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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lin Ma; Anne-Laure Fauchille; M. Chandler; Patrick J. Dowey; +3 Authors

    Abstract The feasibility and advantages of synchrotron imaging have been demonstrated to effectively characterise fracture initiation and propagation in shales during indentation tests. These include 1) fast (minute-scale) and high-resolution (μm-scale) imaging of fracture initiation, 2) concurrent spatial and temporal information (4D) about fracture development, 3) quantification and modelling of shale deformation prior to fracture. Imaging experiments were performed on four shale samples with different laminations and compositions in different orientations, representative of three key variables in shale microstructure. Fracture initiation and propagation were successfully captured in 3D over time, and strain maps were generated using digital volume correlation (DVC). Subsequently, post-experimental fracture geometries were characterised at nano-scale using complementary SEM imaging. Characterisation results highlight the influence of microstructural and anisotropy variations on the mechanical properties of shales. The fractures tend to kink at the interface of two different textures at both macroscale and microscale due to deformation incompatibility. The average composition appears to provide the major control on hardness and fracture initiation load; while the material texture and the orientation of the indentation to bedding combine to control the fracture propagation direction and geometry. This improved understanding of fracture development in shales is potentially significant in the clean energy applications.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Spiral - Imperial Co...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Spiral - Imperial Co...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marta Coll; Lynne J. Shannon; Kristin M. Kleisner; M. J. Juan-Jorda; +34 Authors

    IndiSeas (>Indicators for the Seas>) is a collaborative international working group that was established in 2005 to evaluate the status of exploited marine ecosystems using a suite of indicators in a comparative framework. An initial shortlist of seven ecological indicators was selected to quantify the effects of fishing on the broader ecosystem using several criteria (i.e., ecological meaning, sensitivity to fishing, data availability, management objectives and public awareness). The suite comprised: (i) the inverse coefficient of variation of total biomass of surveyed species, (ii) mean fish length in the surveyed community, (iii) mean maximum life span of surveyed fish species, (iv) proportion of predatory fish in the surveyed community, (v) proportion of under and moderately exploited stocks, (vi) total biomass of surveyed species, and (vii) mean trophic level of the landed catch. In line with the Nagoya Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2011-2020), we extended this suite to emphasize the broader biodiversity and conservation risks in exploited marine ecosystems. We selected a subset of indicators from a list of empirically based candidate biodiversity indicators initially established based on ecological significance to complement the original IndiSeas indicators. The additional selected indicators were: (viii) mean intrinsic vulnerability index of the fish landed catch, (ix) proportion of non-declining exploited species in the surveyed community, (x) catch-based marine trophic index, and (xi) mean trophic level of the surveyed community. Despite the lack of data in some ecosystems, we also selected (xii) mean trophic level of the modelled community, and (xiii) proportion of discards in the fishery as extra indicators. These additional indicators were examined, along with the initial set of IndiSeas ecological indicators, to evaluate whether adding new biodiversity indicators provided useful additional information to refine our understanding of the status evaluation of 29 exploited marine ecosystems. We used state and trend analyses, and we performed correlation, redundancy and multivariate tests. Existing developments in ecosystem-based fisheries management have largely focused on exploited species. Our study, using mostly fisheries independent survey-based indicators, highlights that biodiversity and conservation-based indicators are complementary to ecological indicators of fishing pressure. Thus, they should be used to provide additional information to evaluate the overall impact of fishing on exploited marine ecosystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved We thank the Euroceans IndiSeas Working Group funded by the European Network of Excellence EUR-OCEANS (FP6, Contract N° 511106), the European collaborative project MEECE – Marine Ecosystem Evolution in a Changing Environment (FP7, Contract N° 212085) and IRD (Institute of Research for Development) and IOC/UNESCO. [...] MC was partially funded by the European Commission through the Marie Curie Career Integration Grant Fellowships – PCIG10-GA-2011-303534 – to the BIOWEB project and by the Spanish National Program Ramon y Cajal. LJS was supported through the South African Research Chair Initiative, funded through the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) and administered by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF). LJS and YS were also funded by the European collaborative project MEECE – Marine Ecosystem Evolution in a Changing Environment – (FP7, Contract N° 212085). KMK was supported by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center and the Nature Conservancy through a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. MJJJ was supported by an EU Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship – PIOF-GA-2013-628116. MFB was supported by the Portuguese Oceanic and Atmospheric Institute and the trawl survey data collected under Biological Sampling (PNAB) Program. LJG would like to thank the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission for support. HO was financed by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (Grant SF0180005s10). JJH was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs [Grant Number NE/L003279/1, Marine Ecosystems Research Programme]. GIvdM was supported by the Institute of Marine Research, Norway. KT was partially funded by the project PERSEUS (Policy-oriented marine Environmental Research in the Southern EUropean Seas; FP7 Contract N° 287600). MAT was funded by the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) through a Predoctoral FPI fellowship. KNM was supported by a National Research Council fellowship at the Northwest Fishery Science Center. YJS and MTT were partially supported by the French project EMIBIOS (FRB, Contract No. APP-SCEN-2010-II). Chatham Rise trawl survey data were provided by the Ministry for Primary Industries. CL acknowledges DEVOTES – Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status – EC project (FP7 Grant Agreement 308392) Coll, Marta ... et al.-- 16 pages, 6 figures, 6 tables Peer Reviewed

