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  • SDSN - Greece
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  • National Science Foundation
  • NSF|EHR/OAD

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. A. Franke; J. A. Franke; C. Müller; J. Elliott; +33 Authors

    Statistical emulation allows combining advantageous features of statistical and process-based crop models for understanding the effects of future climate changes on crop yields. We describe here the development of emulators for nine process-based crop models and five crops using output from the Global Gridded Model Intercomparison Project (GGCMI) Phase 2. The GGCMI Phase 2 experiment is designed with the explicit goal of producing a structured training dataset for emulator development that samples across four dimensions relevant to crop yields: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, temperature, water supply, and nitrogen inputs (CTWN). Simulations are run under two different adaptation assumptions: that growing seasons shorten in warmer climates, and that cultivar choice allows growing seasons to remain fixed. The dataset allows emulating the climatological-mean yield response of all models with a simple polynomial in mean growing-season values. Climatological-mean yields are a central metric in climate change impact analysis; we show here that they can be captured without relying on interannual variations. In general, emulation errors are negligible relative to differences across crop models or even across climate model scenarios; errors become significant only in some marginal lands where crops are not currently grown. We demonstrate that the resulting GGCMI emulators can reproduce yields under realistic future climate simulations, even though the GGCMI Phase 2 dataset is constructed with uniform CTWN offsets, suggesting that the effects of changes in temperature and precipitation distributions are small relative to those of changing means. The resulting emulators therefore capture relevant crop model responses in a lightweight, computationally tractable form, providing a tool that can facilitate model comparison, diagnosis of interacting factors affecting yields, and integrated assessment of climate impacts.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geoscientific Model ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geoscientific Model ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: J. Kaiser; Glenn M. Wolfe; Birger Bohn; Sebastian Broch; +18 Authors

    Ozone concentrations in the Po Valley of northern Italy often exceed international regulations. As both a source of radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. We investigate the sources of HCHO in the Po Valley using vertical profile measurements acquired from the airship Zeppelin NT over an agricultural region during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. Using a 1-D model, the total VOC oxidation rate is examined and discussed in the context of formaldehyde and ozone production in the early morning. While model and measurement discrepancies in OH reactivity are small (on average 3.4 ± 13%), HCHO concentrations are underestimated by as much as 1.5 ppb (45%) in the convective mixed layer. A similar underestimate in HCHO was seen in the 2002–2003 FORMAT Po Valley measurements, though the additional source of HCHO was not identified. Oxidation of unmeasured VOC precursors cannot explain the missing HCHO source, as measured OH reactivity is explained by measured VOCs and their calculated oxidation products. We conclude that local direct emissions from agricultural land are the most likely source of missing HCHO. Model calculations demonstrate that radicals from degradation of this non-photochemical HCHO source increase model ozone production rates by as much as 0.6 ppb h−1 (12%) before noon. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15 (3) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Article . 2015
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research Collection
    Article . 2015
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2015
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Research@WURarrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research Collection
      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Heery, Eliza C.; Bishop, Melanie J.; Critchley, Lincoln P.; Bugnot, Ana B.; +11 Authors

    Extensive development and construction in marine and coastal systems is driving a phenomenon known as “ocean sprawl”. Ocean sprawl removes or transforms marine habitats through the addition of artificial structures and some of the most significant impacts are occurring in sedimentary environments. Marine sediments have substantial social, ecological, and economic value, as they are rich in biodiversity, crucial to fisheries productivity, and major sites of nutrient transformation. Yet the impact of ocean sprawl on sedimentary environments has largely been ignored. Here we review current knowledge of the impacts to sedimentary ecosystems arising from artificial structures.\ud \ud Artificial structures alter the composition and abundance of a wide variety of sediment-dependent taxa, including microbes, invertebrates, and benthic-feeding fishes. The effects vary by structure design and configuration, as well as the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the environment in which structures are placed. The mechanisms driving effects from artificial structures include placement loss, habitat degradation, modification of sound and light conditions, hydrodynamic changes, organic enrichment and material fluxes, contamination, and altered biotic interactions. Most studies have inferred mechanism based on descriptive work, comparing biological and physical processes at various distances from structures. Further experimental studies are needed to identify the relative importance of multiple mechanisms and to demonstrate causal relationships. Additionally, past studies have focused on impacts at a relatively small scale, and independently of other development that is occurring. There is need to quantify large-scale and cumulative effects on sedimentary ecosystems as artificial structures proliferate. We highlight the importance for comprehensive monitoring using robust survey designs and outline research strategies needed to understand, value, and protect marine sedimentary ecosystems in the face of a rapidly changing environment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2017
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2017
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alain Destexhe; Chaitanya Chintaluri; Dorottya Cserpán; Zachary P. Kilpatrick; +189 Authors

