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    Authors: Bugeon, Jérôme; Joret, Léa; Aubin, Joel; Colson, Violaine; +6 Authors

    ATOL : Animal Trait Ontology for Livestock EOL : Environment Ontology for LivestockATOL : Animal Trait Ontology for LivestockEOL : Environment Ontology for Livestock; absent

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    Authors: Enjalbert, Jerome; Litrico, Isabelle; Fournier, Elisabeth; Médiène, Safia; +13 Authors

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019.article issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/CIAg-Environnement/Biodiversite-et-agricultures; To reduce the negative impacts of agricultural systems, the agro-ecological transition first calls for the use of greater cultivated biodiversity. Such diversification can be implemented at the field scale, mixing different species, or different varieties of the same species. We discuss the advantages of this intra-field diversification by developing 5 examples: (1) varietal mixtures of wheat in France, (2) rice populations in YuanYang, (3) oilseed rape associated with service plants, (4) mixtures of forage species and (5) cereal and legume intercrops for grain production. We discuss the benefits conferred by this diversification on: (i) optimization and stabilization of production, (ii) interactions with cultural practices, (iii) breeding activity, and (iv) the impact of these stands and practices on associated wild biodiversity.; Pour réduire les impacts négatifs des systèmes agricoles, la transition agroécologique appelle en premier lieu à l’utilisation d’une plus grande biodiversité cultivée. Une telle diversification peut être conduite à l'échelle de la parcelle, en associant différentes espèces, ou différentes variétés d'une même espèce. Nous abordons les avantages de cette diversification intra-parcellaire, en développant 5 exemples : (1) les mélanges variétaux de blé en France, (2) les populations de riz au YuanYang, (3) le colza associé à des plantes de services, (4) les mélanges d’espèces fourragères et (5) les associations céréales-légumineuses à graines. Nous discutons des avantages conférés par cette diversification sur : (i) l’optimisation et la stabilisation des productions, (ii) les interactions avec les pratiques culturales, (iii) la sélection variétale, et (iv) l’impact de ces peuplements et pratiques sur la biodiversité sauvage associée.

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    Authors: Issanchou, Sylvie;

    National audience; Le projet européen HabEat (2010-2014), coordonné par l’Inra de Dijon et réunissant 10 partenaires, nous a aidé à mieux comprendre comment les comportements alimentaires et les préférences alimentaires se forment durant les premières années de la vie.

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    Authors: Issanchou, Sylvie;
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    Authors: Mejía Herrera, Pablo Eliécer;