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    Other literature type . 2016
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2016
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2016
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Ecological Indicators
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ana, Popovic; Tran, Hai; Anatoly, Tchigvintsev; Mahbod, Hajighasemi; +17 Authors

    AbstractMetagenomics has made accessible an enormous reserve of global biochemical diversity. To tap into this vast resource of novel enzymes, we have screened over one million clones from metagenome DNA libraries derived from sixteen different environments for carboxylesterase activity and identified 714 positive hits. We have validated the esterase activity of 80 selected genes, which belong to 17 different protein families including unknown and cyclase-like proteins. Three metagenomic enzymes exhibited lipase activity, and seven proteins showed polyester depolymerization activity against polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Detailed biochemical characterization of four new enzymes revealed their substrate preference, whereas their catalytic residues were identified using site-directed mutagenesis. The crystal structure of the metal-ion dependent esterase MGS0169 from the amidohydrolase superfamily revealed a novel active site with a bound unknown ligand. Thus, activity-centered metagenomics has revealed diverse enzymes and novel families of microbial carboxylesterases, whose activity could not have been predicted using bioinformatics tools.

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    Scientific Reports
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2017
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      Scientific Reports
      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Sutcliffe, Laura M. E.; Batáry, Péter; Kormann, Urs; Baldi, Andras; +39 Authors

    A large proportion of European biodiversity today depends on habitat provided by low‐intensity farming practices, yet this resource is declining as European agriculture intensifies. Within the European Union, particularly the central and eastern new member states have retained relatively large areas of species‐rich farmland, but despite increased investment in nature conservation here in recent years, farmland biodiversity trends appear to be worsening. Although the high biodiversity value of Central and Eastern European farmland has long been reported, the amount of research in the international literature focused on farmland biodiversity in this region remains comparatively tiny, and measures within the EU Common Agricultural Policy are relatively poorly adapted to support it. In this opinion study, we argue that, 10 years after the accession of the first eastern EU new member states, the continued under‐representation of the low‐intensity farmland in Central and Eastern Europe in the international literature and EU policy is impeding the development of sound, evidence‐based conservation interventions. The biodiversity benefits for Europe of existing low‐intensity farmland, particularly in the central and eastern states, should be harnessed before they are lost. Instead of waiting for species‐rich farmland to further decline, targeted research and monitoring to create locally appropriate conservation strategies for these habitats is needed now. Volkswagen Foundation

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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2015
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    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
    Other literature type . 2015
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    Authors: Tim Cowan; Gabriele C. Hegerl; Andrew Schurer; Simon F. B. Tett; +6 Authors

    The severe drought of the 1930s Dust Bowl decade coincided with record-breaking summer heatwaves that contributed to the socio-economic and ecological disaster over North America’s Great Plains. It remains unresolved to what extent these exceptional heatwaves, hotter than in historically forced coupled climate model simulations, were forced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and exacerbated through human-induced deterioration of land cover. Here we show, using an atmospheric-only model, that anomalously warm North Atlantic SSTs enhance heatwave activity through an association with drier spring conditions resulting from weaker moisture transport. Model devegetation simulations, that represent the wide-spread exposure of bare soil in the 1930s, suggest human activity fueled stronger and more frequent heatwaves through greater evaporative drying in the warmer months. This study highlights the potential for the amplification of naturally occurring extreme events like droughts by vegetation feedbacks to create more extreme heatwaves in a warmer world. In the 1930s, the US was hit by a severe drought and record-breaking heatwaves in a period known as the Dust Bowl. Here, the authors present model experiments that suggest that warm North Atlantic temperatures and human devegetation played key roles in making these heatwaves particularly strong.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Nature Communications
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    Oxford University Research Archive; Nature Communications
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2020
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2020
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    Hal-Diderot
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Oxford University Research Archive; Nature Communications
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Nature Communications
      Article . 2020
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      Nature Communications
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Kerches Braghiere, Rénato; Quaife, T.; Black, E.; He, L.; +1 Authors

