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  • SDSN - Greece
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. Kaiser; Glenn M. Wolfe; Birger Bohn; Sebastian Broch; +18 Authors

    Ozone concentrations in the Po Valley of northern Italy often exceed international regulations. As both a source of radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. We investigate the sources of HCHO in the Po Valley using vertical profile measurements acquired from the airship Zeppelin NT over an agricultural region during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. Using a 1-D model, the total VOC oxidation rate is examined and discussed in the context of formaldehyde and ozone production in the early morning. While model and measurement discrepancies in OH reactivity are small (on average 3.4 ± 13%), HCHO concentrations are underestimated by as much as 1.5 ppb (45%) in the convective mixed layer. A similar underestimate in HCHO was seen in the 2002–2003 FORMAT Po Valley measurements, though the additional source of HCHO was not identified. Oxidation of unmeasured VOC precursors cannot explain the missing HCHO source, as measured OH reactivity is explained by measured VOCs and their calculated oxidation products. We conclude that local direct emissions from agricultural land are the most likely source of missing HCHO. Model calculations demonstrate that radicals from degradation of this non-photochemical HCHO source increase model ozone production rates by as much as 0.6 ppb h−1 (12%) before noon. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15 (3) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2015
    License: CC BY
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2015
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article
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    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2015
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2015
      License: CC BY
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2015
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sand, M.; Sand, M.; Samset, B. H.; Balkanski, Y.; +28 Authors

    International audience; Atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic and natural sources reach the polar regions through long-range transport and affect the local radiation balance. Such transport is, however, poorly constrained in present-day global climate models, and few multi-model evaluations of polar an-thropogenic aerosol radiative forcing exist. Here we compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm from simulations with 16 global aerosol models from the AeroCom Phase II model intercomparison project with available observations at both poles. We show that the annual mean multi-model median is representative of the observations in Arctic, but that the intermodel spread is large. We also document the geographical distribution and seasonal cycle of the AOD for the individual aerosol species: black carbon (BC) from fossil fuel and biomass burning, sulfate, organic aerosols (OAs), dust, and sea-salt. For a subset of models that represent nitrate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), we document the role of these aerosols at high latitudes. The seasonal dependence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols differs with natural aerosols peaking in winter (sea-salt) and spring (dust), whereas AOD from anthropogenic aerosols peaks in late spring and summer. The models produce a median annual mean AOD of 0.07 in the Arctic (de-fined here as north of 60 • N). The models also predict a noteworthy aerosol transport to the Antarctic (south of 70 • S) with a resulting AOD varying between 0.01 and 0.02. The Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 12198 M. Sand et al.: Aerosols at the poles: an AeroCom Phase II multi-model evaluation models have estimated the shortwave anthropogenic radia-tive forcing contributions to the direct aerosol effect (DAE) associated with BC and OA from fossil fuel and biofuel (FF), sulfate, SOAs, nitrate, and biomass burning from BC and OA emissions combined. The Arctic modelled annual mean DAE is slightly negative (−0.12 W m −2), dominated by a positive BC FF DAE in spring and a negative sulfate DAE in summer. The Antarctic DAE is governed by BC FF. We perform sensitivity experiments with one of the AeroCom models (GISS modelE) to investigate how regional emissions of BC and sulfate and the lifetime of BC influence the Arctic and Antarctic AOD. A doubling of emissions in eastern Asia results in a 33 % increase in Arctic AOD of BC. A doubling of the BC lifetime results in a 39 % increase in Arctic AOD of BC. However, these radical changes still fall within the AeroCom model range.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Norwegian Open Resea...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2017
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Article . Preprint . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2017
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint . 2017
    License: CC BY
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2017
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2017
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      CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
      Article . 2017
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
      Article . Preprint . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2017
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . Preprint . 2017
      License: CC BY
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2017
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Danielle Vienneau; Kees de Hoogh; Matthew J. Bechle; Rob Beelen; +5 Authors

