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  • SDSN - Greece
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ana, Popovic; Tran, Hai; Anatoly, Tchigvintsev; Mahbod, Hajighasemi; +17 Authors

    AbstractMetagenomics has made accessible an enormous reserve of global biochemical diversity. To tap into this vast resource of novel enzymes, we have screened over one million clones from metagenome DNA libraries derived from sixteen different environments for carboxylesterase activity and identified 714 positive hits. We have validated the esterase activity of 80 selected genes, which belong to 17 different protein families including unknown and cyclase-like proteins. Three metagenomic enzymes exhibited lipase activity, and seven proteins showed polyester depolymerization activity against polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Detailed biochemical characterization of four new enzymes revealed their substrate preference, whereas their catalytic residues were identified using site-directed mutagenesis. The crystal structure of the metal-ion dependent esterase MGS0169 from the amidohydrolase superfamily revealed a novel active site with a bound unknown ligand. Thus, activity-centered metagenomics has revealed diverse enzymes and novel families of microbial carboxylesterases, whose activity could not have been predicted using bioinformatics tools.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Reportsarrow_drop_down
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    Scientific Reports
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Reportsarrow_drop_down
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      Scientific Reports
      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2017
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tittensor, Derek P.; Eddy, Tyler D.; Lotze, Heike K.; Galbraith, Eric D.; +33 Authors

    International audience; Model intercomparison studies in the climate and Earth sciences communities have been crucial to building credibility and coherence for future projections. They have quantified variability among models, spurred model development , contrasted within-and among-model uncertainty, assessed model fits to historical data, and provided ensemble projections of future change under specified scenarios. Given the speed and magnitude of anthropogenic change in the marine environment and the consequent effects on food security, biodiversity, marine industries, and society, the time is ripe for similar comparisons among models of fisheries and marine ecosystems. Here, we describe the Fisheries and Marine Ecosystem Model Intercomparison Project protocol version 1.0 (Fish-MIP v1.0), part of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), which is a cross-sectoral network of climate impact modellers. Given the complexity of the marine ecosystem, this class of models has substantial heterogeneity of purpose, scope, theoretical underpinning , processes considered, parameterizations, resolution (grain size), and spatial extent. This heterogeneity reflects the lack of a unified understanding of the marine ecosystem and implies that the assemblage of all models is more likely to include a greater number of relevant processes than any single model. The current Fish-MIP protocol is designed to allow these heterogeneous models to be forced with common Earth System Model (ESM) Coupled Model Intercompari-son Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) outputs under prescribed scenarios for historic (from the 1950s) and future (to 2100) time periods; it will be adapted to CMIP phase 6 (CMIP6) in future iterations. It also describes a standardized set of outputs for each participating Fish-MIP model to produce. This enables the broad characterization of differences between and uncertainties within models and projections when assessing climate and fisheries impacts on marine ecosystems and the services they provide. The systematic generation, collation, and comparison of results from Fish-MIP will inform an understanding of the range of plausible changes in marine ecosystems and improve our capacity to define and convey the strengths and weaknesses of model-based advice on future states of marine ecosystems and fisheries. Ultimately, Fish-MIP represents a step towards bringing together the marine ecosystem modelling community to produce consistent ensemble medium-and long-term projections of marine ecosystems.

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    Geoscientific Model Development
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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2018
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      Geoscientific Model Development
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2018
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alain Destexhe; Chaitanya Chintaluri; Dorottya Cserpán; Zachary P. Kilpatrick; +189 Authors

