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    Authors: Sagnard, Maxime; Berthe, Laurent; ECAULT, Romain; Touchard, Fabienne; +1 Authors

    International audience

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2017
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    Authors: Belghit, Khadidja Ikram;

    Très peu de données sont aujourd’hui disponibles sur le rôle des nutriments et de leurs interactions in vivo dans la régulation de l’autophagie. L'objectif principal de cette thèse était donc d’étudier l’effet de la qualité nutritionnelle de l’aliment sur le contrôle de cette fonction cellulaire. Une première étude a permis de montrer que les différents ratios en protéines et en glucides influencent significativement les mécanismes de contrôle de l’autophagie dans le muscle de truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ces résultats ont été renforcés par une étude sur culture primaire de myoblaste de truite montrant que l’addition d’acides aminés dans le milieu de culture inhibe l’autophagie alors que le glucose à un effet inverse (article 1). Une seconde étude a porté sur la fraction protéique de l’aliment et notamment sur la teneur en méthionine, dont le niveau est trop faible dans les aliments pour poissons à base de végétaux. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que la machinerie autophagosomale mais également les principaux facteurs du renouvellement des protéines musculaires sont sensible aux variations de la teneur en méthionine de l’aliment et que la réponse qui en résulte peut fortement affecter la croissance (article 2). L’ensemble des données obtenues dans les deux premières études reposaient sur la mesure du taux d’un marqueur de l’autophagie (LC3-II) qui est à la fois produite et dégradée au cours du processus (flux) autophagique. Ainsi, dans l’optique de préciser les résultats obtenus dans les deux premiers articles, une troisième étude a été effectuée afin de déterminer s’il est possible de bloquer le flux autophagique dans le muscle de truite par l’emploi de différents agents pharmacologiques (inhibiteurs du flux autophagique). Il s’agissait également de déterminer les limites de l’utilisation de tels inhibiteurs chez cette espèce. Les essais effectués n’ont pas permis de mesurer le flux autophagique dans le muscle. En revanche, l’injection intrapéritonéale de colchicine a bien bloqué le flux autophagique dans le foie, ouvrant ainsi un nouveau champ d’investigations sur le rôle de l’autophagie dans le métabolisme intermédiaire. En conclusion, l’ensemble de ces travaux montre que l’autophagie n’est pas uniquement sensible à l’état nutritionnel (jeûne/nourris) mais également à la nature des aliments consommés. Outre leurs intérêts agronomique et thérapeutique, ces résultats ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives pour une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes d’action de l’autophagie au niveau cellulaire et métabolique mais également de son rôle dans l’adaptation des espèces au cours l’évolution Few data has been published on the role of nutrients and their interactions in vivo in the regulation of autophagy. The main objective of this thesis was therefore to characterize the response of the autophagic/lysosomal pathway to the macronutrients composition of the diets. The first study showed that different ratio of proteins and carbohydrates in the diet significantly affect the controls of autophagy in the muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These results were strengthened by study on primary culture of trout myoblasts showing that the addition of amino acids in cell culture medium inhibited the formation of autophagosomes, whereas the addition of glucose had an opposite effect (paper 1). A second study focused on the protein fraction of the diet and specifically on the content of methionine, whose the levels are low in fish feed plant-based diets. The obtained results showed that both autophagy machinery and the main factors of muscle protein turnover are significantly sensitive to change in dietary methionine levels and the resulting response may strongly affect growth and feed utilization (paper 2). The data obtained in these two first studies were based on measuring the level of autophagy marker (LC3-II), which is both produced and degraded during autophagic (flux) process. Thus, in view to clarify the results obtained in the two first studies, we conducted a third study to determine whether it is possible to block the autophagic flux in trout muscle by using different lysosomotropic agents (autophagic flux inhibitors). The objective was also to determine the limits of autophagic flux inhibitors utilisation in vivo. Different tests failed to measure autophagic flux in the muscle of rainbow trout. In contrast, intraperitoneal injection of colchicine blocked the autophagic flux in the liver. This study allowed us to investigate the function of autophagy in the intermediary metabolism. In conclusion, these studies show that autophagy is not only sensitive to the nutritional status (fasting/fed) but also to the nature of the consumed diets. In addition to their therapeutic and agricultural interests, these results open new perspectives to better understand the mechanisms of autophagy at metabolic and cellular level but also its role in the adaptation of species during evolution.