    Table of contents A1 Functional advantages of cell-type heterogeneity in neural circuits Tatyana O. Sharpee A2 Mesoscopic modeling of propagating waves in visual cortex Alain Destexhe A3 Dynamics and biomarkers of mental disorders Mitsuo Kawato F1 Precise recruitment of spiking output at theta frequencies requires dendritic h-channels in multi-compartment models of oriens-lacunosum/moleculare hippocampal interneurons Vladislav Sekulić, Frances K. Skinner F2 Kernel methods in reconstruction of current sources from extracellular potentials for single cells and the whole brains Daniel K. Wójcik, Chaitanya Chintaluri, Dorottya Cserpán, Zoltán Somogyvári F3 The synchronized periods depend on intracellular transcriptional repression mechanisms in circadian clocks. Jae Kyoung Kim, Zachary P. Kilpatrick, Matthew R. Bennett, Kresimir Josić O1 Assessing irregularity and coordination of spiking-bursting rhythms in central pattern generators Irene Elices, David Arroyo, Rafael Levi, Francisco B. Rodriguez, Pablo Varona O2 Regulation of top-down processing by cortically-projecting parvalbumin positive neurons in basal forebrain Eunjin Hwang, Bowon Kim, Hio-Been Han, Tae Kim, James T. McKenna, Ritchie E. Brown, Robert W. McCarley, Jee Hyun Choi O3 Modeling auditory stream segregation, build-up and bistability James Rankin, Pamela Osborn Popp, John Rinzel O4 Strong competition between tonotopic neural ensembles explains pitch-related dynamics of auditory cortex evoked fields Alejandro Tabas, André Rupp, Emili Balaguer-Ballester O5 A simple model of retinal response to multi-electrode stimulation Matias I. Maturana, David B. Grayden, Shaun L. Cloherty, Tatiana Kameneva, Michael R. Ibbotson, Hamish Meffin O6 Noise correlations in V4 area correlate with behavioral performance in visual discrimination task Veronika Koren, Timm Lochmann, Valentin Dragoi, Klaus Obermayer O7 Input-location dependent gain modulation in cerebellar nucleus neurons Maria Psarrou, Maria Schilstra, Neil Davey, Benjamin Torben-Nielsen, Volker Steuber O8 Analytic solution of cable energy function for cortical axons and dendrites Huiwen Ju, Jiao Yu, Michael L. Hines, Liang Chen, Yuguo Yu O9 C. elegans interactome: interactive visualization of Caenorhabditis elegans worm neuronal network Jimin Kim, Will Leahy, Eli Shlizerman O10 Is the model any good? Objective criteria for computational neuroscience model selection Justas Birgiolas, Richard C. Gerkin, Sharon M. Crook O11 Cooperation and competition of gamma oscillation mechanisms Atthaphon Viriyopase, Raoul-Martin Memmesheimer, Stan Gielen O12 A discrete structure of the brain waves Yuri Dabaghian, Justin DeVito, Luca Perotti O13 Direction-specific silencing of the Drosophila gaze stabilization system Anmo J. Kim, Lisa M. Fenk, Cheng Lyu, Gaby Maimon O14 What does the fruit fly think about values? A model of olfactory associative learning Chang Zhao, Yves Widmer, Simon Sprecher,Walter Senn O15 Effects of ionic diffusion on power spectra of local field potentials (LFP) Geir Halnes, Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Daniel Keller, Klas H. Pettersen,Ole A. Andreassen, Gaute T. Einevoll O16 Large-scale cortical models towards understanding relationship between brain structure abnormalities and cognitive deficits Yasunori Yamada O17 Spatial coarse-graining the brain: origin of minicolumns Moira L. Steyn-Ross, D. Alistair Steyn-Ross O18 Modeling large-scale cortical networks with laminar structure Jorge F. Mejias, John D. Murray, Henry Kennedy, Xiao-Jing Wang O19 Information filtering by partial synchronous spikes in a neural population Alexandra Kruscha, Jan Grewe, Jan Benda, Benjamin Lindner O20 Decoding context-dependent olfactory valence in Drosophila Laurent Badel, Kazumi Ohta, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Hokto Kazama P1 Neural network as a scale-free network: the role of a hub B. Kahng P2 Hemodynamic responses to emotions and decisions using near-infrared spectroscopy optical imaging Nicoladie D. Tam P3 Phase space analysis of hemodynamic responses to intentional movement directions using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) optical imaging technique Nicoladie D.Tam, Luca Pollonini, George Zouridakis P4 Modeling jamming avoidance of weakly electric fish Jaehyun Soh, DaeEun Kim P5 Synergy and redundancy of retinal ganglion cells in prediction Minsu Yoo, S. E. Palmer P6 A neural field model with a third dimension representing cortical depth Viviana Culmone, Ingo Bojak P7 Network analysis of a probabilistic connectivity model of the Xenopus tadpole spinal cord Andrea Ferrario, Robert Merrison-Hort, Roman Borisyuk P8 The recognition dynamics in the brain Chang Sub Kim P9 Multivariate spike train analysis using a positive definite kernel Taro Tezuka P10 Synchronization of burst periods may govern slow brain dynamics during general anesthesia Pangyu Joo P11 The ionic basis of heterogeneity affects stochastic synchrony Young-Ah Rho, Shawn D. Burton, G. Bard Ermentrout, Jaeseung Jeong, Nathaniel N. Urban P12 Circular statistics of noise in spike trains with a periodic component Petr Marsalek P14 Representations of directions in EEG-BCI using Gaussian readouts Hoon-Hee Kim, Seok-hyun Moon, Do-won Lee, Sung-beom Lee, Ji-yong Lee, Jaeseung Jeong P15 Action selection and reinforcement learning in basal ganglia during reaching movements Yaroslav I. Molkov, Khaldoun Hamade, Wondimu Teka, William H. Barnett, Taegyo Kim, Sergey Markin, Ilya A. Rybak P17 Axon guidance: modeling axonal growth in T-Junction assay Csaba Forro, Harald Dermutz, László Demkó, János Vörös P19 Transient cell assembly networks encode persistent spatial memories Yuri Dabaghian, Andrey Babichev P20 Theory of population coupling and applications to describe high order correlations in large populations of interacting neurons Haiping Huang P21 Design of biologically-realistic simulations for motor control Sergio Verduzco-Flores P22 Towards understanding the functional impact of the behavioural variability of neurons Filipa Dos Santos, Peter Andras P23 Different oscillatory dynamics underlying gamma entrainment deficits in schizophrenia Christoph Metzner, Achim Schweikard, Bartosz Zurowski P24 Memory recall and spike frequency adaptation James P. Roach, Leonard M. Sander, Michal R. Zochowski P25 Stability of neural networks and memory consolidation preferentially occur near criticality Quinton M. Skilling, Nicolette Ognjanovski, Sara J. Aton, Michal Zochowski P26 Stochastic Oscillation in Self-Organized Critical States of Small Systems: Sensitive Resting State in Neural Systems Sheng-Jun Wang, Guang Ouyang, Jing Guang, Mingsha Zhang, K. Y. Michael Wong, Changsong Zhou P27 Neurofield: a C++ library for fast simulation of 2D neural field models Peter A. Robinson, Paula Sanz-Leon, Peter M. Drysdale, Felix Fung, Romesh G. Abeysuriya, Chris J. Rennie, Xuelong Zhao P28 Action-based grounding: Beyond encoding/decoding in neural code Yoonsuck Choe, Huei-Fang Yang P29 Neural computation in a dynamical system with multiple time scales Yuanyuan Mi, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu P30 Maximum entropy models for 3D layouts of orientation selectivity Joscha Liedtke, Manuel Schottdorf, Fred Wolf P31 A behavioral assay for probing computations underlying curiosity in rodents Yoriko Yamamura, Jeffery R. Wickens P32 Using statistical sampling to balance error function contributions to optimization of conductance-based models Timothy Rumbell, Julia Ramsey, Amy Reyes, Danel Draguljić, Patrick R. Hof, Jennifer Luebke, Christina M. Weaver P33 Exploration and implementation of a self-growing and self-organizing neuron network building algorithm Hu He, Xu Yang, Hailin Ma, Zhiheng Xu, Yuzhe Wang P34 Disrupted resting state brain network in obese subjects: a data-driven graph theory analysis Kwangyeol Baek, Laurel S. Morris, Prantik Kundu, Valerie Voon P35 Dynamics of cooperative excitatory and inhibitory plasticity Everton J. Agnes, Tim P. Vogels P36 Frequency-dependent oscillatory signal gating in feed-forward networks of integrate-and-fire neurons William F. Podlaski, Tim P. Vogels P37 