    AbstractThe impact of vegetation structure on the absorption of shortwave radiation in Earth System Models (ESMs) is potentially important for accurate modeling of the carbon cycle and hence climate projections. A proportion of incident shortwave radiation is used by plants to photosynthesize and canopy structure has a direct impact on the fraction of this radiation which is absorbed. This paper evaluates how modeled carbon assimilation of the terrestrial biosphere is impacted when clumping derived from satellite data is incorporated. We evaluated impacts of clumping on photosynthesis using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, the land surface scheme of the UK Earth System Model. At the global level, Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) increased by 5.53 ± 1.02 PgC/year with the strongest absolute increase in the tropics. This is contrary to previous studies that have shown a decrease in photosynthesis when similar clumping data sets have been used to modify light interception in models. In our study additional transmission of light through upper canopy layers leads to enhanced absorption in lower layers in which photosynthesis tends to be light limited. We show that this result is related to the complexity of canopy scheme being used.

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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Global Biogeochemical Cycles
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Global Biogeochemical Cycles
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    Authors: Sherwood, Steven C.; Bony, Sandrine; Boucher, Olivier; Bretherton, Chris; +3 Authors

    Abstract The traditional forcing–feedback framework has provided an indispensable basis for discussing global climate changes. However, as analysis of model behavior has become more detailed, shortcomings and ambiguities in the framework have become more evident, and physical effects unaccounted for by the traditional framework have become interesting. In particular, the new concept of adjustments, which are responses to forcings that are not mediated by the global-mean temperature, has emerged. This concept, related to the older ones of climate efficacy and stratospheric adjustment, is a more physical way of capturing unique responses to specific forcings. We present a pedagogical review of the adjustment concept, why it is important, and how it can be used. The concept is particularly useful for aerosols, where it helps to organize what has become a complex array of forcing mechanisms. It also helps clarify issues around cloud and hydrological response, transient versus equilibrium climate change, and geoengineering.

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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2015
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    Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      MPG.PuRe
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      Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
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    Authors: Liquet, Benoît; Bottolo, Leonardo; Campanella, Gianluca; Richardson, Sylvia; +1 Authors

    Technological advances in molecular biology over the past decade have given rise to high dimensional and complex datasets offering the possibility to investigate biological associations between a range of genomic features and complex phenotypes. The analysis of this novel type of data generated unprecedented computational challenges which ultimately led to the definition and implementation of computationally efficient statistical models that were able to scale to genome-wide data, including Bayesian variable selection approaches. While extensive methodological work has been carried out in this area, only few methods capable of handling hundreds of thousands of predictors were implemented and distributed. Among these we recently proposed GUESS, a computationally optimised algorithm making use of graphics processing unit capabilities, which can accommodate multiple outcomes. In this paper we propose R2GUESS, an R package wrapping the original C++ source code. In addition to providing a user-friendly interface of the original code automating its parametrisation, and data handling, R2GUESS also incorporates many features to explore the data, to extend statistical inferences from the native algorithm (e.g., effect size estimation, significance assessment), and to visualize outputs from the algorithm. We first detail the model and its parametrisation, and describe in details its optimised implementation. Based on two examples we finally illustrate its statistical performances and flexibility.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Journal of Statistical Software
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Journal of Statistical Software
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    Hal-Diderot
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2016
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      Journal of Statistical Software
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Statistical Software
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    Authors: Moctar Dembélé;
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    Authors: Ana M. Queirós; Klaus B. Huebert; Friedemann Keyl; Jose A. Fernandes; +15 Authors

    AbstractThe Paris Conference of Parties (COP21) agreement renewed momentum for action against climate change, creating the space for solutions for conservation of the ocean addressing two of its largest threats: climate change and ocean acidification (CCOA). Recent arguments that ocean policies disregard a mature conservation research field and that protected areas cannot address climate change may be oversimplistic at this time when dynamic solutions for the management of changing oceans are needed. We propose a novel approach, based on spatial meta‐analysis of climate impact models, to improve the positioning of marine protected areas to limit CCOA impacts. We do this by estimating the vulnerability of ocean ecosystems to CCOA in a spatially explicit manner and then co‐mapping human activities such as the placement of renewable energy developments and the distribution of marine protected areas. We test this approach in the NE Atlantic considering also how CCOA impacts the base of the food web which supports protected species, an aspect often neglected in conservation studies. We found that, in this case, current regional conservation plans protect areas with low ecosystem‐level vulnerability to CCOA, but disregard how species may redistribute to new, suitable and productive habitats. Under current plans, these areas remain open to commercial extraction and other uses. Here, and worldwide, ocean conservation strategies under CCOA must recognize the long‐term importance of these habitat refuges, and studies such as this one are needed to identify them. Protecting these areas creates adaptive, climate‐ready and ecosystem‐level policy options for conservation, suitable for changing oceans.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2016
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    Global Change Biology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      Global Change Biology
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