    Table of contents A1 Functional advantages of cell-type heterogeneity in neural circuits Tatyana O. Sharpee A2 Mesoscopic modeling of propagating waves in visual cortex Alain Destexhe A3 Dynamics and biomarkers of mental disorders Mitsuo Kawato F1 Precise recruitment of spiking output at theta frequencies requires dendritic h-channels in multi-compartment models of oriens-lacunosum/moleculare hippocampal interneurons Vladislav Sekulić, Frances K. Skinner F2 Kernel methods in reconstruction of current sources from extracellular potentials for single cells and the whole brains Daniel K. Wójcik, Chaitanya Chintaluri, Dorottya Cserpán, Zoltán Somogyvári F3 The synchronized periods depend on intracellular transcriptional repression mechanisms in circadian clocks. Jae Kyoung Kim, Zachary P. Kilpatrick, Matthew R. Bennett, Kresimir Josić O1 Assessing irregularity and coordination of spiking-bursting rhythms in central pattern generators Irene Elices, David Arroyo, Rafael Levi, Francisco B. Rodriguez, Pablo Varona O2 Regulation of top-down processing by cortically-projecting parvalbumin positive neurons in basal forebrain Eunjin Hwang, Bowon Kim, Hio-Been Han, Tae Kim, James T. McKenna, Ritchie E. Brown, Robert W. McCarley, Jee Hyun Choi O3 Modeling auditory stream segregation, build-up and bistability James Rankin, Pamela Osborn Popp, John Rinzel O4 Strong competition between tonotopic neural ensembles explains pitch-related dynamics of auditory cortex evoked fields Alejandro Tabas, André Rupp, Emili Balaguer-Ballester O5 A simple model of retinal response to multi-electrode stimulation Matias I. Maturana, David B. Grayden, Shaun L. Cloherty, Tatiana Kameneva, Michael R. Ibbotson, Hamish Meffin O6 Noise correlations in V4 area correlate with behavioral performance in visual discrimination task Veronika Koren, Timm Lochmann, Valentin Dragoi, Klaus Obermayer O7 Input-location dependent gain modulation in cerebellar nucleus neurons Maria Psarrou, Maria Schilstra, Neil Davey, Benjamin Torben-Nielsen, Volker Steuber O8 Analytic solution of cable energy function for cortical axons and dendrites Huiwen Ju, Jiao Yu, Michael L. Hines, Liang Chen, Yuguo Yu O9 C. elegans interactome: interactive visualization of Caenorhabditis elegans worm neuronal network Jimin Kim, Will Leahy, Eli Shlizerman O10 Is the model any good? Objective criteria for computational neuroscience model selection Justas Birgiolas, Richard C. Gerkin, Sharon M. Crook O11 Cooperation and competition of gamma oscillation mechanisms Atthaphon Viriyopase, Raoul-Martin Memmesheimer, Stan Gielen O12 A discrete structure of the brain waves Yuri Dabaghian, Justin DeVito, Luca Perotti O13 Direction-specific silencing of the Drosophila gaze stabilization system Anmo J. Kim, Lisa M. Fenk, Cheng Lyu, Gaby Maimon O14 What does the fruit fly think about values? A model of olfactory associative learning Chang Zhao, Yves Widmer, Simon Sprecher,Walter Senn O15 Effects of ionic diffusion on power spectra of local field potentials (LFP) Geir Halnes, Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Daniel Keller, Klas H. Pettersen,Ole A. Andreassen, Gaute T. Einevoll O16 Large-scale cortical models towards understanding relationship between brain structure abnormalities and cognitive deficits Yasunori Yamada O17 Spatial coarse-graining the brain: origin of minicolumns Moira L. Steyn-Ross, D. Alistair Steyn-Ross O18 Modeling large-scale cortical networks with laminar structure Jorge F. Mejias, John D. Murray, Henry Kennedy, Xiao-Jing Wang O19 Information filtering by partial synchronous spikes in a neural population Alexandra Kruscha, Jan Grewe, Jan Benda, Benjamin Lindner O20 Decoding context-dependent olfactory valence in Drosophila Laurent Badel, Kazumi Ohta, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Hokto Kazama P1 Neural network as a scale-free network: the role of a hub B. Kahng P2 Hemodynamic responses to emotions and decisions using near-infrared spectroscopy optical imaging Nicoladie D. Tam P3 Phase space analysis of hemodynamic responses to intentional movement directions using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) optical imaging technique Nicoladie D.Tam, Luca Pollonini, George Zouridakis P4 Modeling jamming avoidance of weakly electric fish Jaehyun Soh, DaeEun Kim P5 Synergy and redundancy of retinal ganglion cells in prediction Minsu Yoo, S. E. Palmer P6 A neural field model with a third dimension representing cortical depth Viviana Culmone, Ingo Bojak P7 Network analysis of a probabilistic connectivity model of the Xenopus tadpole spinal cord Andrea Ferrario, Robert Merrison-Hort, Roman Borisyuk P8 The recognition dynamics in the brain Chang Sub Kim P9 Multivariate spike train analysis using a positive definite kernel Taro Tezuka P10 Synchronization of burst periods may govern slow brain