    L'objectif de cette thèse est d'expliquer les avantages qu'offrent la reconstruction de l'architecture des unités géologiques, leurs déformations ainsi que leurs variations au cours du temps à l'exploration de ressources minérales, tout en appliquant des méthodes et outils de modélisation 3D et 4D. La modélisation et la restauration structurale sont utilisées ici pour estimer des attributs géologiques qui peuvent aider à la compréhension de la formation des gisements, et à l'identification des zones favorables aux minéralisations. Cette thèse est axée sur l'application de la modélisation 3D et 4D à des cas réels pour trouver le lien entre une minéralisation et des processus géologiques tel que l'exhumation des terrains, l'activité des failles et la fracturation résultant d'un évènement de déformation. Ce mémoire est organisé en trois parties : (i) la modélisation structurale ainsi que la restauration surfacique ont été appliquées au district minier de la Ceinture de Cuivre de Legnica-Glogów (sud-ouest de la Pologne), pour estimer les conditions favorables à la fracturation hydraulique. Cette fracturation est intervenue dans le nord de l'Europe lors d'une phase d'inversion à la fin du Crétacé et au début du Paléocène. Dans notre hypothèse de départ, la fracturation hydraulique développée au cours de cette période a joué un rôle important dans la distribution en cuivre observée aujourd'hui dans le district minier ; (ii) la courbure des surfaces triangulées, représentant les horizons de la région des Sudètes polonaises, permet de mettre en évidence les systèmes de failles dans le socle. En particulier, des méthodes de restauration surfaciques ont été utilisées pour évaluer l'activité de des failles au cours du temps, en se basant sur la courbure des surfaces obtenues à chaque étape de la restauration. Les zones de fortes activités sont ici associées aux processus de minéralisation cuprifère de la région ; (iii) la restauration mécanique de la région de Mount Pleasant (Australie occidentale), a permis de simuler un évènement de raccourcissement apparu dans l'Archéen et qui est lié à un processus de minéralisation aurifère. La restauration mécanique est appliquée pour estimer le champ des déformations de la région au moment du raccourcissement. Avec ce champ de déformation, il est possible de calculer les paramètres d'endommagement de la masse rocheuse qui semblent liés aux zones aurifères situées hors des systèmes principaux de failles. Cette thèse a ainsi permis de mettre en évidence l'aspect prometteur de la modélisation et de la restauration structurale pour identifier des zones potentiellement minéralisées, mettant en valeur leur utilisation pour l'exploration des gisements et des ressources minérales The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to apply 3D and 4D modeling methods to reconstruct the architecture and deformations over time of geological entities in a defined region. Structural restoration modeling is used here to estimate geological, physical and structural attributes for understanding the origin of ore-deposits, and for identifying potential mineralized areas. We focused this thesis on 3D and 4D modeling on real case studies with different geological contexts (e.g. uplifting, fault activity and shortening), demonstrating the advantages and drawbacks on their use for similar situations. This thesis is organized into three parts: (i) the application of structural modeling in the mining district of the Copper Belt of Legnica-Glogów (south-west Poland). A surface-restoration approach was applied to estimate favorable conditions for hydraulic fracturing during an inversion, occurred in the northern part of Europe at Late Cretaceous--Early Paleocene. In our hypothesis, hydraulic fracturing developed at that time played an important role in the distribution of copper content observed in present days in the mining district. (ii) The curvature calculated on triangulated surfaces that represent the stratigraphic horizons in the Fore-Sudetic region (Poland), are used to highlight the fault systems in the basement as well as their activity. High curvature values reveal the fault activity which is associated with the copper mineralization process in the region. (iii) Mechanical restoration of the Mount Pleasant, Western Australia, simulates an Archean shortening event which occurred in the area linked to the gold mineralization process. The mechanical restoration was used to estimate the strain field in the region at the time of shortening. This deformation field was used to estimate the damage parameters of the rock mass. They show new potential gold areas located in off-fault gold systems. In conclusion, it is shown that 3D modeling and structural restoration could be used to identify potential favorable zones for the presence of mineralization, and seem promising as a tool for the exploration of ore-deposits and mineral resources

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    Authors: MADEC, Camille;

    This INCOVER presentation was given by OIEau during CYCL’EAU show in Bordeaux, in April 2019. This show was an opportunity to meet water stakeholders of Adour-Garonne region. Public and private utilities attended this show, as well as technology providers, etc. This presentation introduces each technology developed within INCOVER project, according to the kind of bioproducts obtained.

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    Presentation . 2019
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    Authors: Laurendeau, Aurore;