Phenomenological neural model for adaptation of neurons in area IT Martin Giese, Pradeep Kuravi, Rufin Vogels P38 ICGenealogy: towards a common topology of neuronal ion channel function and genealogy in model and experiment Alexander Seeholzer, William Podlaski, Rajnish Ranjan, Tim Vogels P39 Temporal input discrimination from the interaction between dynamic synapses and neural subthreshold oscillations Joaquin J. Torres, Fabiano Baroni, Roberto Latorre, Pablo Varona P40 Different roles for transient and sustained activity during active visual processing Bart Gips, Eric Lowet, Mark J. Roberts, Peter de Weerd, Ole Jensen, Jan van der Eerden P41 Scale-free functional networks of 2D Ising model are highly robust against structural defects: neuroscience implications Abdorreza Goodarzinick, Mohammad D. Niry, Alireza Valizadeh P42 High frequency neuron can facilitate propagation of signal in neural networks Aref Pariz, Shervin S. Parsi, Alireza Valizadeh P43 Investigating the effect of Alzheimer’s disease related amyloidopathy on gamma oscillations in the CA1 region of the hippocampus Julia M. Warburton, Lucia Marucci, Francesco Tamagnini, Jon Brown, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova P44 Long-tailed distributions of inhibitory and excitatory weights in a balanced network with eSTDP and iSTDP Florence I. Kleberg, Jochen Triesch P45 Simulation of EMG recording from hand muscle due to TMS of motor cortex Bahar Moezzi, Nicolangelo Iannella, Natalie Schaworonkow, Lukas Plogmacher, Mitchell R. Goldsworthy, Brenton Hordacre, Mark D. McDonnell, Michael C. Ridding, Jochen Triesch P46 Structure and dynamics of axon network formed in primary cell culture Martin Zapotocky, Daniel Smit, Coralie Fouquet, Alain Trembleau P47 Efficient signal processing and sampling in random networks that generate variability Sakyasingha Dasgupta, Isao Nishikawa, Kazuyuki Aihara, Taro Toyoizumi P48 Modeling the effect of riluzole on bursting in respiratory neural networks Daniel T. Robb, Nick Mellen, Natalia Toporikova P49 Mapping relaxation training using effective connectivity analysis Rongxiang Tang, Yi-Yuan Tang P50 Modeling neuron oscillation of implicit sequence learning Guangsheng Liang, Seth A. Kiser, James H. Howard, Jr., Yi-Yuan Tang P51 The role of cerebellar short-term synaptic plasticity in the pathology and medication of downbeat nystagmus Julia Goncharenko, Neil Davey, Maria Schilstra, Volker Steuber P52 Nonlinear response of noisy neurons Sergej O. Voronenko, Benjamin Lindner P53 Behavioral embedding suggests multiple chaotic dimensions underlie C. elegans locomotion Tosif Ahamed, Greg Stephens P54 Fast and scalable spike sorting for large and dense multi-electrodes recordings Pierre Yger, Baptiste Lefebvre, Giulia Lia Beatrice Spampinato, Elric Esposito, Marcel Stimberg et Olivier Marre P55 Sufficient sampling rates for fast hand motion tracking Hansol Choi, Min-Ho Song P56 Linear readout of object manifolds SueYeon Chung, Dan D. Lee, Haim Sompolinsky P57 Differentiating models of intrinsic bursting and rhythm generation of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger complex using phase response curves Ryan S. Phillips, Jeffrey Smith P58 The effect of inhibitory cell network interactions during theta rhythms on extracellular field potentials in CA1 hippocampus Alexandra Pierri Chatzikalymniou, Katie Ferguson, Frances K. Skinner P59 Expansion recoding through sparse sampling in the cerebellar input layer speeds learning N. Alex Cayco Gajic, Claudia Clopath, R. Angus Silver P60 A set of curated cortical models at multiple scales on Open Source Brain Padraig Gleeson, Boris Marin, Sadra Sadeh, Adrian Quintana, Matteo Cantarelli, Salvador Dura-Bernal, William W. Lytton, Andrew Davison, R. Angus Silver P61 A synaptic story of dynamical information encoding in neural adaptation Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Si Wu P62 Physical modeling of rule-observant rodent behavior Youngjo Song, Sol Park, Ilhwan Choi, Jaeseung Jeong, Hee-sup Shin P64 Predictive coding in area V4 and prefrontal cortex explains dynamic discrimination of partially occluded shapes Hannah Choi, Anitha Pasupathy, Eric Shea-Brown P65 Stability of FORCE learning on spiking and rate-based networks Dongsung Huh, Terrence J. Sejnowski P66 Stabilising STDP in striatal neurons for reliable fast state recognition in noisy environments Simon M. Vogt, Arvind Kumar, Robert Schmidt P67 Electrodiffusion in one- and two-compartment neuron models for characterizing cellular effects of electrical stimulation Stephen Van Wert, Steven J. Schiff P68 STDP improves speech recognition capabilities in spiking recurrent circuits parameterized via differential evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo Richard Veale, Matthias Scheutz P69 Bidirectional transformation between dominant cortical neural activities and phase difference distributions Sang Wan Lee P70 Maturation of sensory networks through homeostatic structural plasticity Júlia Gallinaro, Stefan Rotter P71 Corticothalamic dynamics: structure, number of solutions and stability of steady-state solutions in the space of synaptic couplings Paula Sanz-Leon, Peter A. Robinson P72 Optogenetic versus electrical stimulation of the parkinsonian basal ganglia. Computational study Leonid L. Rubchinsky, Chung Ching Cheung, Shivakeshavan Ratnadurai-Giridharan P73 Exact spike-timing distribution reveals higher-order interactions of neurons Safura Rashid Shomali, Majid Nili Ahmadabadi, Hideaki Shimazaki, S. Nader Rasuli P74 Neural mechanism of visual perceptual learning using a multi-layered neural network Xiaochen Zhao, Malte J. Rasch P75 Inferring collective spiking dynamics from mostly unobserved systems Jens Wilting, Viola Priesemann P76 How to infer distributions in the brain from subsampled observations Anna Levina, Viola Priesemann P77 Influences of embedding and estimation strategies on the inferred memory of single spiking neurons Lucas Rudelt, Joseph T. Lizier, Viola Priesemann P78 A nearest-neighbours based estimator for transfer entropy between spike trains Joseph T. Lizier, Richard E. Spinney, Mikail Rubinov, Michael Wibral, Viola Priesemann P79 Active learning of psychometric functions with multinomial logistic models Ji Hyun Bak, Jonathan Pillow P81 Inferring low-dimensional network dynamics with variational latent Gaussian process Yuan Zaho, Il Memming Park P82 Computational investigation of energy landscapes in the resting state subcortical brain network Jiyoung Kang, Hae-Jeong Park P83 Local repulsive interaction between retinal ganglion cells can generate a consistent spatial periodicity of orientation map Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik P84 Phase duration of bistable perception reveals intrinsic time scale of perceptual decision under noisy condition Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik P85 Feedforward convergence between retina and primary visual cortex can determine the structure of orientation map Changju Lee, Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik P86 Computational method classifying neural network activity patterns for imaging data Min Song, Hyeonsu Lee, Se-Bum Paik P87 Symmetry of spike-timing-dependent-plasticity kernels regulates volatility of memory Youngjin Park, Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik P88 Effects of time-periodic coupling strength on the first-spike latency dynamics of a scale-free network of stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons Ergin Yilmaz, Veli Baysal, Mahmut Ozer P89 Spectral properties of spiking responses in V1 and V4 change within the trial and are highly relevant for behavioral performance Veronika Koren, Klaus Obermayer P90 Methods for building accurate models of individual neurons Daniel Saska, Thomas Nowotny P91 A full size mathematical model of the early olfactory system of honeybees Ho Ka Chan, Alan Diamond, Thomas Nowotny P92 Stimulation-induced tuning of ongoing oscillations in spiking neural networks Christoph S. Herrmann, Micah M. Murray, Silvio Ionta, Axel Hutt, Jérémie Lefebvre P93 Decision-specific sequences of neural