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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guohui Li; Miguel A. Zavala; W. Lei; Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; +4 Authors

    Organic aerosol concentrations are simulated using the WRF-CHEM model in Mexico City during the period from 24 to 29 March in association with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Two approaches are employed to predict the variation and spatial distribution of the organic aerosol concentrations: (1) a traditional 2-product secondary organic aerosol (SOA) model with non-volatile primary organic aerosols (POA); (2) a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic components are assumed to be semi-volatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) 2006 official emission inventory is used in simulations and the POA emissions are modified and distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments for the non-traditional SOA model. The model results are compared to the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations analyzed using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique at an urban background site (T0) and a suburban background site (T1) in Mexico City. The traditional SOA model frequently underestimates the observed POA concentrations during rush hours and overestimates the observations in the rest of the time in the city. The model also substantially underestimates the observed SOA concentrations, particularly during daytime, and only produces 21% and 25% of the observed SOA mass in the suburban and urban area, respectively. The non-traditional SOA model performs well in simulating the POA variation, but still overestimates during daytime in the urban area. The SOA simulations are significantly improved in the non-traditional SOA model compared to the traditional SOA model and the SOA production is increased by more than 100% in the city. However, the underestimation during daytime is still salient in the urban area and the non-traditional model also fails to reproduce the high level of SOA concentrations in the suburban area. In the non-traditional SOA model, the aging process of primary organic components considerably decreases the OH levels in simulations and further impacts the SOA formation. If the aging process in the non-traditional model does not have feedback on the OH in the gas-phase chemistry, the SOA production is enhanced by more than 10% compared to the simulations with the OH feedback during daytime, and the gap between the simulations and observations in the urban area is around 3 μg m[superscript −3] or 20% on average during late morning and early afternoon, within the uncertainty from the AMS measurements and PMF analysis. In addition, glyoxal and methylglyoxal can contribute up to approximately 10% of the observed SOA mass in the urban area and 4% in the suburban area. Including the non-OH feedback and the contribution of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, the non-traditional SOA model can explain up to 83% of the observed SOA in the urban area, and the underestimation during late morning and early afternoon is reduced to 0.9 μg m[superscript −3] or 6% on average. Considering the uncertainties from measurements, emissions, meteorological conditions, aging of semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic compounds, and contributions from background transport, the non-traditional SOA model is capable of closing the gap in SOA mass between measurements and models. National Science Foundation (U.S.). Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ATM-0528227) National Science Foundation (U.S.). Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ATM-0810931) Molina Center for Energy and the Environment

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DSpace@MITarrow_drop_down
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    DSpace@MIT
    Article . 2011
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: DSpace@MIT
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
    Other literature type . 2011
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    https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
    Other literature type . 2011
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DSpace@MITarrow_drop_down
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      DSpace@MIT
      Article . 2011
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
      Other literature type . 2011
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      https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
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    Authors: Aikaterini Bougiatioti; Athanasios Nenes; Christos Fountoukis; Nikos Kalivitis; +2 Authors

    Abstract. We present size-segregated measurements of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of aged aerosol sampled at Finokalia, Crete, during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment of summer 2007 (FAME07). From analysis of the data, hygroscopicity and activation kinetics distributions are derived. The CCN are found to be highly hygroscopic, (expressed by a size- and time-averaged hygroscopicity parameter κ ~ 0.22), with the majority of particles activating at ~0.5–0.6% supersaturation. Air masses originating from Central-Eastern Europe tend to be associated with higher CCN concentrations and slightly lower hygroscopicity (κ ~ 0.18) than for other airmass types. The particles were always well mixed, as reflected by the high activation ratios and narrow hygroscopicity distribution widths. Smaller particles (~30 nm) were found to be more hygroscopic (~0.1 κ units higher) than the larger ones (~100 nm). The particles with diameters less than 80 nm exhibited a diurnal hygroscopicity cycle (with κ peaking at ~14:00 h local time), consistent with photochemical aging and volatilization of less hygroscopic material from the aerosol. Use of bulk chemical composition and the aerosol number distribution results in excellent CCN closure when applying Köhler theory in its simplest form. Using asymptotic and threshold droplet growth analysis, the "aged" organics present in the aerosol were found not to suppress or delay the water uptake kinetics of particles in this environment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
    Preprint . 2011
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
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    https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
    Other literature type . 2011
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
      Preprint . 2011
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Arnaud P. Praplan; Siegfried Schobesberger; F. Bianchi; Matti P. Rissanen; +29 Authors