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    Thesis . 2015
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      Thesis . 2015
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    Authors: Lévy, Léa;

    The electrical signature of volcanoes is affected by several characteristics of rocks: volume and salinity of pore fluid, abundance of conductive minerals, rock temperature and presence of molten crust (magma). Electromagnetic soundings are widely used to image the underground structure of volcanoes and look for high-temperature geothermal resources. However, the relative contribution of the above-mentioned elements to the measured resistivity is often an unsolved question when interpreting resistivity inversions. This thesis aims at improving the interpretation of electrical resistivity structures at active volcanoes, in order to develop innovative tools for the assessment of high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Focus is on conductive minerals, which can either be solid ionic conductors (clay minerals, in particular smectite) or electronic semi-conductors (pyrite and iron-oxides). Also investigated are the effects of porosity, salinity, temperature and melting. Iron-oxides are mostly formed during the primary crystallization of magma, while smectite and pyrite are formed upon hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks, thereby witnessing hydrothermal convections. Krafla volcano, Iceland, is used as a laboratory area, where extensive literature, borehole data, core samples, surface soundings and infrastructures are available. The contribution of smectite to the electrical conductivity of volcanic samples saturated with pore water at different salinity is first investigated in the laboratory (room temperature) by electrical impedance spectroscopy, also called complex resistivity. Non-linear variations of the conductivity at 1 kHz with salinity are observed and interfoliar conduction is suggested as an important mechanism by which smectite conducts electrical current. The influence of pyrite and iron-oxides on the charge-storage (capacitive) properties of the rock is then analyzed, using the frequency-dependent phase-angle of the impedance. Maximum phase-angle (MPA) higher than 20 mrad can be attributed to pyrite if the rock is conductive and to iron-oxides if the rock is resistive. Moreover, the MPA increases by about 22 mrad for each additional volumetric per cent of pyrite or iron-oxide. These laboratory frequency-domain findings are partly upscaled to interpret field time-domain complex resistivity tomography at Krafla: smectite, pyrite and iron-oxides can be identified down to about 200 m with the measurements carried out. The in-situ temperature, higher than in laboratory conditions, appears to significantly increase the conductivity associated to smectite. In general, time-domain complex resistivity measurements are recommended as a complementary