMICHEZ, Solène;

    Within the framework of the European project LIVESEED, this study aims at establishing the influence of the type of pruning applied to trees in an agroforestry system and of the grown variety of tomato on the composition of the tomato root microbiome, as well as the effect of the microbiome's structuration on the physical-biochemical quality of tomatoes. The results show an effect of pruning intensity on the biochemical profile of tomatoes, which have higher amounts of sugars, vitamin C and phenolic compounds in the non agroforestry control environment, and higher concentrations of acids under tree shade. The two tomato varieties tested (Rose de Berne and Coeur de Boeuf) have different biochemical profiles, resulting from farmer selection. The fungal communities are little influenced by the tomato variety but reveal different assemblages depending on the intensity of tree pruning, both at the community and phyla levels (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Glomeromycetes). These differentiations are explained from an ecological point of view in order to lead to a better understanding of plant-microorganism interactions in agroforestry systems. The correlations between the physico-biochemical quality of the fruits and the structuration of the mycobiome show an impact of the diversity of Ascomycetes and the specific richness of Glomeromycetes on the biochemical profile of tomatoes. The results are discussed under the holobionte hypothesis and its influence on plant breeding, in connection with on-farm selection.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2020
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      Other literature type . Article . 2020
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    Authors: Lévy, Léa;

    The electrical signature of volcanoes is affected by several characteristics of rocks: volume and salinity of pore fluid, abundance of conductive minerals, rock temperature and presence of molten crust (magma). Electromagnetic soundings are widely used to image the underground structure of volcanoes and look for high-temperature geothermal resources. However, the relative contribution of the above-mentioned elements to the measured resistivity is often an unsolved question when interpreting resistivity inversions. This thesis aims at improving the interpretation of electrical resistivity structures at active volcanoes, in order to develop innovative tools for the assessment of high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Focus is on conductive minerals, which can either be solid ionic conductors (clay minerals, in particular smectite) or electronic semi-conductors (pyrite and iron-oxides). Also investigated are the effects of porosity, salinity, temperature and melting. Iron-oxides are mostly formed during the primary crystallization of magma, while smectite and pyrite are formed upon hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks, thereby witnessing hydrothermal convections. Krafla volcano, Iceland, is used as a laboratory area, where extensive literature, borehole data, core samples, surface soundings and infrastructures are available. The contribution of smectite to the electrical conductivity of volcanic samples saturated with pore water at different salinity is first investigated in the laboratory (room temperature) by electrical impedance spectroscopy, also called complex resistivity. Non-linear variations of the conductivity at 1 kHz with salinity are observed and interfoliar conduction is suggested as an important mechanism by which smectite conducts electrical current. The influence of pyrite and iron-oxides on the charge-storage (capacitive) properties of the rock is then analyzed, using the frequency-dependent phase-angle of the impedance. Maximum phase-angle (MPA) higher than 20 mrad can be attributed to pyrite if the rock is conductive and to iron-oxides if the rock is resistive. Moreover, the MPA increases by about 22 mrad for each additional volumetric per cent of pyrite or iron-oxide. These laboratory frequency-domain findings are partly upscaled to interpret field time-domain complex resistivity tomography at Krafla: smectite, pyrite and iron-oxides can be identified down to about 200 m with the measurements carried out. The in-situ temperature, higher than in laboratory conditions, appears to significantly increase the conductivity associated to smectite. In general, time-domain complex resistivity measurements are recommended as a complementary method to electromagnetic soundings for geothermal exploration. Rafeiginleikar bergs, bæði eðlisviðnám og fasvik, á eldfjallasvæðum eru m.a. háðir póruhluta (holrýmd) bergs, styrk uppleystra jóna í póruvökvanum (seltu), magni rafleiðandi steinda í berginu, hita þess og hvort það er bráðið eða storkið. Rafsegulmælingar eru notaðar til þess að skoða innri gerð eldfjalla og kanna háhitasvæði með því að búa til viðnámslíkön af þeim. Túlkun þeirra er oft flókin og vandasamt er að greina á milli fyrrnefndra þátta sem hafa áhrif á eðlisviðnám og fasa. Þessari ritgerð er ætlað að auka skilning á eðlisviðnámi jarðlaga í virkum eldstöðvum í því skyni að þróa þá tækni sem notuð er til þess að meta stærð og eiginleika háhitasvæða. Ritgerðin fjallar einkum um rafleiðandi steindir, sem eru annað hvort málmleiðarar (leirsteindir, einkum smektít) eða hálfleiðarar (pýrít og járnoxíð). Einnig eru rannsökuð áhrif póruhluta, styrks jóna í póruvökva, hita og bráðnunar bergs. Járnoxíð eru að mestu frumsteindir, þ.e.a.s. þau kristallast þegar bergkvikan kólnar. Smektít og pýrít myndast hins vegar sem útfellingar eða við ummyndun og bera vitni um hringrás jarðhitavökva. Notuð eru gögn frá eldstöðvakerfi Kröflu en þar eru til miklar heimildir eins og borholugögn, borkjarnar og yfirborðsmælingar og góð aðstaða til rannsókna. Áhrif smektíts í bergi á eðlisviðnám bergsýna voru mæld við stofuhita í tilraunastofu. Pórur þeirra voru mettaðar vökva með breytilegum styrk jóna og áhrifin könnuð með litrófsmælingu á eðlisviðnámi og fasa (tvinntöluviðnám). Niðurstöður sýna ólínulegar breytingar í viðnámi við 1 kHz tíðni sem fall af seltu vökvans. Sú tilgáta er sett fram að leiðni milli atómlaga í kristöllum, interfoliar conduction, eigi mikilvægan þátt í rafleiðni smektíts. Áhrif pýríts- og járnoxíðsteinda á rafrýmd bergs var könnuð með því að skoða hvernig fasahorn tvinntöluviðnáms er háð tíðni. Ef hámark fasahornsins (MPA) er stærra en 20 mrad stafar það af tilvist pýríts ef bergið er velleiðandi en járnoxíða ef bergið er torleiðandi. Þá eykst MPA um 22 mrad við hverja prósentu-aukningu í rúmmáli pýrits- eða járnoxíðsteinda. Þessar niðurstöður úr tilraunastofumælingum á tíðniháðu tvinntöluviðnámi voru nýttar til þess að túlka yfirborðsmælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi á Kröflusvæðinu. Tvinntöluviðnámslíkan frá Kröflusvæðinu sýnir að greina má tilvist smektíts, pýríts og járnoxíðs niður á um 200 m dýpi í mælingunum sem gerðar voru. Hiti jarðlaga, sem er hærri en í tilraunastofumælingum, virðist hækka verulega leiðni bergs sem inniheldur smektít. Lagt er til að mælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi verði notaðar til viðbótar við hefðbundnar rafleiðnimælingar við jarðhitarannsóknir vegna þeirra viðbótarupplýsinga sem fást með slíkum mælingum. Paris Sciences et Lettres; IMAGE FP7 European Project (grant agreement 608553); GEMex H2020 European Project (grant agreement 727550). Final thesis