    This study presents the difference between oxidised organic compounds formed by α-pinene oxidation under various conditions in the CLOUD environmental chamber: (1) pure ozonolysis (in the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger) and (2) OH oxidation (initiated by nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis by ultraviolet light) in the absence of ozone. We discuss results from three Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers measuring simultaneously the composition of naturally charged as well as neutral species (via chemical ionisation with nitrate). Natural chemical ionisation takes place in the CLOUD chamber and organic oxidised compounds form clusters with nitrate, bisulfate, bisulfate/sulfuric acid clusters, ammonium, and dimethylaminium, or get protonated. The results from this study show that this process is selective for various oxidised organic compounds with low molar mass and ions, so that in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the elemental composition of oxidation products and their clustering behaviour, several instruments must be used. We compare oxidation products containing 10 and 20 carbon atoms and show that highly oxidised organic compounds are formed in the early stages of the oxidation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15 (8) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net...
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2015
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    http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net...
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2015
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2015
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      http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net...
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2015
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      http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net...
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2015
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Graham Mann; Kenneth S. Carslaw; Carly Reddington; Kirsty J. Pringle; +48 Authors

    Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by 12 global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the multi-model-mean data set simulates the global variation of the particle size distribution with a good degree of skill, suggesting that most of the individual global aerosol microphysics models are performing well, although the large model diversity indicates that some models are in poor agreement with the observations. Further work is required to better constrain size-resolved primary and secondary particle number sources, and an improved understanding of nucleation and growth (e.g. the role of nitrate and secondary organics) will improve the fidelity of simulated particle size distributions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14 (9) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    DSpace@MIT
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2014
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2014
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2014
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Jenni Kontkanen; Katrianne Lehtipalo; Lauri Ahonen; Juha Kangasluoma; +14 Authors

    Abstract. The measurement of sub-3 nm aerosol particles is technically challenging. Therefore, there is a lack of knowledge about the concentrations of atmospheric sub-3 nm particles and their variation in different environments. In this study, the concentrations of ∼ 1–3 nm particles measured with a particle size magnifier (PSM) were investigated at nine sites around the world. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were highest at the sites with strong anthropogenic influence. In boreal forest, measured particle concentrations were clearly higher in summer than in winter, suggesting the importance of biogenic precursor vapors in this environment. At all sites, sub-3 nm particle concentrations had daytime maxima, which are likely linked to the photochemical production of precursor vapors and the emissions of precursor vapors or particles from different sources. When comparing ion concentrations to the total sub-3 nm particle concentrations, electrically neutral particles were observed to dominate in polluted environments and in boreal forest during spring and summer. Generally, the concentrations of sub-3 nm particles seem to be determined by the availability of precursor vapors rather than the level of the sink caused by preexisting aerosol particles. The results also indicate that the formation of the smallest particles and their subsequent growth to larger sizes are two separate processes, and therefore studying the concentration of sub-3 nm particles separately in different size ranges is essential.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Article . 2017
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Georgios Tsagkogeorgas; Pontus Roldin; Jonathan Duplissy; Linda Rondo; +16 Authors

    Evaporation of sulfuric acid from particles can be important in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus. However, the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of H2SO4 to bisulfate ions, which is the one of the fundamental parameters controlling the evaporation of sulfur particles, is not well constrained. In this study we explore the volatility of sulfate particles at very low relative humidity. We measured the evaporation of sulfur particles versus temperature and relative humidity in the CLOUD chamber at CERN. We modelled the observed sulfur particle shrinkage with the ADCHAM model. Based on our model results, we conclude that the sulfur particle shrinkage is mainly governed by H2SO4 and potentially to some extent by SO3 evaporation. We found that the equilibrium constants for the dissociation of H2SO4 to HSO4−(KH2SO4) and the dehydration of H2SO4 to SO3 (xKSO3) are KH2SO4 = 2–4 × 109 mol kg−1 and xKSO3 ≥ 1.4 × 1010 at 288.8 ± 5 K.

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    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Preprint . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
      Preprint . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: C. Jiao; Mark Flanner; Yves Balkanski; Susanne E. Bauer; +25 Authors

    International audience; Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol de-position fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements , mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are −4.4 (−13.2 to +10.7) ng g −1 for an earlier phase of Aero-Com models (phase I), and +4.1 (−13.0 to +21.4) ng g −1 Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 2400 C. Jiao et al.: Black carbon in Arctic snow assessment for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g −1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation , deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arc-tic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90 • N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC depo-sition originates from extra-Arctic emissions, these results suggest that aerosol removal processes are a leading source of variation in model performance. The multi-model mean (full range) of Arctic radiative effect from BC in snow is 0.15 (0.07-0.25) W m −2 and 0.18 (0.06-0.28) W m −2 in phase I and phase II models, respectively. After correcting for model biases relative to observed BC concentrations in different regions of the Arctic, we obtain a multi-model mean Arctic radiative effect of 0.17 W m −2 for the combined AeroCom ensembles. Finally, there is a high correlation between mod-eled BC concentrations sampled over the observational sites and the Arctic as a whole, indicating that the field campaign provided a reasonable sample of the Arctic.