    Land use regression (LUR) models typically investigate within-urban variability in air pollution. Recent improvements in data quality and availability, including satellite-derived pollutant measurements, support fine-scale LUR modeling for larger areas. Here, we describe NO2 and PM10 LUR models for Western Europe (years: 2005-2007) based on <1500 EuroAirnet monitoring sites covering background, industrial, and traffic environments. Predictor variables include land use characteristics, population density, and length of major and minor roads in zones from 0.1 km to 10 km, altitude, and distance to sea. We explore models with and without satellite-based NO2 and PM2.5 as predictor variables, and we compare two available land cover data sets (global; European). Model performance (adjusted R(2)) is 0.48-0.58 for NO2 and 0.22-0.50 for PM10. Inclusion of satellite data improved model performance (adjusted R(2)) by, on average, 0.05 for NO2 and 0.11 for PM10. Models were applied on a 100 m grid across Western Europe; to support future research, these data sets are publicly available.

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    edoc
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Environmental Science & Technology
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5451/unibas...
    Other literature type . 2013
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      edoc
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Environmental Science & Technology
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5451/unibas...
      Other literature type . 2013
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Greve, Ralf; Chambers, Christopher; Calov, Reinhard;

    The Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) brings together a consortium of international ice-sheet and climate modellers to simulate the contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to future sea-level rise. In this document, we describe the set-up and main results of the ISMIP6 Greenland Tier-1 and Tier-2 experiments carried out with the ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS. The companion document for the Antarctic ice sheet is available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3971232. V1.0.1: References updated; some minor corrections. V1: Full report. V0.1: Abstract only. Funding acknowledgements: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant Nos. JP16H02224 and JP17H06104. Leadership Research Grant of Hokkaido University's Institute of Low Temperature Science (ILTS). Arctic Challenge for Sustainability (ArCS) project of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) (program grant number JPMXD1300000000). PalMod project (PalMod 1.1 and 1.3 with grants 01LP1502C and 01LP1504D) of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

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    ZENODO
    Report . 2020
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    ZENODO
    Report . 2020
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    ZENODO
    Report . 2020
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      ZENODO
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      ZENODO
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    Authors: K. Frieler; S. Lange; F. Piontek; C. P. O. Reyer; +63 Authors

    In Paris, France, December 2015, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) invited the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide a <q>special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways</q>. In Nairobi, Kenya, April 2016, the IPCC panel accepted the invitation. Here we describe the response devised within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) to provide tailored, cross-sectorally consistent impact projections to broaden the scientific basis for the report. The simulation protocol is designed to allow for (1) separation of the impacts of historical warming starting from pre-industrial conditions from impacts of other drivers such as historical land-use changes (based on pre-industrial and historical impact model simulations); (2) quantification of the impacts of additional warming up to 1.5 °C , including a potential overshoot and long-term impacts up to 2299, and comparison to higher levels of global mean temperature change (based on the low-emissions Representative Concentration Pathway RCP2.6 and a no-mitigation pathway RCP6.0) with socio-economic conditions fixed at 2005 levels; and (3) assessment of the climate effects based on the same climate scenarios while accounting for simultaneous changes in socio-economic conditions following the middle-of-the-road Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP2, Fricko et al., 2016) and in particular differential bioenergy requirements associated with the transformation of the energy system to comply with RCP2.6 compared to RCP6.0. With the aim of providing the scientific basis for an aggregation of impacts across sectors and analysis of cross-sectoral interactions that may dampen or amplify sectoral impacts, the protocol is designed to facilitate consistent impact projections from a range of impact models across different sectors (global and regional hydrology, lakes, global crops, global vegetation, regional forests, global and regional marine ecosystems and fisheries, global and regional coastal infrastructure, energy supply and demand, temperature-related mortality, and global terrestrial biodiversity). Physical and Space Geodesy

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    Geoscientific Model Development
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    DSpace@MIT
    Article . 2017
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    Data sources: DSpace@MIT
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    Geoscientific Model Development
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2017
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      Geoscientific Model Development
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      DSpace@MIT
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      Geoscientific Model Development
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Monica Crippa; Peter F. DeCarlo; Jay G. Slowik; Claudia Mohr; +20 Authors