dynamics during general anesthesia Pangyu Joo P11 The ionic basis of heterogeneity affects stochastic synchrony Young-Ah Rho, Shawn D. Burton, G. Bard Ermentrout, Jaeseung Jeong, Nathaniel N. Urban P12 Circular statistics of noise in spike trains with a periodic component Petr Marsalek P14 Representations of directions in EEG-BCI using Gaussian readouts Hoon-Hee Kim, Seok-hyun Moon, Do-won Lee, Sung-beom Lee, Ji-yong Lee, Jaeseung Jeong P15 Action selection and reinforcement learning in basal ganglia during reaching movements Yaroslav I. Molkov, Khaldoun Hamade, Wondimu Teka, William H. Barnett, Taegyo Kim, Sergey Markin, Ilya A. Rybak P17 Axon guidance: modeling axonal growth in T-Junction assay Csaba Forro, Harald Dermutz, László Demkó, János Vörös P19 Transient cell assembly networks encode persistent spatial memories Yuri Dabaghian, Andrey Babichev P20 Theory of population coupling and applications to describe high order correlations in large populations of interacting neurons Haiping Huang P21 Design of biologically-realistic simulations for motor control Sergio Verduzco-Flores P22 Towards understanding the functional impact of the behavioural variability of neurons Filipa Dos Santos, Peter Andras P23 Different oscillatory dynamics underlying gamma entrainment deficits in schizophrenia Christoph Metzner, Achim Schweikard, Bartosz Zurowski P24 Memory recall and spike frequency adaptation James P. Roach, Leonard M. Sander, Michal R. Zochowski P25 Stability of neural networks and memory consolidation preferentially occur near criticality Quinton M. Skilling, Nicolette Ognjanovski, Sara J. Aton, Michal Zochowski P26 Stochastic Oscillation in Self-Organized Critical States of Small Systems: Sensitive Resting State in Neural Systems Sheng-Jun Wang, Guang Ouyang, Jing Guang, Mingsha Zhang, K. Y. Michael Wong, Changsong Zhou P27 Neurofield: a C++ library for fast simulation of 2D neural field models Peter A. Robinson, Paula Sanz-Leon, Peter M. Drysdale, Felix Fung, Romesh G. Abeysuriya, Chris J. Rennie, Xuelong Zhao P28 Action-based grounding: Beyond encoding/decoding in neural code Yoonsuck Choe, Huei-Fang Yang P29 Neural computation in a dynamical system with multiple time scales Yuanyuan Mi, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu P30 Maximum entropy models for 3D layouts of orientation selectivity Joscha Liedtke, Manuel Schottdorf, Fred Wolf P31 A behavioral assay for probing computations underlying curiosity in rodents Yoriko Yamamura, Jeffery R. Wickens P32 Using statistical sampling to balance error function contributions to optimization of conductance-based models Timothy Rumbell, Julia Ramsey, Amy Reyes, Danel Draguljić, Patrick R. Hof, Jennifer Luebke, Christina M. Weaver P33 Exploration and implementation of a self-growing and self-organizing neuron network building algorithm Hu He, Xu Yang, Hailin Ma, Zhiheng Xu, Yuzhe Wang P34 Disrupted resting state brain network in obese subjects: a data-driven graph theory analysis Kwangyeol Baek, Laurel S. Morris, Prantik Kundu, Valerie Voon P35 Dynamics of cooperative excitatory and inhibitory plasticity Everton J. Agnes, Tim P. Vogels P36 Frequency-dependent oscillatory signal gating in feed-forward networks of integrate-and-fire neurons William F. Podlaski, Tim P. Vogels P37 Phenomenological neural model for adaptation of neurons in area IT Martin Giese, Pradeep Kuravi, Rufin Vogels P38 ICGenealogy: towards a common topology of neuronal ion channel function and genealogy in model and experiment Alexander Seeholzer, William Podlaski, Rajnish Ranjan, Tim Vogels P39 Temporal input discrimination from the interaction between dynamic synapses and neural subthreshold oscillations Joaquin J. Torres, Fabiano Baroni, Roberto Latorre, Pablo Varona P40 Different roles for transient and sustained activity during active visual processing Bart Gips, Eric Lowet, Mark J. Roberts, Peter de Weerd, Ole Jensen, Jan van der Eerden P41 Scale-free functional networks of 2D Ising model are highly robust against structural defects: neuroscience implications Abdorreza Goodarzinick, Mohammad D. Niry, Alireza Valizadeh P42 High frequency neuron can facilitate propagation of signal in neural networks Aref Pariz, Shervin S. Parsi, Alireza Valizadeh P43 Investigating the effect of Alzheimer’s disease related amyloidopathy on gamma oscillations in the CA1 region of the hippocampus Julia M. Warburton, Lucia Marucci, Francesco Tamagnini, Jon Brown, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova P44 Long-tailed distributions of inhibitory and excitatory weights in a balanced network with eSTDP and iSTDP Florence I. Kleberg, Jochen Triesch P45 Simulation of EMG recording from hand muscle due to TMS of motor cortex Bahar Moezzi, Nicolangelo Iannella, Natalie Schaworonkow, Lukas Plogmacher, Mitchell R. Goldsworthy, Brenton Hordacre, Mark D. McDonnell, Michael C. Ridding, Jochen