activity in balanced random networks driven by structured sensory input Philipp Weidel, Renato Duarte, Abigail Morrison P94 Modulation of tuning induced by abrupt reduction of SST cell activity Jung H. Lee, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Stefan Mihalas P95 The functional role of VIP cell activation during locomotion Jung H. Lee, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Christof Koch, Stefan Mihalas P96 Stochastic inference with spiking neural networks Mihai A. Petrovici, Luziwei Leng, Oliver Breitwieser, David Stöckel, Ilja Bytschok, Roman Martel, Johannes Bill, Johannes Schemmel, Karlheinz Meier P97 Modeling orientation-selective electrical stimulation with retinal prostheses Timothy B. Esler, Anthony N. Burkitt, David B. Grayden, Robert R. Kerr, Bahman Tahayori, Hamish Meffin P98 Ion channel noise can explain firing correlation in auditory nerves Bahar Moezzi, Nicolangelo Iannella, Mark D. McDonnell P99 Limits of temporal encoding of thalamocortical inputs in a neocortical microcircuit Max Nolte, Michael W. Reimann, Eilif Muller, Henry Markram P100 On the representation of arm reaching movements: a computational model Antonio Parziale, Rosa Senatore, Angelo Marcelli P101 A computational model for investigating the role of cerebellum in acquisition and retention of motor behavior Rosa Senatore, Antonio Parziale, Angelo Marcelli P102 The emergence of semantic categories from a large-scale brain network of semantic knowledge K. Skiker, M. Maouene P103 Multiscale modeling of M1 multitarget pharmacotherapy for dystonia Samuel A. Neymotin, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Alexandra Seidenstein, Peter Lakatos, Terence D. Sanger, William W. Lytton P104 Effect of network size on computational capacity Salvador Dura-Bernal, Rosemary J. Menzies, Campbell McLauchlan, Sacha J. van Albada, David J. Kedziora, Samuel Neymotin, William W. Lytton, Cliff C. Kerr P105 NetPyNE: a Python package for NEURON to facilitate development and parallel simulation of biological neuronal networks Salvador Dura-Bernal, Benjamin A. Suter, Samuel A. Neymotin, Cliff C. Kerr, Adrian Quintana, Padraig Gleeson, Gordon M. G. Shepherd, William W. Lytton P107 Inter-areal and inter-regional inhomogeneity in co-axial anisotropy of Cortical Point Spread in human visual areas Juhyoung Ryu, Sang-Hun Lee P108 Two bayesian quanta of uncertainty explain the temporal dynamics of cortical activity in the non-sensory areas during bistable perception Joonwon Lee, Sang-Hun Lee P109 Optimal and suboptimal integration of sensory and value information in perceptual decision making Hyang Jung Lee, Sang-Hun Lee P110 A Bayesian algorithm for phoneme Perception and its neural implementation Daeseob Lim, Sang-Hun Lee P111 Complexity of EEG signals is reduced during unconsciousness induced by ketamine and propofol Jisung Wang, Heonsoo Lee P112 Self-organized criticality of neural avalanche in a neural model on complex networks Nam Jung, Le Anh Quang, Seung Eun Maeng, Tae Ho Lee, Jae Woo Lee P113 Dynamic alterations in connection topology of the hippocampal network during ictal-like epileptiform activity in an in vitro rat model Chang-hyun Park, Sora Ahn, Jangsup Moon, Yun Seo Choi, Juhee Kim, Sang Beom Jun, Seungjun Lee, Hyang Woon Lee P114 Computational model to replicate seizure suppression effect by electrical stimulation Sora Ahn, Sumin Jo, Eunji Jun, Suin Yu, Hyang Woon Lee, Sang Beom Jun, Seungjun Lee P115 Identifying excitatory and inhibitory synapses in neuronal networks from spike trains using sorted local transfer entropy Felix Goetze, Pik-Yin Lai P116 Neural network model for obstacle avoidance based on neuromorphic computational model of boundary vector cell and head direction cell Seonghyun Kim, Jeehyun Kwag P117 Dynamic gating of spike pattern propagation by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian spike timing-dependent plasticity in excitatory feedforward network model Hyun Jae Jang, Jeehyun Kwag P118 Inferring characteristics of input correlations of cells exhibiting up-down state transitions in the rat striatum Marko Filipović, Ramon Reig, Ad Aertsen, Gilad Silberberg, Arvind Kumar P119 Graph properties of the functional connected brain under the influence of Alzheimer’s disease Claudia Bachmann, Simone Buttler, Heidi Jacobs, Kim Dillen, Gereon R. Fink, Juraj Kukolja, Abigail Morrison P120 Learning sparse representations in the olfactory bulb Daniel Kepple, Hamza Giaffar, Dima Rinberg, Steven Shea, Alex Koulakov P121 Functional classification of homologous basal-ganglia networks Jyotika Bahuguna,Tom Tetzlaff, Abigail Morrison, Arvind Kumar, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski P122 Short term memory based on multistability Tim Kunze, Andre Peterson, Thomas Knösche P123 A physiologically plausible, computationally efficient model and simulation software for mammalian motor units Minjung Kim, Hojeong Kim P125 Decoding laser-induced somatosensory information from EEG Ji Sung Park, Ji Won Yeon, Sung-Phil Kim P126 Phase synchronization of alpha activity for EEG-based personal authentication Jae-Hwan Kang, Chungho Lee, Sung-Phil Kim P129 Investigating phase-lags in sEEG data using spatially distributed time delays in a large-scale brain network model Andreas Spiegler, Spase Petkoski, Matias J. Palva, Viktor K. Jirsa P130 Epileptic seizures in the unfolding of a codimension-3 singularity Maria L. Saggio, Silvan F. Siep, Andreas Spiegler, William C. Stacey, Christophe Bernard, Viktor K. Jirsa P131 Incremental dimensional exploratory reasoning under multi-dimensional environment Oh-hyeon Choung, Yong Jeong P132 A low-cost model of eye movements and memory in personal visual cognition Yong-il Lee, Jaeseung Jeong P133 Complex network analysis of structural connectome of autism spectrum disorder patients Su Hyun Kim, Mir Jeong, Jaeseung Jeong P134 Cognitive motives and the neural correlates underlying human social information transmission, gossip Jeungmin Lee, Jaehyung Kwon, Jerald D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong P135 EEG hyperscanning detects neural oscillation for the social interaction during the economic decision-making Jaehwan Jahng, Dong-Uk Hwang, Jaeseung Jeong P136 Detecting purchase decision based on hyperfrontality of the EEG Jae-Hyung Kwon, Sang-Min Park, Jaeseung Jeong P137 Vulnerability-based critical neurons, synapses, and pathways in the Caenorhabditis elegans connectome Seongkyun Kim, Hyoungkyu Kim, Jerald D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong P138 Motif analysis reveals functionally asymmetrical neurons in C. elegans Pyeong Soo Kim, Seongkyun Kim, Hyoungkyu Kim, Jaeseung Jeong P139 Computational approach to preference-based serial decision dynamics: do temporal discounting and working memory affect it? Sangsup Yoon, Jaehyung Kwon, Sewoong Lim, Jaeseung Jeong P141 Social stress induced neural network reconfiguration affects decision making and learning in zebrafish Choongseok Park, Thomas Miller, Katie Clements, Sungwoo Ahn, Eoon Hye Ji, Fadi A. Issa P142 Descriptive, generative, and hybrid approaches for neural connectivity inference from neural activity data JeongHun Baek, Shigeyuki Oba, Junichiro Yoshimoto, Kenji Doya, Shin Ishii P145 Divergent-convergent synaptic connectivities accelerate coding in multilayered sensory systems Thiago S. Mosqueiro, Martin F. Strube-Bloss, Brian Smith, Ramon Huerta P146 Swinging networks Michal Hadrava, Jaroslav Hlinka P147 Inferring dynamically relevant motifs from oscillatory stimuli: challenges, pitfalls, and solutions Hannah Bos, Moritz Helias P148 Spatiotemporal mapping of brain network dynamics during cognitive tasks using magnetoencephalography and deep learning Charles M. Welzig, Zachary J. Harper P149 Multiscale complexity analysis for the segmentation of MRI images Won Sup Kim, In-Seob Shin, Hyeon-Man Baek, Seung Kee Han P150 A neuro-computational model of emotional attention René Richter, Julien Vitay, Frederick Beuth, Fred H. Hamker P151 Multi-site delayed feedback stimulation in parkinsonian networks Kelly Toppin, Yixin Guo P152 Bistability in Hodgkin–Huxley-type