    International audience; The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalome-ters deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36 %) and nitrate (28–29 %), with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16 %), ammonium (12–14 %) and black carbon (7–13 %). Organic source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorization, resulting in a set of organic factors corresponding both to primary emission sources and secondary production. The dominant primary sources are traffic (11–15 % of organic mass), biomass burning (13–15 %) and cooking (up to 35 % during meal hours). Secondary organic aerosol contributes more than 50 % to the total organic mass and includes a highly oxidized factor from indeterminate and/or diverse sources and a less oxidized factor related to wood burning emissions. Black carbon was apportioned to traffic and wood burning sources using a model based on Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 962 M. Crippa et al.: The organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris wavelength-dependent light absorption of these two combustion sources. The time series of organic and black carbon factors from related sources were strongly correlated. The similarities in aerosol composition, total mass and temporal variation between the three sites suggest that particulate pollution in Paris is dominated by regional factors, and that the emissions from Paris itself have a relatively low impact on its surroundings.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
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    Article . 2013
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
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    Authors: Johannes W. Kaiser; Glenn M. Wolfe; Birger Bohn; Sebastian Broch; +16 Authors

    Abstract. Ozone concentrations in the Po Valley of Northern Italy often exceed international regulations. As both a source of radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. We investigate the sources of HCHO in the Po Valley using vertical profile measurements acquired from the airship Zeppelin NT over an agricultural region during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. Using a 1-D model, the total VOC oxidation rate is examined and discussed in the context of formaldehyde and ozone production in the early morning. While model and measurement discrepancies in OH reactivity are small (on average 3.4±11%), HCHO concentrations are underestimated by as much as 1.5 ppb (45%) in the convective mixed layer. A similar underestimate in HCHO was seen in the 2002–2003 FORMAT Po-Valley measurements, though the additional source of HCHO was not identified. Oxidation of unmeasured VOC precursors cannot explain the missing HCHO source, as measured OH reactivity is explained by measured VOCs and their calculated oxidation products. We conclude that local direct emissions from agricultural land are the most likely source of missing HCHO. Model calculations demonstrate that radicals from degradation of this non-photochemical HCHO source increase model ozone production rates by as much as 0.7 ppb h−1 (10%) before noon.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
    Preprint . 2014
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
      Preprint . 2014
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      https://www.atmos-chem-phys.ne...
      Preprint
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    Authors: Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; V. A. Karydis; M. Zavala; W. Lei; +3 Authors

    Urban areas are large sources of organic aerosols and their precursors. Nevertheless, the contributions of primary (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) to the observed particulate matter levels have been difficult to quantify. In this study the three-dimensional chemical transport model PMCAMx-2008 is used to investigate the temporal and geographic variability of organic aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO campaign that took place in the spring of 2006. The organic module of PMCAMx-2008 includes the recently developed volatility basis-set framework in which both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semi-volatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The MCMA emission inventory is modified and the POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The model predictions are compared with observations from four different types of sites, an urban (T0), a suburban (T1), a rural (T2), and an elevated site in Pico de Tres Padres (PTP). The performance of the model in reproducing organic mass concentrations in these sites is encouraging. The average predicted PM[subscript 1] organic aerosol (OA) concentration in T0, T1, and T2 is 18 μg m[superscript −3], 11.7 μg m[superscript −3], and 10.5 μg m[superscript −3] respectively, while the corresponding measured values are 17.2 μg m[superscript −3], 11 μg m[superscript −3], and 9 μg m[superscript −3]. The average predicted locally-emitted primary OA concentrations, 4.4 μg m[superscript −3] at T0, 1.2 μg m[superscript −3] at T1 and 1.7 μg m[superscript −3] at PTP, are in reasonably good agreement with the corresponding PMF analysis estimates based on the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) observations of 4.5, 1.3, and 2.9 μg m[superscript −3] respectively. The model reproduces reasonably well the average oxygenated OA (OOA) levels in T0 (7.5 μg m[superscript −3] predicted versus 7.5 μg m[superscript −3] measured), in T1 (6.3 μg m[superscript −3] predicted versus 4.6 μg m[superscript −3] measured) and in PTP (6.6 μg m[superscript −3] predicted versus 5.9 μg m[superscript −3] measured). The rest of the OA mass (6.1 μg m[superscript −3] and 4.2 μg m[superscript −3] in T0 and T1 respectively) is assumed to originate from biomass burning activities and is introduced to the model as part of the boundary conditions. Inside Mexico City (at T0), the locally-produced OA is predicted to be on average 60 % locally-emitted primary (POA), 6 % semi-volatile (S-SOA) and intermediate volatile (I-SOA) organic aerosol, and 34 % traditional SOA from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA). The average contributions of the OA components to the locally-produced OA for the entire modelling domain are predicted to be 32 % POA, 10 % S-SOA and I-SOA, and 58 % V-SOA. The long range transport from biomass burning activities and other sources in Mexico is predicted to contribute on average almost as much as the local sources during the MILAGRO period. Seventh Framework Programme (European Commission) (Grant agreement no.: 212520) National Science Foundation (U.S.) (ATM 0810931) National Science Foundation (U.S.) (ATM 0732598) National Science Foundation (U.S.) (ATM 0528227) Molina Center for Energy and the Environment European Union