    L'objectif de cette thèse vise à améliorer la définition des vibrations (« mouvement sismique ») sur des sites « durs » (sédiments raides ou rochers) liés à des scénarios (séismes de magnitude entre 5 et 6.5, distances inférieures à 50 kilomètres) représentatifs du contexte métropolitain français. Afin de contraindre ces mouvements sismiques sur sites « durs », une base de données accélérométriques a été construite, à partir des enregistrements accélérométriques japonais K-NET et KiK-net qui ont l'avantage d'être publiques, nombreux et de grande qualité. Un modèle de prédiction des mouvements sismiques (spectre de réponse en accélération) a été conçu à partir de cette nouvelle base. La comparaison entre modèles théoriques et observations montre la dépendance des vibrations sur sites rocheux à la fois aux caractéristiques de vitesse du site (paramètre classique décrivant la vitesse des ondes S dans les 30 derniers mètres) et aux mécanismes d'atténuation hautes fréquences (un phénomène très peu étudié jusque-là). Ces résultats confirment une corrélation entre ces deux mécanismes (les sites rocheux les plus mous atténuent plus le mouvement sismique à hautes fréquences) et nous proposons un modèle de prédiction du mouvement sismique prenant en compte l'ensemble des propriétés du site (atténuation et vitesse). Les méthodes nouvelles de dimensionnement dynamiques non linéaires (à la fois géotechniques et structurelles) ne se satisfont pas des spectres de réponse mais requièrent des traces temporelles. Dans le but de générer de telles traces temporelles, la méthode stochastique non stationnaire développée antérieurement par Pousse et al. 2006 a été revisitée. Cette méthode semi-empirique nécessite de définir au préalable les distributions des indicateurs clés du mouvement sismique. Nous avons ainsi développé des modèles de prédiction empiriques pour la durée de phase forte, l'intensité d'Arias et la fréquence centrale, paramètre décrivant la variation du contenu fréquentiel au cours du temps. Les nouveaux développements de la méthode stochastique permettent de reproduire des traces temporelles sur une large bande de fréquences (0.1-50 Hz), de reproduire la non stationnarité en temps et en fréquence et la variabilité naturelle des vibrations sismiques. Cette méthode présente l'avantage d'être simple, rapide d'exécution et de considérer les bases théoriques de la sismologie (source de Brune, une enveloppe temporelle réaliste, non stationnarité et variabilité du mouvement sismique). Dans les études de génie parasismique, un nombre réduit de traces temporelles est sélectionné, et nous analysons dans une dernière partie l'impact de cette sélection sur la conservation de la variabilité naturelle des mouvements sismiques. The aim of this thesis is to improve the definition of vibrations ("seismic motion") on "hard" sites (hard soils or rocks) related to scenarios (earthquakes of magnitude between 5 and 6.5, distances less than 50 km) representative of the French metropolitan context.In order to constrain the seismic motions on "hard" sites, an accelerometric database was built, from the K-NET and KiK-net Japanese recordings which have the benefit of being public, numerous and high quality. A ground motion prediction equation for the acceleration response spectra was developed from this new database. The comparison between theoretical models and observations shows the dependence of vibration on rock sites in both the velocity characteristics of the site (classical parameter describing the S-wave velocity in the last 30 meters) and the high frequency attenuation mechanisms (a phenomenon little studied up to now). These results confirm a correlation between these two mechanisms (the high frequency seismic motion is more attenuated in the case of softer rock sites) and we propose a ground motion prediction equation taking into account all the properties of the site (attenuation and velocity).New methods of nonlinear dynamic analysis (both geotechnical and structural) are not satisfied with the response spectra but require time histories. To generate such time histories, the non-stationary stochastic method previously developed by Pousse et al. (2006) has been revisited. This semi-empirical method requires first to define the distributions of key indicators of seismic motion. We have developed empirical models for predicting the duration, the Arias intensity and the central frequency, parameter describing the frequency content variation over time. New developments of the stochastic method allow to reproduce time histories over a wide frequency band (0.1-50 Hz), to reproduce the non-stationarity in time and frequency and to reproduce the natural variability of seismic vibrations. This method has the advantage of being simple, fast and taking into account basic concepts of seismology (Brune's source, a realistic envelope function, non-stationarity and variability of seismic motion). In earthquake engineering studies, a small number of time histories is selected, and we analyze in the last part the impact of this selection on the conservation of the ground motion natural variability.

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    Authors: Chênais, Nathalie; Nóbrega, Rafael; Thomas, Manon; Porcon, Béatrice; +6 Authors

    National audience; Les mécanismes impliqués dans le renouvèlement des cellules germinales souches chez les mâles immatures ou chez les individus adultes sexuellement matures restent très mal connus, en particulier chez les poissons. La production d'organoïdes testiculaires est une approche de choix pour étudier les interactions moléculaires entre les cellules somatiques et les cellules germinales ainsi que les modes de divisions symétriques et/ou asymétriques des cellules souches germinales. En effet, au contraire des cultures 2D, les organoïdes pourraient permettre de reproduire une niche germinale plus proche de celle rencontrée in vivo.