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    Article . 2014
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    Oxford University Research Archive
    Other literature type . 2016
    License: CC BY
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2014
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
    Preprint . 2013
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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      Oxford University Research Archive
      Other literature type . 2016
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2014
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
      Preprint . 2013
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guohui Li; Miguel A. Zavala; W. Lei; Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; +4 Authors

    Organic aerosol concentrations are simulated using the WRF-CHEM model in Mexico City during the period from 24 to 29 March in association with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Two approaches are employed to predict the variation and spatial distribution of the organic aerosol concentrations: (1) a traditional 2-product secondary organic aerosol (SOA) model with non-volatile primary organic aerosols (POA); (2) a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic components are assumed to be semi-volatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) 2006 official emission inventory is used in simulations and the POA emissions are modified and distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments for the non-traditional SOA model. The model results are compared to the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations analyzed using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique at an urban background site (T0) and a suburban background site (T1) in Mexico City. The traditional SOA model frequently underestimates the observed POA concentrations during rush hours and overestimates the observations in the rest of the time in the city. The model also substantially underestimates the observed SOA concentrations, particularly during daytime, and only produces 21% and 25% of the observed SOA mass in the suburban and urban area, respectively. The non-traditional SOA model performs well in simulating the POA variation, but still overestimates during daytime in the urban area. The SOA simulations are significantly improved in the non-traditional SOA model compared to the traditional SOA model and the SOA production is increased by more than 100% in the city. However, the underestimation during daytime is still salient in the urban area and the non-traditional model also fails to reproduce the high level of SOA concentrations in the suburban area. In the non-traditional SOA model, the aging process of primary organic components considerably decreases the OH levels in simulations and further impacts the SOA formation. If the aging process in the non-traditional model does not have feedback on the OH in the gas-phase chemistry, the SOA production is enhanced by more than 10% compared to the simulations with the OH feedback during daytime, and the gap between the simulations and observations in the urban area is around 3 μg m[superscript −3] or 20% on average during late morning and early afternoon, within the uncertainty from the AMS measurements and PMF analysis. In addition, glyoxal and methylglyoxal can contribute up to approximately 10% of the observed SOA mass in the urban area and 4% in the suburban area. Including the non-OH feedback and the contribution of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, the non-traditional SOA model can explain up to 83% of the observed SOA in the urban area, and the underestimation during late morning and early afternoon is reduced to 0.9 μg m[superscript −3] or 6% on average. Considering the uncertainties from measurements, emissions, meteorological conditions, aging of semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic compounds, and contributions from background transport, the non-traditional SOA model is capable of closing the gap in SOA mass between measurements and models. National Science Foundation (U.S.). Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ATM-0528227) National Science Foundation (U.S.). Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ATM-0810931) Molina Center for Energy and the Environment

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    DSpace@MIT
    Article . 2011
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: DSpace@MIT
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
    Other literature type . 2011
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    https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
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      DSpace@MIT
      Article . 2011
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aikaterini Bougiatioti; Athanasios Nenes; Christos Fountoukis; Nikos Kalivitis; +2 Authors

    Abstract. We present size-segregated measurements of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of aged aerosol sampled at Finokalia, Crete, during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment of summer 2007 (FAME07). From analysis of the data, hygroscopicity and activation kinetics distributions are derived. The CCN are found to be highly hygroscopic, (expressed by a size- and time-averaged hygroscopicity parameter κ ~ 0.22), with the majority of particles activating at ~0.5–0.6% supersaturation. Air masses originating from Central-Eastern Europe tend to be associated with higher CCN concentrations and slightly lower hygroscopicity (κ ~ 0.18) than for other airmass types. The particles were always well mixed, as reflected by the high activation ratios and narrow hygroscopicity distribution widths. Smaller particles (~30 nm) were found to be more hygroscopic (~0.1 κ units higher) than the larger ones (~100 nm). The particles with diameters less than 80 nm exhibited a diurnal hygroscopicity cycle (with κ peaking at ~14:00 h local time), consistent with photochemical aging and volatilization of less hygroscopic material from the aerosol. Use of bulk chemical composition and the aerosol number distribution results in excellent CCN closure when applying Köhler theory in its simplest form. Using asymptotic and threshold droplet growth analysis, the "aged" organics present in the aerosol were found not to suppress or delay the water uptake kinetics of particles in this environment.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
    Preprint . 2011
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
      Preprint . 2011
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
      Other literature type . 2011
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
      Other literature type . 2011
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/