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    DSpace@MIT
    Article . 2011
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
    Preprint . 2010
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    https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
    Other literature type . 2011
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    https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      DSpace@MIT
      Article . 2011
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
      Preprint . 2010
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      https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
      Other literature type . 2011
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    Authors: Docampo, P; Stefik, M; Guldin, S; Gunning, R; +6 Authors

    AbstractA new self‐assembly platform for the fast and straightforward synthesis of bicontinuous, mesoporous TiO2 films is presented, based on the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene‐b‐styrene‐b‐ethylene oxide). This new materials route allows the co‐assembly of the metal oxide as a fully interconnected minority phase, which results in a highly porous photoanode with strong advantages over the state‐of‐the‐art nanoparticle‐based photoanodes employed in solid‐state dye‐sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated through this triblock terpolymer route exhibit a high availability of sub‐bandgap states distributed in a narrow and low enough energy band, which maximizes photoinduced charge generation from a state‐of‐the‐art organic dye, C220. As a consequence, the co‐assembled mesoporous metal oxide system outperformed the conventional nanoparticle‐based electrodes fabricated and tested under the same conditions, exhibiting solar power‐conversion efficiencies of over 5%.

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    Authors: Zhong Lin Wang; Jérôme Chappellaz; Patricia Martinerie; Keyhong Park; +6 Authors

    We present a 60-year record of the stable isotopes of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from firn air samples collected under the framework of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) project. CO concentration, &delta;<sup>13</sup>C, and &delta;<sup>18</sup>O of CO were measured by gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (gc-IRMS) from trapped gases in the firn. We applied LGGE-GIPSA firn air models (Witrant et al., 2011) to correlate gas age with firn air depth and then reconstructed the trend of atmospheric CO and its stable isotopic composition at high northern latitudes since 1950. The most probable firn air model scenarios show that &delta;<sup>13</sup>C decreased slightly from −25.8&permil; in 1950 to −26.4&permil; in 2000, then decreased more significantly to −27.2&permil; in 2008. &delta;<sup>18</sup>O decreased more regularly from 9.8&permil; in 1950 to 7.1&permil; in 2008. Those same scenarios show CO concentration increased gradually from 1950 and peaked in the late 1970s, followed by a gradual decrease to present day values (Petrenko et al., 2012). Results from an isotope mass balance model indicate that a slight increase, followed by a large reduction, in CO derived from fossil fuel combustion has occurred since 1950. The reduction of CO emission from fossil fuel combustion after the mid-1970s is the most plausible mechanism for the drop of CO concentration during this time. Fossil fuel CO emissions decreased as a result of the implementation of catalytic converters and the relative growth of diesel engines, in spite of the global vehicle fleet size having grown several fold over the same time period.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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