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    Authors: Jérôme Creel; Paul Hubert; Fabien Labondance;

    This paper aims at establishing the link between economic performance, financial depth and financial stability in the European Union from 1998 to 2011. We use the standard framework - both in terms of variables and econometric method - of Beck and Levine (2004) to estimate these relationships. Our results suggest that the traditional result that financial depth positively influences economic performance (or components of aggregate dynamics like consumption, investment or disposable income) is not confirmed for European countries. Furthermore, we use different measures of financial instability (institutional index, microeconomic indicators, and our own statistical index derived from a Principal Component Analysis) and find that financial instability has a negative effect on economic growth.

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    Authors: Enjalbert, J.; Litrico, I.; Fournier, E.; Médiène, S.; +13 Authors
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    Authors: Bugeon, Jérôme; Joret, Léa; Aubin, Joel; Colson, Violaine; +6 Authors

    ATOL : Animal Trait Ontology for Livestock EOL : Environment Ontology for LivestockATOL : Animal Trait Ontology for LivestockEOL : Environment Ontology for Livestock; absent

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    Authors: Enjalbert, Jerome; Litrico, Isabelle; Fournier, Elisabeth; Médiène, Safia; +13 Authors

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019.article issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/CIAg-Environnement/Biodiversite-et-agricultures; To reduce the negative impacts of agricultural systems, the agro-ecological transition first calls for the use of greater cultivated biodiversity. Such diversification can be implemented at the field scale, mixing different species, or different varieties of the same species. We discuss the advantages of this intra-field diversification by developing 5 examples: (1) varietal mixtures of wheat in France, (2) rice populations in YuanYang, (3) oilseed rape associated with service plants, (4) mixtures of forage species and (5) cereal and legume intercrops for grain production. We discuss the benefits conferred by this diversification on: (i) optimization and stabilization of production, (ii) interactions with cultural practices, (iii) breeding activity, and (iv) the impact of these stands and practices on associated wild biodiversity.; Pour réduire les impacts négatifs des systèmes agricoles, la transition agroécologique appelle en premier lieu à l’utilisation d’une plus grande biodiversité cultivée. Une telle diversification peut être conduite à l'échelle de la parcelle, en associant différentes espèces, ou différentes variétés d'une même espèce. Nous abordons les avantages de cette diversification intra-parcellaire, en développant 5 exemples : (1) les mélanges variétaux de blé en France, (2) les populations de riz au YuanYang, (3) le colza associé à des plantes de services, (4) les mélanges d’espèces fourragères et (5) les associations céréales-légumineuses à graines. Nous discutons des avantages conférés par cette diversification sur : (i) l’optimisation et la stabilisation des productions, (ii) les interactions avec les pratiques culturales, (iii) la sélection variétale, et (iv) l’impact de ces peuplements et pratiques sur la biodiversité sauvage associée.

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    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Issanchou, Sylvie;

    National audience; Le projet européen HabEat (2010-2014), coordonné par l’Inra de Dijon et réunissant 10 partenaires, nous a aidé à mieux comprendre comment les comportements alimentaires et les préférences alimentaires se forment durant les premières années de la vie.

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    Article . 2014
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    Authors: Issanchou, Sylvie;
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    Authors: Mejía Herrera, Pablo Eliécer;