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    Opin visindi
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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    Authors: de Vries, Hugo; Donner, Mechthild; Axelos, Monique;

    International audience

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    Authors: Arncken, Christine;

    Bio Suisse n’autorisera plus, à partir de 2022, que 100 % d’aliments bio suisses pour les ruminants. Il en résultera une hausse de la demande de légumineuses à graines, dont font aussi partie les lupins. Le lupin (bleu) à folioles étroites a besoin de sols sans calcaire (pH inférieur à 6,5). Deux nouvelles variétés de lupin blanc sont prometteuses.

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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
    Other ORP type . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
      Other ORP type . 2020
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    Authors: Enjalbert, Jerome; Litrico, Isabelle; Fournier, Elisabeth; Médiène, Safia; +13 Authors

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019.article issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/CIAg-Environnement/Biodiversite-et-agricultures; To reduce the negative impacts of agricultural systems, the agro-ecological transition first calls for the use of greater cultivated biodiversity. Such diversification can be implemented at the field scale, mixing different species, or different varieties of the same species. We discuss the advantages of this intra-field diversification by developing 5 examples: (1) varietal mixtures of wheat in France, (2) rice populations in YuanYang, (3) oilseed rape associated with service plants, (4) mixtures of forage species and (5) cereal and legume intercrops for grain production. We discuss the benefits conferred by this diversification on: (i) optimization and stabilization of production, (ii) interactions with cultural practices, (iii) breeding activity, and (iv) the impact of these stands and practices on associated wild biodiversity.; Pour réduire les impacts négatifs des systèmes agricoles, la transition agroécologique appelle en premier lieu à l’utilisation d’une plus grande biodiversité cultivée. Une telle diversification peut être conduite à l'échelle de la parcelle, en associant différentes espèces, ou différentes variétés d'une même espèce. Nous abordons les avantages de cette diversification intra-parcellaire, en développant 5 exemples : (1) les mélanges variétaux de blé en France, (2) les populations de riz au YuanYang, (3) le colza associé à des plantes de services, (4) les mélanges d’espèces fourragères et (5) les associations céréales-légumineuses à graines. Nous discutons des avantages conférés par cette diversification sur : (i) l’optimisation et la stabilisation des productions, (ii) les interactions avec les pratiques culturales, (iii) la sélection variétale, et (iv) l’impact de ces peuplements et pratiques sur la biodiversité sauvage associée.

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    ProdInra
    Article . 2019
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    Authors: MADEC, Camille;

    This INCOVER presentation was given by OIEau during CYCL’EAU show in Bordeaux, in April 2019. This show was an opportunity to meet water stakeholders of Adour-Garonne region. Public and private utilities attended this show, as well as technology providers, etc. This presentation introduces each technology developed within INCOVER project, according to the kind of bioproducts obtained.

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    Presentation . 2019
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    ZENODO
    Other literature type . 2019
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