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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marta Coll; Lynne J. Shannon; Kristin M. Kleisner; M. J. Juan-Jorda; +34 Authors

    IndiSeas (>Indicators for the Seas>) is a collaborative international working group that was established in 2005 to evaluate the status of exploited marine ecosystems using a suite of indicators in a comparative framework. An initial shortlist of seven ecological indicators was selected to quantify the effects of fishing on the broader ecosystem using several criteria (i.e., ecological meaning, sensitivity to fishing, data availability, management objectives and public awareness). The suite comprised: (i) the inverse coefficient of variation of total biomass of surveyed species, (ii) mean fish length in the surveyed community, (iii) mean maximum life span of surveyed fish species, (iv) proportion of predatory fish in the surveyed community, (v) proportion of under and moderately exploited stocks, (vi) total biomass of surveyed species, and (vii) mean trophic level of the landed catch. In line with the Nagoya Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2011-2020), we extended this suite to emphasize the broader biodiversity and conservation risks in exploited marine ecosystems. We selected a subset of indicators from a list of empirically based candidate biodiversity indicators initially established based on ecological significance to complement the original IndiSeas indicators. The additional selected indicators were: (viii) mean intrinsic vulnerability index of the fish landed catch, (ix) proportion of non-declining exploited species in the surveyed community, (x) catch-based marine trophic index, and (xi) mean trophic level of the surveyed community. Despite the lack of data in some ecosystems, we also selected (xii) mean trophic level of the modelled community, and (xiii) proportion of discards in the fishery as extra indicators. These additional indicators were examined, along with the initial set of IndiSeas ecological indicators, to evaluate whether adding new biodiversity indicators provided useful additional information to refine our understanding of the status evaluation of 29 exploited marine ecosystems. We used state and trend analyses, and we performed correlation, redundancy and multivariate tests. Existing developments in ecosystem-based fisheries management have largely focused on exploited species. Our study, using mostly fisheries independent survey-based indicators, highlights that biodiversity and conservation-based indicators are complementary to ecological indicators of fishing pressure. Thus, they should be used to provide additional information to evaluate the overall impact of fishing on exploited marine ecosystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved We thank the Euroceans IndiSeas Working Group funded by the European Network of Excellence EUR-OCEANS (FP6, Contract N° 511106), the European collaborative project MEECE – Marine Ecosystem Evolution in a Changing Environment (FP7, Contract N° 212085) and IRD (Institute of Research for Development) and IOC/UNESCO. [...] MC was partially funded by the European Commission through the Marie Curie Career Integration Grant Fellowships – PCIG10-GA-2011-303534 – to the BIOWEB project and by the Spanish National Program Ramon y Cajal. LJS was supported through the South African Research Chair Initiative, funded through the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) and administered by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF). LJS and YS were also funded by the European collaborative project MEECE – Marine Ecosystem Evolution in a Changing Environment – (FP7, Contract N° 212085). KMK was supported by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center and the Nature Conservancy through a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. MJJJ was supported by an EU Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship – PIOF-GA-2013-628116. MFB was supported by the Portuguese Oceanic and Atmospheric Institute and the trawl survey data collected under Biological Sampling (PNAB) Program. LJG would like to thank the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission for support. HO was financed by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (Grant SF0180005s10). JJH was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs [Grant Number NE/L003279/1, Marine Ecosystems Research Programme]. GIvdM was supported by the Institute of Marine Research, Norway. KT was partially funded by the project PERSEUS (Policy-oriented marine Environmental Research in the Southern EUropean Seas; FP7 Contract N° 287600). MAT was funded by the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) through a Predoctoral FPI fellowship. KNM was supported by a National Research Council fellowship at the Northwest Fishery Science Center. YJS and MTT were partially supported by the French project EMIBIOS (FRB, Contract No. APP-SCEN-2010-II). Chatham Rise trawl survey data were provided by the Ministry for Primary Industries. CL acknowledges DEVOTES – Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status – EC project (FP7 Grant Agreement 308392) Coll, Marta ... et al.-- 16 pages, 6 figures, 6 tables Peer Reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2016
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      Other literature type . 2016
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      Ecological Indicators
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: David Leclère; Michael Obersteiner; M. Barrett; Stuart H. M. Butchart; +54 Authors

    Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether—and how—humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could become positive by the mid-twenty-first century on average across models (confidence interval, 2042–2061), but this was not the case for all models. Food prices could increase and, on average across models, almost half (confidence interval, 34–50%) of the future biodiversity losses could not be avoided. However, additionally tackling the drivers of land-use change could avoid conflict with affordable food provision and reduces the environmental effects of the food-provision system. Through further sustainable intensification and trade, reduced food waste and more plant-based human diets, more than two thirds of future biodiversity losses are avoided and the biodiversity trends from habitat conversion are reversed by 2050 for almost all of the models. Although limiting further loss will remain challenging in several biodiversity-rich regions, and other threats—such as climate change—must be addressed to truly reverse the declines in biodiversity, our results show that ambitious conservation efforts and food system transformation are central to an effective post-2020 biodiversity strategy. To promote the recovery of the currently declining global trends in terrestrial biodiversity, increases in both the extent of land under conservation management and the sustainability of the global food system from farm to fork are required.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2020
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2020
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    Nature
    Article . 2020
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    Nature
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    IIASA PURE
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Nature
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2020
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Nature
    Article . 2018
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2020
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      IIASA PURE
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2020
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      Nature
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Tim Cowan; Gabriele C. Hegerl; Andrew Schurer; Simon F. B. Tett; +6 Authors