method to electromagnetic soundings for geothermal exploration. Rafeiginleikar bergs, bæði eðlisviðnám og fasvik, á eldfjallasvæðum eru m.a. háðir póruhluta (holrýmd) bergs, styrk uppleystra jóna í póruvökvanum (seltu), magni rafleiðandi steinda í berginu, hita þess og hvort það er bráðið eða storkið. Rafsegulmælingar eru notaðar til þess að skoða innri gerð eldfjalla og kanna háhitasvæði með því að búa til viðnámslíkön af þeim. Túlkun þeirra er oft flókin og vandasamt er að greina á milli fyrrnefndra þátta sem hafa áhrif á eðlisviðnám og fasa. Þessari ritgerð er ætlað að auka skilning á eðlisviðnámi jarðlaga í virkum eldstöðvum í því skyni að þróa þá tækni sem notuð er til þess að meta stærð og eiginleika háhitasvæða. Ritgerðin fjallar einkum um rafleiðandi steindir, sem eru annað hvort málmleiðarar (leirsteindir, einkum smektít) eða hálfleiðarar (pýrít og járnoxíð). Einnig eru rannsökuð áhrif póruhluta, styrks jóna í póruvökva, hita og bráðnunar bergs. Járnoxíð eru að mestu frumsteindir, þ.e.a.s. þau kristallast þegar bergkvikan kólnar. Smektít og pýrít myndast hins vegar sem útfellingar eða við ummyndun og bera vitni um hringrás jarðhitavökva. Notuð eru gögn frá eldstöðvakerfi Kröflu en þar eru til miklar heimildir eins og borholugögn, borkjarnar og yfirborðsmælingar og góð aðstaða til rannsókna. Áhrif smektíts í bergi á eðlisviðnám bergsýna voru mæld við stofuhita í tilraunastofu. Pórur þeirra voru mettaðar vökva með breytilegum styrk jóna og áhrifin könnuð með litrófsmælingu á eðlisviðnámi og fasa (tvinntöluviðnám). Niðurstöður sýna ólínulegar breytingar í viðnámi við 1 kHz tíðni sem fall af seltu vökvans. Sú tilgáta er sett fram að leiðni milli atómlaga í kristöllum, interfoliar conduction, eigi mikilvægan þátt í rafleiðni smektíts. Áhrif pýríts- og járnoxíðsteinda á rafrýmd bergs var könnuð með því að skoða hvernig fasahorn tvinntöluviðnáms er háð tíðni. Ef hámark fasahornsins (MPA) er stærra en 20 mrad stafar það af tilvist pýríts ef bergið er velleiðandi en járnoxíða ef bergið er torleiðandi. Þá eykst MPA um 22 mrad við hverja prósentu-aukningu í rúmmáli pýrits- eða járnoxíðsteinda. Þessar niðurstöður úr tilraunastofumælingum á tíðniháðu tvinntöluviðnámi voru nýttar til þess að túlka yfirborðsmælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi á Kröflusvæðinu. Tvinntöluviðnámslíkan frá Kröflusvæðinu sýnir að greina má tilvist smektíts, pýríts og járnoxíðs niður á um 200 m dýpi í mælingunum sem gerðar voru. Hiti jarðlaga, sem er hærri en í tilraunastofumælingum, virðist hækka verulega leiðni bergs sem inniheldur smektít. Lagt er til að mælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi verði notaðar til viðbótar við hefðbundnar rafleiðnimælingar við jarðhitarannsóknir vegna þeirra viðbótarupplýsinga sem fást með slíkum mælingum. Paris Sciences et Lettres; IMAGE FP7 European Project (grant agreement 608553); GEMex H2020 European Project (grant agreement 727550). Final thesis