equations Tatiana Kameneva, Hamish Meffin, Anthony N. Burkitt, David B. Grayden P153 Phase changes in postsynaptic spiking due to synaptic connectivity and short term plasticity: mathematical analysis of frequency dependency Mark D. McDonnell, Bruce P. Graham P154 Quantifying resilience patterns in brain networks: the importance of directionality Penelope J. Kale, Leonardo L. Gollo P155 Dynamics of rate-model networks with separate excitatory and inhibitory populations Merav Stern, L. F. Abbott P156 A model for multi-stable dynamics in action recognition modulated by integration of silhouette and shading cues Leonid A. Fedorov, Martin A. Giese P157 Spiking model for the interaction between action recognition and action execution Mohammad Hovaidi Ardestani, Martin Giese P158 Surprise-modulated belief update: how to learn within changing environments? Mohammad Javad Faraji, Kerstin Preuschoff, Wulfram Gerstner P159 A fast, stochastic and adaptive model of auditory nerve responses to cochlear implant stimulation Margriet J. van Gendt, Jeroen J. Briaire, Randy K. Kalkman, Johan H. M. Frijns P160 Quantitative comparison of graph theoretical measures of simulated and empirical functional brain networks Won Hee Lee, Sophia Frangou P161 Determining discriminative properties of fMRI signals in schizophrenia using highly comparative time-series analysis Ben D. Fulcher, Patricia H. P. Tran, Alex Fornito P162 Emergence of narrowband LFP oscillations from completely asynchronous activity during seizures and high-frequency oscillations Stephen V. Gliske, William C. Stacey, Eugene Lim, Katherine A. Holman, Christian G. Fink P163 Neuronal diversity in structure and function: cross-validation of anatomical and physiological classification of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse Jinseop S. Kim, Shang Mu, Kevin L. Briggman, H. Sebastian Seung, the EyeWirers P164 Analysis and modelling of transient firing rate changes in area MT in response to rapid stimulus feature changes Detlef Wegener, Lisa Bohnenkamp, Udo A. Ernst P165 Step-wise model fitting accounting for high-resolution spatial measurements: construction of a layer V pyramidal cell model with reduced morphology Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Geir Halnes, Anna Devor, Christoph Metzner, Anders M. Dale, Ole A. Andreassen, Gaute T. Einevoll P166 Contributions of schizophrenia-associated genes to neuron firing and cardiac pacemaking: a polygenic modeling approach Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Glenn T. Lines, Andy Edwards, Aslak Tveito, Anders M. Dale, Gaute T. Einevoll, Ole A. Andreassen P167 Local field potentials in a 4 × 4 mm2 multi-layered network model Espen Hagen, Johanna Senk, Sacha J. van Albada, Markus Diesmann P168 A spiking network model explains multi-scale properties of cortical dynamics Maximilian Schmidt, Rembrandt Bakker, Kelly Shen, Gleb Bezgin, Claus-Christian Hilgetag, Markus Diesmann, Sacha Jennifer van Albada P169 Using joint weight-delay spike-timing dependent plasticity to find polychronous neuronal groups Haoqi Sun, Olga Sourina, Guang-Bin Huang, Felix Klanner, Cornelia Denk P170 Tensor decomposition reveals RSNs in simulated resting state fMRI Katharina Glomb, Adrián Ponce-Alvarez, Matthieu Gilson, Petra Ritter, Gustavo Deco P171 Getting in the groove: testing a new model-based method for comparing task-evoked vs resting-state activity in fMRI data on music listening Matthieu Gilson, Maria AG Witek, Eric F. Clarke, Mads Hansen, Mikkel Wallentin, Gustavo Deco, Morten L. Kringelbach, Peter Vuust P172 STochastic engine for pathway simulation (STEPS) on massively parallel processors Guido Klingbeil, Erik De Schutter P173 Toolkit support for complex parallel spatial stochastic reaction–diffusion simulation in STEPS Weiliang Chen, Erik De Schutter P174 Modeling the generation and propagation of Purkinje cell dendritic spikes caused by parallel fiber synaptic input Yunliang Zang, Erik De Schutter P175 Dendritic morphology determines how dendrites are organized into functional subunits Sungho Hong, Akira Takashima, Erik De Schutter P176 A model of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in long term depression at Purkinje cells Criseida Zamora, Andrew R. Gallimore, Erik De Schutter P177 Reward-modulated learning of population-encoded vectors for insect-like navigation in embodied agents Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta P178 Data-driven neural models part II: connectivity patterns of human seizures Philippa J. Karoly, Dean R. Freestone, Daniel Soundry, Levin Kuhlmann, Liam Paninski, Mark Cook P179 Data-driven neural models part I: state and parameter estimation Dean R. Freestone, Philippa J. Karoly, Daniel Soundry, Levin Kuhlmann, Mark Cook P180 Spectral and spatial information processing in human auditory streaming Jaejin Lee, Yonatan I. Fishman, Yale E. Cohen P181 A tuning curve for the global effects of local perturbations in neural activity: Mapping the systems-level susceptibility of the brain Leonardo L. Gollo, James A. Roberts, Luca Cocchi P182 Diverse homeostatic responses to visual deprivation mediated by neural ensembles Yann Sweeney, Claudia Clopath P183 Opto-EEG: a novel method for investigating functional connectome in mouse brain based on optogenetics and high density electroencephalography Soohyun Lee, Woo-Sung Jung, Jee Hyun Choi P184 Biphasic responses of frontal gamma network to repetitive sleep deprivation during REM sleep Bowon Kim, Youngsoo Kim, Eunjin Hwang, Jee Hyun Choi P185 Brain-state correlate and cortical connectivity for frontal gamma oscillations in top-down fashion assessed by auditory steady-state response Younginha Jung, Eunjin Hwang, Yoon-Kyu Song, Jee Hyun Choi P186 Neural field model of localized orientation selective activation in V1 James Rankin, Frédéric Chavane P187 An oscillatory network model of Head direction and Grid cells using locomotor inputs Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy P188 A computational model of hippocampus inspired by the functional architecture of basal ganglia Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy P189 A computational architecture to model the microanatomy of the striatum and its functional properties Sabyasachi Shivkumar, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy P190 A scalable cortico-basal ganglia model to understand the neural dynamics of targeted reaching Vignesh Muralidharan, Alekhya Mandali, B. Pragathi Priyadharsini, Hima Mehta, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy P191 Emergence of radial orientation selectivity from synaptic plasticity Catherine E. Davey, David B. Grayden, Anthony N. Burkitt P192 How do hidden units shape effective connections between neurons? Braden A. W. Brinkman, Tyler Kekona, Fred Rieke, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael Buice P193 Characterization of neural firing in the presence of astrocyte-synapse signaling Maurizio De Pittà, Hugues Berry, Nicolas Brunel P194 Metastability of spatiotemporal patterns in a large-scale network model of brain dynamics James A. Roberts, Leonardo L. Gollo, Michael Breakspear P195 Comparison of three methods to quantify detection and discrimination capacity estimated from neural population recordings Gary Marsat, Jordan Drew, Phillip D. Chapman, Kevin C. Daly, Samual P. Bradley P196 Quantifying the constraints for independent evoked and spontaneous NMDA receptor mediated synaptic transmission at individual synapses Sat Byul Seo, Jianzhong Su, Ege T. Kavalali, Justin Blackwell P199 Gamma oscillation via adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neurons LieJune Shiau, Laure Buhry, Kanishka Basnayake P200 Visual face representations during memory retrieval compared to perception Sue-Hyun Lee, Brandon A. Levy, Chris I. Baker P201 Top-down modulation of sequential activity within packets modeled using avalanche dynamics Timothée Leleu, Kazuyuki Aihara Q28 An auto-encoder network realizes sparse features under the influence of desynchronized vascular dynamics Ryan T. Philips, Karishma Chhabria, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy

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    Authors: Etheridge, J. R.; Birgand, F.; Burchell II, M. R.; Lepistö, A.; +2 Authors

    The Integrated Catchment model for Nitrogen (INCA-N) is a semi-distributed, process based model that has been used to model the impacts of land use, climate, and land management changes on hydrology and nitrogen loading. An observed problem with the INCA-N model is reproducing low nitrate–nitrogen concentrations during the summer growing season in some catchments. In this study, the current equation used to simulate the rate of in-stream denitrification was replaced with an alternate equation that uses a mass transfer coefficient and the stream bottom area. The results of simulating in-stream denitrification using the two different methods were compared for a one year simulation period of the Yläneenjoki catchment in Finland. The alternate equation (Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.61) simulated concentrations during the periods of the growing season with the lowest flow that were closer to the observed concentrations than the current equation (Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.60), but the results were mixed during other portions of the year. The results of the calibration and validation of the model using the two equations show that the alternate equation will simulate lower nitrate–nitrogen concentrations during the growing season when compared to the current equation, but promote investigation into other errors in the model that may be causing inaccuracies in the modeled concentrations.

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    Authors: J. A. Franke; J. A. Franke; C. Müller; J. Elliott; +40 Authors

    Concerns about food security under climate change motivate efforts to better understand future changes in crop yields. Process-based crop models, which represent plant physiological and soil processes, are necessary tools for this purpose since they allow representing future climate and management conditions not sampled in the historical record and new locations to which cultivation may shift. However, process-based crop models differ in many critical details, and their responses to different interacting factors remain only poorly understood. The Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) Phase 2 experiment, an activity of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), is designed to provide a systematic parameter sweep focused on climate change factors and their interaction with overall soil fertility, to allow both evaluating model behavior and emulating model responses in impact assessment tools. In this paper we describe the GGCMI Phase 2 experimental protocol and its simulation data archive. A total of 12 crop models simulate five crops with systematic uniform perturbations of historical climate, varying CO2, temperature, water supply, and applied nitrogen (“CTWN”) for rainfed and irrigated agriculture, and a second set of simulations represents a type of adaptation by allowing the adjustment of growing season length. We present some crop yield results to illustrate general characteristics of the simulations and potential uses of the GGCMI Phase 2 archive. For example, in cases without adaptation, modeled yields show robust decreases to warmer temperatures in almost all regions, with a nonlinear dependence that means yields in warmer baseline locations have greater temperature sensitivity. Inter-model uncertainty is qualitatively similar across all the four input dimensions but is largest in high-latitude regions where crops may be grown in the future.