    The severe drought of the 1930s Dust Bowl decade coincided with record-breaking summer heatwaves that contributed to the socio-economic and ecological disaster over North America’s Great Plains. It remains unresolved to what extent these exceptional heatwaves, hotter than in historically forced coupled climate model simulations, were forced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and exacerbated through human-induced deterioration of land cover. Here we show, using an atmospheric-only model, that anomalously warm North Atlantic SSTs enhance heatwave activity through an association with drier spring conditions resulting from weaker moisture transport. Model devegetation simulations, that represent the wide-spread exposure of bare soil in the 1930s, suggest human activity fueled stronger and more frequent heatwaves through greater evaporative drying in the warmer months. This study highlights the potential for the amplification of naturally occurring extreme events like droughts by vegetation feedbacks to create more extreme heatwaves in a warmer world. In the 1930s, the US was hit by a severe drought and record-breaking heatwaves in a period known as the Dust Bowl. Here, the authors present model experiments that suggest that warm North Atlantic temperatures and human devegetation played key roles in making these heatwaves particularly strong.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Nature Communications
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    Oxford University Research Archive; Nature Communications
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2020
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2020
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    Article . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Oxford University Research Archive; Nature Communications
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Nature Communications
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      Nature Communications
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    Authors: Kerches Braghiere, Rénato; Quaife, T.; Black, E.; He, L.; +1 Authors

    AbstractThe impact of vegetation structure on the absorption of shortwave radiation in Earth System Models (ESMs) is potentially important for accurate modeling of the carbon cycle and hence climate projections. A proportion of incident shortwave radiation is used by plants to photosynthesize and canopy structure has a direct impact on the fraction of this radiation which is absorbed. This paper evaluates how modeled carbon assimilation of the terrestrial biosphere is impacted when clumping derived from satellite data is incorporated. We evaluated impacts of clumping on photosynthesis using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, the land surface scheme of the UK Earth System Model. At the global level, Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased by 5.53 ± 1.02 PgC/year with the strongest absolute increase in the tropics. This is contrary to previous studies that have shown a decrease in photosynthesis when similar clumping data sets have been used to modify light interception in models. In our study additional transmission of light through upper canopy layers leads to enhanced absorption in lower layers in which photosynthesis tends to be light limited. We show that this result is related to the complexity of canopy scheme being used.

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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Global Biogeochemical Cycles
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Caltech Authors
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Global Biogeochemical Cycles
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Chukwuka G. Monyei; Benjamin K. Sovacool; Marilyn A. Brown; Kirsten Jenkins; +2 Authors

    Drawing from examples in Germany, California, and Australia, we show that large scale integration of renewable energy in existing electricity grids does not necessarily lead to cheaper electricity, the strengthening of energy security, or the enhancement of economic equity. Indeed, efforts to integrate renewable energy into the grid can thwart efforts to reduce chronic poverty. Planners around the world need to be cautious, pragmatic and realistic when attempting to similarly decarbonize their energy systems.

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    The Electricity Journal
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      The Electricity Journal
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Miriam Grace; Mario V. Balzan; Marcus Collier; Davide Geneletti; +20 Authors

    Abstract Mediterranean islands face significant environmental challenges due to their high population density, reliance on imports, and water scarcity, exacerbated by increasing risks from climate change. Nature-based solutions (NbS) could address these challenges sustainably and with multiple benefits, but their uptake in policy and planning is limited, and stakeholder perspectives are conspicuously lacking from current research. Here, we report the results of a collaborative, multi-stakeholder exercise to identify priority knowledge needs (KNs) that could enhance the uptake of NbS in Mediterranean islands. We used a well-established iterative prioritisation method based on a modified Delphi process. This was conducted by the authors, environmental policy and practice stakeholders from across the Mediterranean islands, representing business, government, NGOs and research. We developed a long list of potential KNs through individual submissions, and prioritised them through voting, discussion and scoring. Excepting workshop discussion, all individual contributions were anonymous. We present the 47 resulting KNs in rank order, classified by whether they can be addressed by knowledge synthesis and further research, or demand action in policy and practice. The top priority KNs are i) a more precise definition of NbS, ii) which NbS are adapted to dry Mediterranean conditions? iii) how to increase the adoption and use of NbS in urban plans?, iv) how can buildings and built-up areas be modified to accommodate green infrastructure and v) cost-benefit analysis of urban green spaces. In collaboration with these stakeholders, our findings will determine future research strategies on NbS implementation in the Mediterranean islands.