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    Opin visindi
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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    Authors: Navez, Brigitte; Cottet, Valentine; Tisiot, Raphael; Causse, Mathilde; +1 Authors

    Événement(s) lié(s) : - La journée de l'innovation serre; Carquefou (FRA) - (2016-09-15 - 2016-09-15); National audience

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    Research . 2016
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      Research . 2016
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    Authors: Bugeon, Jérôme; Joret, Léa; Aubin, Joel; Colson, Violaine; +6 Authors

    ATOL : Animal Trait Ontology for Livestock EOL : Environment Ontology for LivestockATOL : Animal Trait Ontology for LivestockEOL : Environment Ontology for Livestock; absent

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    Conference object . 2014
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    Authors: Enjalbert, Jerome; Litrico, Isabelle; Fournier, Elisabeth; Médiène, Safia; +13 Authors

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019.article issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/CIAg-Environnement/Biodiversite-et-agricultures; To reduce the negative impacts of agricultural systems, the agro-ecological transition first calls for the use of greater cultivated biodiversity. Such diversification can be implemented at the field scale, mixing different species, or different varieties of the same species. We discuss the advantages of this intra-field diversification by developing 5 examples: (1) varietal mixtures of wheat in France, (2) rice populations in YuanYang, (3) oilseed rape associated with service plants, (4) mixtures of forage species and (5) cereal and legume intercrops for grain production. We discuss the benefits conferred by this diversification on: (i) optimization and stabilization of production, (ii) interactions with cultural practices, (iii) breeding activity, and (iv) the impact of these stands and practices on associated wild biodiversity.; Pour réduire les impacts négatifs des systèmes agricoles, la transition agroécologique appelle en premier lieu à l’utilisation d’une plus grande biodiversité cultivée. Une telle diversification peut être conduite à l'échelle de la parcelle, en associant différentes espèces, ou différentes variétés d'une même espèce. Nous abordons les avantages de cette diversification intra-parcellaire, en développant 5 exemples : (1) les mélanges variétaux de blé en France, (2) les populations de riz au YuanYang, (3) le colza associé à des plantes de services, (4) les mélanges d’espèces fourragères et (5) les associations céréales-légumineuses à graines. Nous discutons des avantages conférés par cette diversification sur : (i) l’optimisation et la stabilisation des productions, (ii) les interactions avec les pratiques culturales, (iii) la sélection variétale, et (iv) l’impact de ces peuplements et pratiques sur la biodiversité sauvage associée.

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    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Issanchou, Sylvie;

    National audience; Le projet européen HabEat (2010-2014), coordonné par l’Inra de Dijon et réunissant 10 partenaires, nous a aidé à mieux comprendre comment les comportements alimentaires et les préférences alimentaires se forment durant les premières années de la vie.

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    Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Issanchou, Sylvie;
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    Authors: Jérôme Creel; Paul Hubert; Fabien Labondance;

    This paper aims at establishing the link between economic performance, financial depth and financial stability in the European Union from 1998 to 2011. We use the standard framework - both in terms of variables and econometric method - of Beck and Levine (2004) to estimate these relationships. Our results suggest that the traditional result that financial depth positively influences economic performance (or components of aggregate dynamics like consumption, investment or disposable income) is not confirmed for European countries. Furthermore, we use different measures of financial instability (institutional index, microeconomic indicators, and our own statistical index derived from a Principal Component Analysis) and find that financial instability has a negative effect on economic growth.

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    Authors: Burnel, Laurent; Gauthier, Guillaume; Willm, Jerome; Heintz, Wilfried; +1 Authors

    National audience; Étudier le fonctionnement des écosystèmes requiert l’utilisation d’un échantillon suffisamment représentatif pour mettre en évidence des patrons généraux. Travailler à l’échelle d’un territoire de plusieurs milliers d’hectares devient alors intéressant mais coûteux en temps de préparation des placettes expérimentales in situ. Le système d’information géographique (SIG), de plus en plus utilisé en appui aux travaux menés en écologie, peut alors devenir un outil indispensable pour le travail en amont des relevés sur le terrain. A partir d’un cas d’étude où l’objectif expérimental était de sélectionner des placettes forestières selon quatre modalités écologiques, cet article présente la complémentarité entre l’utilisation d’un SIG et la prospection sur le terrain afin de minimiser les coûts de préparation de l’échantillon de placettes forestières souhaitées.

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    Authors: Sagnard, Maxime; Berthe, Laurent; ECAULT, Romain; Touchard, Fabienne; +1 Authors

    International audience

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2017
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    Authors: Belghit, Khadidja Ikram;