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    Authors: Helen Phillips; Carlos A. Guerra; Marie Luise Carolina Bartz; Maria J. I. Briones; +137 Authors

    677232 to N.E.). K.S.R. and W.H.v.d.P. were supported by ERC-ADV grant 323020 to W.H.v.d.P. Also supported by iDiv (DFG FZT118) Flexpool proposal 34600850 (C.A.G. and N.E.); the Academy of Finland (285882) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (postdoctoral fellowship and RGPIN-2019-05758) (E.K.C.); DOB Ecology (T.W.C., J.v.d.H., and D.R.); ERC-AdG 694368 (M.R.); and the TULIP Laboratory of Excellence (ANR-10-LABX-41) (M.L.). In addition, data collection was funded by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (12-04-01538-a, 12-04-01734-a, 14-44-03666-r_center_a, 15-29-02724-ofi_m, 16-04-01878-a 19-05-00245); Tarbiat Modares University; Aurora Organic Dairy; UGC(NERO) (F. 1-6/Acctt./NERO/2007-08/1485); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (RGPIN-2017-05391); Slovak Research and Development Agency (APVV-0098-12); Science for Global Development through Wageningen University; Norman Borlaug LEAP Programme and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP (12/22510-8); Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station; INIA - Spanish Agency (SUM 2006-00012-00-0); Royal Canadian Geographical Society; Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland) (2005-S-LS-8); University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (HAW01127H; HAW01123M); European Union FP7 (FunDivEurope, 265171); U.S. Department of the Navy, Commander Pacific Fleet (W9126G-13-2-0047); Science and Engineering Research Board (SB/SO/AS-030/2013) Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India; Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the U.S. Department of Defense (RC-1542); Maranhão State Research Foundation (FAPEMA); Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES); Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (LTT17033); Colorado Wheat Research Foundation; Zone Atelier Alpes, French National Research Agency (ANR-11-BSV7-020-01, ANR-09-STRA-02-01, ANR 06 BIODIV 009-01); Austrian Science Fund (P16027, T441); Landwirtschaftliche Rentenbank Frankfurt am Main; Welsh Government and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (Project Ref. A AAB 62 03 qA731606); SÉPAQ; Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland; Science Foundation Ireland (EEB0061); University of Toronto (Faculty of Forestry); National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve; NKU College of Arts and Sciences Grant; Österreichische Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft (837393 and 837426); Mountain Agriculture Research Unit of the University of Innsbruck; Higher Education Commission of Pakistan; Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Kerala; UNEP/GEF/TSBF-CIAT Project on Conservation and Sustainable Management of Belowground Biodiversity; Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland; Complutense University of Madrid/European Union FP7 project BioBio (FPU UCM 613520); GRDC; AWI; LWRRDC; DRDC; CONICET (National Scientific and Technical Research Council) and FONCyT (National Agency of Scientific and Technological Promotion) (PICT, PAE, PIP), Universidad Nacional de Luján y FONCyT [PICT 2293 (2006)], Fonds de recherche sur la nature et les technologies du Québec (131894), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [SCHR1000/3-1, SCHR1000/6-1, 6-2 (FOR 1598), WO 670/7-1, WO 670/7-2, and SCHA 1719/1-2], CONACYT (FONDOS MIXTOS TABASCO/PROYECTO11316); NSF (DGE-0549245, DGE-0549245, DEB-BE-0909452, NSF1241932); Institute for Environmental Science and Policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago; Dean’s Scholar Program at UIC; Garden Club of America Zone VI Fellowship in Urban Forestry from the Casey Tree Endowment Fund; J. E. Weaver Competitive Grant from the Nebraska Chapter of The Nature Conservancy; the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at DePaul University; Elmore Hadley Award for Research in Ecology and Evolution from the UIC Dept. of Biological Sciences; Spanish CICYT (AMB96-1161; REN2000-0783/GLO; REN2003-05553/GLO; REN2003-03989/GLO; CGL2007-60661/BOS); Yokohama National University; MEXT KAKENHI (25220104); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (25281053, 17KT0074, 25252026); ADEME (0775C0035); Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities of Spain (CGL2017-86926-P); Syngenta Philippines; UPSTREAM; LTSER (Val Mazia/Matschertal); Marie Sklodowska Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship (747607); National Science and Technology Base Resource Survey Project of China (2018FY100306); McKnight Foundation (14-168); Program of Fundamental Researches of Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences (AAAA-A18-118021490070-5); Brazilian National Council of Research CNPq; and French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. Author contributions: H.R.P.P. led the analysis, data curation, and writing of the original manuscript draft. C.A.G. assisted in analyses and writing of the original manuscript draft. E.K.C. and N.E. revised subsequent manuscript drafts. J.v.d.H., D.R., and T.W.C. provided additional analyses. E.K.C., N.E., and M.P.T. acquired funding for the project. J.K., K.B.G., B.S., M.L.C.B., M.J.I.B., and G.B. contributed to data curation. H.R.P.P., C.A.G., M.L.C.B., M.J.I.B., G.B., O.F., A.O., E.M.B., J.B., U.B., T.D., F.T.d.V., B.K.-R., M.L., J.M., C.M., W.H.v.d.P., K.S.R., M.C.R., D.R., M.R., M.P.T., D.H.W., D.A.W., E.K.C., and N.E. contributed to the project conceptualization. All authors reviewed and edited the final draft manuscript. The majority of the authors provided data for the analyses. Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests. Data and materials availability: Data and analysis code are available on the iDiv Data repository (DOI: 10.25829/idiv.1804-5-2593) and GitHub (https://github.com/helenphillips/GlobalEWDiversity; DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3386456). Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.