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    Environmental Science & Policy
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
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    Data sources: Datacite
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
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      Environmental Science & Policy
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Lora E. Fleming; Andy Haines; Brian Golding; Anthony Kessel; +8 Authors

    Linking environmental, socioeconomic and health datasets provides new insights into the potential associations between climate change and human health and wellbeing, and underpins the development of decision support tools that will promote resilience to climate change, and thus enable more effective adaptation. This paper outlines the challenges and opportunities presented by advances in data collection, storage, analysis, and access, particularly focusing on “data mashups”. These data mashups are integrations of different types and sources of data, frequently using open application programming interfaces and data sources, to produce enriched results that were not necessarily the original reason for assembling the raw source data. As an illustration of this potential, this paper describes a recently funded initiative to create such a facility in the UK for use in decision support around climate change and health, and provides examples of suitable sources of data and the purposes to which they can be directed, particularly for policy makers and public health decision makers.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Sherwood, Steven C.; Bony, Sandrine; Boucher, Olivier; Bretherton, Chris; +3 Authors

    Abstract The traditional forcing–feedback framework has provided an indispensable basis for discussing global climate changes. However, as analysis of model behavior has become more detailed, shortcomings and ambiguities in the framework have become more evident, and physical effects unaccounted for by the traditional framework have become interesting. In particular, the new concept of adjustments, which are responses to forcings that are not mediated by the global-mean temperature, has emerged. This concept, related to the older ones of climate efficacy and stratospheric adjustment, is a more physical way of capturing unique responses to specific forcings. We present a pedagogical review of the adjustment concept, why it is important, and how it can be used. The concept is particularly useful for aerosols, where it helps to organize what has become a complex array of forcing mechanisms. It also helps clarify issues around cloud and hydrological response, transient versus equilibrium climate change, and geoengineering.

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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
    Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: MPG.PuRe
      Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Graham Mann; Kenneth S. Carslaw; David A. Ridley; Dominick V. Spracklen; +13 Authors

    Abstract. In the most advanced aerosol-climate models it is common to represent the aerosol particle size distribution in terms of several log-normal modes. This approach, motivated by computational efficiency, makes assumptions about the shape of the particle distribution that may not always capture the properties of global aerosol. Here, a global modal aerosol microphysics module (GLOMAP-mode) is evaluated and improved by comparing against a sectional version (GLOMAP-bin) and observations in the same 3-D global offline chemistry transport model. With both schemes, the model captures the main features of the global particle size distribution, with sub-micron aerosol approximately unimodal in continental regions and bi-modal in marine regions. Initial bin-mode comparisons showed that the current values for two size distribution parameter settings in the modal scheme (mode widths and inter-modal separation sizes) resulted in clear biases compared to the sectional scheme. By adjusting these parameters in the modal scheme, much better agreement is achieved against the bin scheme and observations. Annual mean surface-level mass of sulphate, sea-salt, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) are within 25% in the two schemes in nearly all regions. Surface level concentrations of condensation nuclei (CN), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), surface area density and condensation sink also compare within 25% in most regions. However, marine CCN concentrations between 30° N and 30° S are systematically 25–60% higher in the modal model, which we attribute to differences in size-resolved particle growth or cloud-processing. Larger differences also exist in regions or seasons dominated by biomass burning and in free-troposphere and high-latitude regions. Indeed, in the free-troposphere, GLOMAP-mode BC is a factor 2–4 higher than GLOMAP-bin, likely due to differences in size-resolved scavenging. Nevertheless, in most parts of the atmosphere, we conclude that bin-mode differences are much less than model-observation differences, although some processes are missing in these runs which may pose a bigger challenge to modal schemes (e.g., boundary layer nucleation and ultra-fine sea-spray). The findings here underline the need for a spectrum of complexity in global models, with size-resolved aerosol properties predicted by modal schemes needing to be continually benchmarked and improved against freely evolving sectional schemes and observations.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Authors: Graham Mann; Kenneth S. Carslaw; Carly Reddington; Kirsty J. Pringle; +48 Authors

    Abstract. Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by twelve global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the multi-model-mean dataset simulates the global variation of the particle size distribution with a good degree of skill, suggesting that most of the individual global aerosol microphysics models are performing well, although the large model diversity indicates that some models are in poor agreement with the observations. Further work is required to better constrain size-resolved primary and secondary particle number sources, and an improved understanding of nucleation and growth (e.g. the role of nitrate and secondary organics) will improve the fidelity of simulated particle size distributions.

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    https://www.atmos-chem-phys.ne...
    Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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    http://www.atmos-chem-phys-dis...
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: SNSF P3 Database
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      https://www.atmos-chem-phys.ne...
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2014
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      http://www.atmos-chem-phys-dis...
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: SNSF P3 Database
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