    Très peu de données sont aujourd’hui disponibles sur le rôle des nutriments et de leurs interactions in vivo dans la régulation de l’autophagie. L'objectif principal de cette thèse était donc d’étudier l’effet de la qualité nutritionnelle de l’aliment sur le contrôle de cette fonction cellulaire. Une première étude a permis de montrer que les différents ratios en protéines et en glucides influencent significativement les mécanismes de contrôle de l’autophagie dans le muscle de truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ces résultats ont été renforcés par une étude sur culture primaire de myoblaste de truite montrant que l’addition d’acides aminés dans le milieu de culture inhibe l’autophagie alors que le glucose à un effet inverse (article 1). Une seconde étude a porté sur la fraction protéique de l’aliment et notamment sur la teneur en méthionine, dont le niveau est trop faible dans les aliments pour poissons à base de végétaux. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que la machinerie autophagosomale mais également les principaux facteurs du renouvellement des protéines musculaires sont sensible aux variations de la teneur en méthionine de l’aliment et que la réponse qui en résulte peut fortement affecter la croissance (article 2). L’ensemble des données obtenues dans les deux premières études reposaient sur la mesure du taux d’un marqueur de l’autophagie (LC3-II) qui est à la fois produite et dégradée au cours du processus (flux) autophagique. Ainsi, dans l’optique de préciser les résultats obtenus dans les deux premiers articles, une troisième étude a été effectuée afin de déterminer s’il est possible de bloquer le flux autophagique dans le muscle de truite par l’emploi de différents agents pharmacologiques (inhibiteurs du flux autophagique). Il s’agissait également de déterminer les limites de l’utilisation de tels inhibiteurs chez cette espèce. Les essais effectués n’ont pas permis de mesurer le flux autophagique dans le muscle. En revanche, l’injection intrapéritonéale de colchicine a bien bloqué le flux autophagique dans le foie, ouvrant ainsi un nouveau champ d’investigations sur le rôle de l’autophagie dans le métabolisme intermédiaire. En conclusion, l’ensemble de ces travaux montre que l’autophagie n’est pas uniquement sensible à l’état nutritionnel (jeûne/nourris) mais également à la nature des aliments consommés. Outre leurs intérêts agronomique et thérapeutique, ces résultats ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives pour une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes d’action de l’autophagie au niveau cellulaire et métabolique mais également de son rôle dans l’adaptation des espèces au cours l’évolution Few data has been published on the role of nutrients and their interactions in vivo in the regulation of autophagy. The main objective of this thesis was therefore to characterize the response of the autophagic/lysosomal pathway to the macronutrients composition of the diets. The first study showed that different ratio of proteins and carbohydrates in the diet significantly affect the controls of autophagy in the muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These results were strengthened by study on primary culture of trout myoblasts showing that the addition of amino acids in cell culture medium inhibited the formation of autophagosomes, whereas the addition of glucose had an opposite effect (paper 1). A second study focused on the protein fraction of the diet and specifically on the content of methionine, whose the levels are low in fish feed plant-based diets. The obtained results showed that both autophagy machinery and the main factors of muscle protein turnover are significantly sensitive to change in dietary methionine levels and the resulting response may strongly affect growth and feed utilization (paper 2). The data obtained in these two first studies were based on measuring the level of autophagy marker (LC3-II), which is both produced and degraded during autophagic (flux) process. Thus, in view to clarify the results obtained in the two first studies, we conducted a third study to determine whether it is possible to block the autophagic flux in trout muscle by using different lysosomotropic agents (autophagic flux inhibitors). The objective was also to determine the limits of autophagic flux inhibitors utilisation in vivo. Different tests failed to measure autophagic flux in the muscle of rainbow trout. In contrast, intraperitoneal injection of colchicine blocked the autophagic flux in the liver. This study allowed us to investigate the function of autophagy in the intermediary metabolism. In conclusion, these studies show that autophagy is not only sensitive to the nutritional status (fasting/fed) but also to the nature of the consumed diets. In addition to their therapeutic and agricultural interests, these results open new perspectives to better understand the mechanisms of autophagy at metabolic and cellular level but also its role in the adaptation of species during evolution.

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    Authors: Lévy, Léa;