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    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Johannes W. Kaiser; Glenn M. Wolfe; Birger Bohn; Sebastian Broch; +16 Authors

    Abstract. Ozone concentrations in the Po Valley of Northern Italy often exceed international regulations. As both a source of radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. We investigate the sources of HCHO in the Po Valley using vertical profile measurements acquired from the airship Zeppelin NT over an agricultural region during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. Using a 1-D model, the total VOC oxidation rate is examined and discussed in the context of formaldehyde and ozone production in the early morning. While model and measurement discrepancies in OH reactivity are small (on average 3.4±11%), HCHO concentrations are underestimated by as much as 1.5 ppb (45%) in the convective mixed layer. A similar underestimate in HCHO was seen in the 2002–2003 FORMAT Po-Valley measurements, though the additional source of HCHO was not identified. Oxidation of unmeasured VOC precursors cannot explain the missing HCHO source, as measured OH reactivity is explained by measured VOCs and their calculated oxidation products. We conclude that local direct emissions from agricultural land are the most likely source of missing HCHO. Model calculations demonstrate that radicals from degradation of this non-photochemical HCHO source increase model ozone production rates by as much as 0.7 ppb h−1 (10%) before noon.

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    Authors: James A. Franke; Christoph Müller; Joshua Elliott; Alex C. Ruane; +20 Authors

    Abstract. Statistical emulation allows combining advantageous features of statistical and process-based crop models for understanding the effects of future climate changes on crop yields. We describe here the development of emulators for nine process-based crop models and five crops using output from the Global Gridded Model Intercomparison Project (GGCMI) Phase 2. The GGCMI Phase 2 experiment is designed with the explicit goal of producing a structured training dataset for emulator development that samples across four dimensions relevant to crop yields: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, temperature, water supply, and nitrogen inputs (CTWN). Simulations are run under two different adaptation assumptions: that growing seasons shorten in warmer climates, and that cultivar choice allows growing seasons to remain fixed. The dataset allows emulating the climatological-mean yield response of all models with a simple polynomial in mean growing-season values. Climatological-mean yields are a central metric in climate change impact analysis; we show here that they can be captured without relying on interannual variations. In general, emulation errors are negligible relative to differences across crop models or even across climate model scenarios; errors become significant only in some marginal lands where crops are not currently grown. We demonstrate that the resulting GGCMI emulators can reproduce yields under realistic future climate simulations, even though the GGCMI Phase 2 dataset is constructed with uniform CTWN offsets, suggesting that the effects of changes in temperature and precipitation distributions are small relative to those of changing means. The resulting emulators therefore capture relevant crop model responses in a lightweight, computationally tractable form, providing a tool that can facilitate model comparison, diagnosis of interacting factors affecting yields, and integrated assessment of climate impacts.

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    Geoscientific Model Development
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    Geoscientific Model Development
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      Geoscientific Model Development
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    Authors: James Franke; Christoph Müller; Joshua Elliott; Alex C. Ruane; +20 Authors

    Abstract. Statistical emulation allows combining advantageous features of statistical and process-based crop models for understanding the effects of future climate changes on crop yields. We describe here the development of emulators for nine process-based crop models and five crops using output from the Global Gridded Model Intercomparison Project (GGCMI) Phase II. The GGCMI Phase II experiment is designed with the explicit goal of producing a structured training dataset for emulator development that samples across four dimensions relevant to crop yields: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, temperature, water supply, and nitrogen inputs (CTWN). Simulations are run under two different adaptation assumptions: that growing seasons shorten in warmer climates, and that cultivar choice allows growing seasons to remain fixed. The dataset allows emulating the climatological mean yield response without relying on interannual variations; we show that these are quantitatively different. Climatological mean yield responses can be readily captured with a simple polynomial in nearly all locations, with errors significant only in some marginal lands where crops are not currently grown. In general, emulation errors are negligible relative to differences across crop models or even across climate model scenarios. We demonstrate that the resulting GGCMI emulators can reproduce yields under realistic future climate simulations, even though the GGCMI Phase II dataset is constructed with uniform CTWN offsets, suggesting that effects of changes in temperature and precipitation distributions are small relative to those of changing means. The resulting emulators therefore capture relevant crop model responses in a lightweight, computationally tractable form, providing a tool that can facilitate model comparison, diagnosis of interacting factors affecting yields, and integrated assessment of climate impacts.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://gmd.copernic...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J. A. Franke; J. A. Franke; C. Müller; J. Elliott; +33 Authors

    Statistical emulation allows combining advantageous features of statistical and process-based crop models for understanding the effects of future climate changes on crop yields. We describe here the development of emulators for nine process-based crop models and five crops using output from the Global Gridded Model Intercomparison Project (GGCMI) Phase 2. The GGCMI Phase 2 experiment is designed with the explicit goal of producing a structured training dataset for emulator development that samples across four dimensions relevant to crop yields: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, temperature, water supply, and nitrogen inputs (CTWN). Simulations are run under two different adaptation assumptions: that growing seasons shorten in warmer climates, and that cultivar choice allows growing seasons to remain fixed. The dataset allows emulating the climatological-mean yield response of all models with a simple polynomial in mean growing-season values. Climatological-mean yields are a central metric in climate change impact analysis; we show here that they can be captured without relying on interannual variations. In general, emulation errors are negligible relative to differences across crop models or even across climate model scenarios; errors become significant only in some marginal lands where crops are not currently grown. We demonstrate that the resulting GGCMI emulators can reproduce yields under realistic future climate simulations, even though the GGCMI Phase 2 dataset is constructed with uniform CTWN offsets, suggesting that the effects of changes in temperature and precipitation distributions are small relative to those of changing means. The resulting emulators therefore capture relevant crop model responses in a lightweight, computationally tractable form, providing a tool that can facilitate model comparison, diagnosis of interacting factors affecting yields, and integrated assessment of climate impacts.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This