    L'objectif de cette thèse est d'expliquer les avantages qu'offrent la reconstruction de l'architecture des unités géologiques, leurs déformations ainsi que leurs variations au cours du temps à l'exploration de ressources minérales, tout en appliquant des méthodes et outils de modélisation 3D et 4D. La modélisation et la restauration structurale sont utilisées ici pour estimer des attributs géologiques qui peuvent aider à la compréhension de la formation des gisements, et à l'identification des zones favorables aux minéralisations. Cette thèse est axée sur l'application de la modélisation 3D et 4D à des cas réels pour trouver le lien entre une minéralisation et des processus géologiques tel que l'exhumation des terrains, l'activité des failles et la fracturation résultant d'un évènement de déformation. Ce mémoire est organisé en trois parties : (i) la modélisation structurale ainsi que la restauration surfacique ont été appliquées au district minier de la Ceinture de Cuivre de Legnica-Glogów (sud-ouest de la Pologne), pour estimer les conditions favorables à la fracturation hydraulique. Cette fracturation est intervenue dans le nord de l'Europe lors d'une phase d'inversion à la fin du Crétacé et au début du Paléocène. Dans notre hypothèse de départ, la fracturation hydraulique développée au cours de cette période a joué un rôle important dans la distribution en cuivre observée aujourd'hui dans le district minier ; (ii) la courbure des surfaces triangulées, représentant les horizons de la région des Sudètes polonaises, permet de mettre en évidence les systèmes de failles dans le socle. En particulier, des méthodes de restauration surfaciques ont été utilisées pour évaluer l'activité de des failles au cours du temps, en se basant sur la courbure des surfaces obtenues à chaque étape de la restauration. Les zones de fortes activités sont ici associées aux processus de minéralisation cuprifère de la région ; (iii) la restauration mécanique de la région de Mount Pleasant (Australie occidentale), a permis de simuler un évènement de raccourcissement apparu dans l'Archéen et qui est lié à un processus de minéralisation aurifère. La restauration mécanique est appliquée pour estimer le champ des déformations de la région au moment du raccourcissement. Avec ce champ de déformation, il est possible de calculer les paramètres d'endommagement de la masse rocheuse qui semblent liés aux zones aurifères situées hors des systèmes principaux de failles. Cette thèse a ainsi permis de mettre en évidence l'aspect prometteur de la modélisation et de la restauration structurale pour identifier des zones potentiellement minéralisées, mettant en valeur leur utilisation pour l'exploration des gisements et des ressources minérales The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to apply 3D and 4D modeling methods to reconstruct the architecture and deformations over time of geological entities in a defined region. Structural restoration modeling is used here to estimate geological, physical and structural attributes for understanding the origin of ore-deposits, and for identifying potential mineralized areas. We focused this thesis on 3D and 4D modeling on real case studies with different geological contexts (e.g. uplifting, fault activity and shortening), demonstrating the advantages and drawbacks on their use for similar situations. This thesis is organized into three parts: (i) the application of structural modeling in the mining district of the Copper Belt of Legnica-Glogów (south-west Poland). A surface-restoration approach was applied to estimate favorable conditions for hydraulic fracturing during an inversion, occurred in the northern part of Europe at Late Cretaceous--Early Paleocene. In our hypothesis, hydraulic fracturing developed at that time played an important role in the distribution of copper content observed in present days in the mining district. (ii) The curvature calculated on triangulated surfaces that represent the stratigraphic horizons in the Fore-Sudetic region (Poland), are used to highlight the fault systems in the basement as well as their activity. High curvature values reveal the fault activity which is associated with the copper mineralization process in the region. (iii) Mechanical restoration of the Mount Pleasant, Western Australia, simulates an Archean shortening event which occurred in the area linked to the gold mineralization process. The mechanical restoration was used to estimate the strain field in the region at the time of shortening. This deformation field was used to estimate the damage parameters of the rock mass. They show new potential gold areas located in off-fault gold systems. In conclusion, it is shown that 3D modeling and structural restoration could be used to identify potential favorable zones for the presence of mineralization, and seem promising as a tool for the exploration of ore-deposits and mineral resources

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    Authors: MADEC, Camille;

    This INCOVER presentation was given by OIEau during CYCL’EAU show in Bordeaux, in April 2019. This show was an opportunity to meet water stakeholders of Adour-Garonne region. Public and private utilities attended this show, as well as technology providers, etc. This presentation introduces each technology developed within INCOVER project, according to the kind of bioproducts obtained.