    The electrical signature of volcanoes is affected by several characteristics of rocks: volume and salinity of pore fluid, abundance of conductive minerals, rock temperature and presence of molten crust (magma). Electromagnetic soundings are widely used to image the underground structure of volcanoes and look for high-temperature geothermal resources. However, the relative contribution of the above-mentioned elements to the measured resistivity is often an unsolved question when interpreting resistivity inversions. This thesis aims at improving the interpretation of electrical resistivity structures at active volcanoes, in order to develop innovative tools for the assessment of high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Focus is on conductive minerals, which can either be solid ionic conductors (clay minerals, in particular smectite) or electronic semi-conductors (pyrite and iron-oxides). Also investigated are the effects of porosity, salinity, temperature and melting. Iron-oxides are mostly formed during the primary crystallization of magma, while smectite and pyrite are formed upon hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks, thereby witnessing hydrothermal convections. Krafla volcano, Iceland, is used as a laboratory area, where extensive literature, borehole data, core samples, surface soundings and infrastructures are available. The contribution of smectite to the electrical conductivity of volcanic samples saturated with pore water at different salinity is first investigated in the laboratory (room temperature) by electrical impedance spectroscopy, also called complex resistivity. Non-linear variations of the conductivity at 1 kHz with salinity are observed and interfoliar conduction is suggested as an important mechanism by which smectite conducts electrical current. The influence of pyrite and iron-oxides on the charge-storage (capacitive) properties of the rock is then analyzed, using the frequency-dependent phase-angle of the impedance. Maximum phase-angle (MPA) higher than 20 mrad can be attributed to pyrite if the rock is conductive and to iron-oxides if the rock is resistive. Moreover, the MPA increases by about 22 mrad for each additional volumetric per cent of pyrite or iron-oxide. These laboratory frequency-domain findings are partly upscaled to interpret field time-domain complex resistivity tomography at Krafla: smectite, pyrite and iron-oxides can be identified down to about 200 m with the measurements carried out. The in-situ temperature, higher than in laboratory conditions, appears to significantly increase the conductivity associated to smectite. In general, time-domain complex resistivity measurements are recommended as a complementary method to electromagnetic soundings for geothermal exploration. Rafeiginleikar bergs, bæði eðlisviðnám og fasvik, á eldfjallasvæðum eru m.a. háðir póruhluta (holrýmd) bergs, styrk uppleystra jóna í póruvökvanum (seltu), magni rafleiðandi steinda í berginu, hita þess og hvort það er bráðið eða storkið. Rafsegulmælingar eru notaðar til þess að skoða innri gerð eldfjalla og kanna háhitasvæði með því að búa til viðnámslíkön af þeim. Túlkun þeirra er oft flókin og vandasamt er að greina á milli fyrrnefndra þátta sem hafa áhrif á eðlisviðnám og fasa. Þessari ritgerð er ætlað að auka skilning á eðlisviðnámi jarðlaga í virkum eldstöðvum í því skyni að þróa þá tækni sem notuð er til þess að meta stærð og eiginleika háhitasvæða. Ritgerðin fjallar einkum um rafleiðandi steindir, sem eru annað hvort málmleiðarar (leirsteindir, einkum smektít) eða hálfleiðarar (pýrít og járnoxíð). Einnig eru rannsökuð áhrif póruhluta, styrks jóna í póruvökva, hita og bráðnunar bergs. Járnoxíð eru að mestu frumsteindir, þ.e.a.s. þau kristallast þegar bergkvikan kólnar. Smektít og pýrít myndast hins vegar sem útfellingar eða við ummyndun og bera vitni um hringrás jarðhitavökva. Notuð eru gögn frá eldstöðvakerfi Kröflu en þar eru til miklar heimildir eins og borholugögn, borkjarnar og yfirborðsmælingar og góð aðstaða til rannsókna. Áhrif smektíts í bergi á eðlisviðnám bergsýna voru mæld við stofuhita í tilraunastofu. Pórur þeirra voru mettaðar vökva með breytilegum styrk jóna og áhrifin könnuð með litrófsmælingu á eðlisviðnámi og fasa (tvinntöluviðnám). Niðurstöður sýna ólínulegar breytingar í viðnámi við 1 kHz tíðni sem fall af seltu vökvans. Sú tilgáta er sett fram að leiðni milli atómlaga í kristöllum, interfoliar conduction, eigi mikilvægan þátt í rafleiðni smektíts. Áhrif pýríts- og járnoxíðsteinda á rafrýmd bergs var könnuð með því að skoða hvernig fasahorn tvinntöluviðnáms er háð tíðni. Ef hámark fasahornsins (MPA) er stærra en 20 mrad stafar það af tilvist pýríts ef bergið er velleiðandi en járnoxíða ef bergið er torleiðandi. Þá eykst MPA um 22 mrad við hverja prósentu-aukningu í rúmmáli pýrits- eða járnoxíðsteinda. Þessar niðurstöður úr tilraunastofumælingum á tíðniháðu tvinntöluviðnámi voru nýttar til þess að túlka yfirborðsmælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi á Kröflusvæðinu. Tvinntöluviðnámslíkan frá Kröflusvæðinu sýnir að greina má tilvist smektíts, pýríts og járnoxíðs niður á um 200 m dýpi í mælingunum sem gerðar voru. Hiti jarðlaga, sem er hærri en í tilraunastofumælingum, virðist hækka verulega leiðni bergs sem inniheldur smektít. Lagt er til að mælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi verði notaðar til viðbótar við hefðbundnar rafleiðnimælingar við jarðhitarannsóknir vegna þeirra viðbótarupplýsinga sem fást með slíkum mælingum. Paris Sciences et Lettres; IMAGE FP7 European Project (grant agreement 608553); GEMex H2020 European Project (grant agreement 727550). Final thesis

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    Opin visindi
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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    Authors: Navez, Brigitte; Cottet, Valentine; Tisiot, Raphael; Causse, Mathilde; +1 Authors

    Événement(s) lié(s) : - La journée de l'innovation serre; Carquefou (FRA) - (2016-09-15 - 2016-09-15); National audience

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    Research . 2016
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      Research . 2016
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    Authors: Bugeon, Jérôme; Joret, Léa; Aubin, Joel; Colson, Violaine; +6 Authors

    ATOL : Animal Trait Ontology for Livestock EOL : Environment Ontology for LivestockATOL : Animal Trait Ontology for LivestockEOL : Environment Ontology for Livestock; absent

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    Conference object . 2014
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    Authors: Enjalbert, Jerome; Litrico, Isabelle; Fournier, Elisabeth; Médiène, Safia; +13 Authors

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019.article issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/CIAg-Environnement/Biodiversite-et-agricultures; To reduce the negative impacts of agricultural systems, the agro-ecological transition first calls for the use of greater cultivated biodiversity. Such diversification can be implemented at the field scale, mixing different species, or different varieties of the same species. We discuss the advantages of this intra-field diversification by developing 5 examples: (1) varietal mixtures of wheat in France, (2) rice populations in YuanYang, (3) oilseed rape associated with service plants, (4) mixtures of forage species and (5) cereal and legume intercrops for grain production. We discuss the benefits conferred by this diversification on: (i) optimization and stabilization of production, (ii) interactions with cultural practices, (iii) breeding activity, and (iv) the impact of these stands and practices on associated wild biodiversity.; Pour réduire les impacts négatifs des systèmes agricoles, la transition agroécologique appelle en premier lieu à l’utilisation d’une plus grande biodiversité cultivée. Une telle diversification peut être conduite à l'échelle de la parcelle, en associant différentes espèces, ou différentes variétés d'une même espèce. Nous abordons les avantages de cette diversification intra-parcellaire, en développant 5 exemples : (1) les mélanges variétaux de blé en France, (2) les populations de riz au YuanYang, (3) le colza associé à des plantes de services, (4) les mélanges d’espèces fourragères et (5) les associations céréales-légumineuses à graines. Nous discutons des avantages conférés par cette diversification sur : (i) l’optimisation et la stabilisation des productions, (ii) les interactions avec les pratiques culturales, (iii) la sélection variétale, et (iv) l’impact de ces peuplements et pratiques sur la biodiversité sauvage associée.

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    ProdInra
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Issanchou, Sylvie;

    National audience; Le projet européen HabEat (2010-2014), coordonné par l’Inra de Dijon et réunissant 10 partenaires, nous a aidé à mieux comprendre comment les comportements alimentaires et les préférences alimentaires se forment durant les premières années de la vie.

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    ProdInra
    Article . 2014
    License: CC BY SA
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