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    Authors: Laurendeau, Aurore;

    L'objectif de cette thèse vise à améliorer la définition des vibrations (« mouvement sismique ») sur des sites « durs » (sédiments raides ou rochers) liés à des scénarios (séismes de magnitude entre 5 et 6.5, distances inférieures à 50 kilomètres) représentatifs du contexte métropolitain français. Afin de contraindre ces mouvements sismiques sur sites « durs », une base de données accélérométriques a été construite, à partir des enregistrements accélérométriques japonais K-NET et KiK-net qui ont l'avantage d'être publiques, nombreux et de grande qualité. Un modèle de prédiction des mouvements sismiques (spectre de réponse en accélération) a été conçu à partir de cette nouvelle base. La comparaison entre modèles théoriques et observations montre la dépendance des vibrations sur sites rocheux à la fois aux caractéristiques de vitesse du site (paramètre classique décrivant la vitesse des ondes S dans les 30 derniers mètres) et aux mécanismes d'atténuation hautes fréquences (un phénomène très peu étudié jusque-là). Ces résultats confirment une corrélation entre ces deux mécanismes (les sites rocheux les plus mous atténuent plus le mouvement sismique à hautes fréquences) et nous proposons un modèle de prédiction du mouvement sismique prenant en compte l'ensemble des propriétés du site (atténuation et vitesse). Les méthodes nouvelles de dimensionnement dynamiques non linéaires (à la fois géotechniques et structurelles) ne se satisfont pas des spectres de réponse mais requièrent des traces temporelles. Dans le but de générer de telles traces temporelles, la méthode stochastique non stationnaire développée antérieurement par Pousse et al. 2006 a été revisitée. Cette méthode semi-empirique nécessite de définir au préalable les distributions des indicateurs clés du mouvement sismique. Nous avons ainsi développé des modèles de prédiction empiriques pour la durée de phase forte, l'intensité d'Arias et la fréquence centrale, paramètre décrivant la variation du contenu fréquentiel au cours du temps. Les nouveaux développements de la méthode stochastique permettent de reproduire des traces temporelles sur une large bande de fréquences (0.1-50 Hz), de reproduire la non stationnarité en temps et en fréquence et la variabilité naturelle des vibrations sismiques. Cette méthode présente l'avantage d'être simple, rapide d'exécution et de considérer les bases théoriques de la sismologie (source de Brune, une enveloppe temporelle réaliste, non stationnarité et variabilité du mouvement sismique). Dans les études de génie parasismique, un nombre réduit de traces temporelles est sélectionné, et nous analysons dans une dernière partie l'impact de cette sélection sur la conservation de la variabilité naturelle des mouvements sismiques. The aim of this thesis is to improve the definition of vibrations ("seismic motion") on "hard" sites (hard soils or rocks) related to scenarios (earthquakes of magnitude between 5 and 6.5, distances less than 50 km) representative of the French metropolitan context.In order to constrain the seismic motions on "hard" sites, an accelerometric database was built, from the K-NET and KiK-net Japanese recordings which have the benefit of being public, numerous and high quality. A ground motion prediction equation for the acceleration response spectra was developed from this new database. The comparison between theoretical models and observations shows the dependence of vibration on rock sites in both the velocity characteristics of the site (classical parameter describing the S-wave velocity in the last 30 meters) and the high frequency attenuation mechanisms (a phenomenon little studied up to now). These results confirm a correlation between these two mechanisms (the high frequency seismic motion is more attenuated in the case of softer rock sites) and we propose a ground motion prediction equation taking into account all the properties of the site (attenuation and velocity).New methods of nonlinear dynamic analysis (both geotechnical and structural) are not satisfied with the response spectra but require time histories. To generate such time histories, the non-stationary stochastic method previously developed by Pousse et al. (2006) has been revisited. This semi-empirical method requires first to define the distributions of key indicators of seismic motion. We have developed empirical models for predicting the duration, the Arias intensity and the central frequency, parameter describing the frequency content variation over time. New developments of the stochastic method allow to reproduce time histories over a wide frequency band (0.1-50 Hz), to reproduce the non-stationarity in time and frequency and to reproduce the natural variability of seismic vibrations. This method has the advantage of being simple, fast and taking into account basic concepts of seismology (Brune's source, a realistic envelope function, non-stationarity and variability of seismic motion). In earthquake engineering studies, a small number of time histories is selected, and we analyze in the last part the impact of this selection on the conservation of the ground motion natural variability.

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