Triesch P46 Structure and dynamics of axon network formed in primary cell culture Martin Zapotocky, Daniel Smit, Coralie Fouquet, Alain Trembleau P47 Efficient signal processing and sampling in random networks that generate variability Sakyasingha Dasgupta, Isao Nishikawa, Kazuyuki Aihara, Taro Toyoizumi P48 Modeling the effect of riluzole on bursting in respiratory neural networks Daniel T. Robb, Nick Mellen, Natalia Toporikova P49 Mapping relaxation training using effective connectivity analysis Rongxiang Tang, Yi-Yuan Tang P50 Modeling neuron oscillation of implicit sequence learning Guangsheng Liang, Seth A. Kiser, James H. Howard, Jr., Yi-Yuan Tang P51 The role of cerebellar short-term synaptic plasticity in the pathology and medication of downbeat nystagmus Julia Goncharenko, Neil Davey, Maria Schilstra, Volker Steuber P52 Nonlinear response of noisy neurons Sergej O. Voronenko, Benjamin Lindner P53 Behavioral embedding suggests multiple chaotic dimensions underlie C. elegans locomotion Tosif Ahamed, Greg Stephens P54 Fast and scalable spike sorting for large and dense multi-electrodes recordings Pierre Yger, Baptiste Lefebvre, Giulia Lia Beatrice Spampinato, Elric Esposito, Marcel Stimberg et Olivier Marre P55 Sufficient sampling rates for fast hand motion tracking Hansol Choi, Min-Ho Song P56 Linear readout of object manifolds SueYeon Chung, Dan D. Lee, Haim Sompolinsky P57 Differentiating models of intrinsic bursting and rhythm generation of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger complex using phase response curves Ryan S. Phillips, Jeffrey Smith P58 The effect of inhibitory cell network interactions during theta rhythms on extracellular field potentials in CA1 hippocampus Alexandra Pierri Chatzikalymniou, Katie Ferguson, Frances K. Skinner P59 Expansion recoding through sparse sampling in the cerebellar input layer speeds learning N. Alex Cayco Gajic, Claudia Clopath, R. Angus Silver P60 A set of curated cortical models at multiple scales on Open Source Brain Padraig Gleeson, Boris Marin, Sadra Sadeh, Adrian Quintana, Matteo Cantarelli, Salvador Dura-Bernal, William W. Lytton, Andrew Davison, R. Angus Silver P61 A synaptic story of dynamical information encoding in neural adaptation Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Si Wu P62 Physical modeling of rule-observant rodent behavior Youngjo Song, Sol Park, Ilhwan Choi, Jaeseung Jeong, Hee-sup Shin P64 Predictive coding in area V4 and prefrontal cortex explains dynamic discrimination of partially occluded shapes Hannah Choi, Anitha Pasupathy, Eric Shea-Brown P65 Stability of FORCE learning on spiking and rate-based networks Dongsung Huh, Terrence J. Sejnowski P66 Stabilising STDP in striatal neurons for reliable fast state recognition in noisy environments Simon M. Vogt, Arvind Kumar, Robert Schmidt P67 Electrodiffusion in one- and two-compartment neuron models for characterizing cellular effects of electrical stimulation Stephen Van Wert, Steven J. Schiff P68 STDP improves speech recognition capabilities in spiking recurrent circuits parameterized via differential evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo Richard Veale, Matthias Scheutz P69 Bidirectional transformation between dominant cortical neural activities and phase difference distributions Sang Wan Lee P70 Maturation of sensory networks through homeostatic structural plasticity Júlia Gallinaro, Stefan Rotter P71 Corticothalamic dynamics: structure, number of solutions and stability of steady-state solutions in the space of synaptic couplings Paula Sanz-Leon, Peter A. Robinson P72 Optogenetic versus electrical stimulation of the parkinsonian basal ganglia. Computational study Leonid L. Rubchinsky, Chung Ching Cheung, Shivakeshavan Ratnadurai-Giridharan P73 Exact spike-timing distribution reveals higher-order interactions of neurons Safura Rashid Shomali, Majid Nili Ahmadabadi, Hideaki Shimazaki, S. Nader Rasuli P74 Neural mechanism of visual perceptual learning using a multi-layered neural network Xiaochen Zhao, Malte J. Rasch P75 Inferring collective spiking dynamics from mostly unobserved systems Jens Wilting, Viola Priesemann P76 How to infer distributions in the brain from subsampled observations Anna Levina, Viola Priesemann P77 Influences of embedding and estimation strategies on the inferred memory of single spiking neurons Lucas Rudelt, Joseph T. Lizier, Viola Priesemann P78 A nearest-neighbours based estimator for transfer entropy between spike trains Joseph T. Lizier, Richard E. Spinney, Mikail Rubinov, Michael Wibral, Viola Priesemann P79 Active learning of psychometric functions with multinomial logistic models Ji Hyun Bak, Jonathan Pillow P81 Inferring low-dimensional network dynamics with variational latent Gaussian process Yuan Zaho, Il Memming Park P82 Computational investigation of energy landscapes in the resting state subcortical brain network Jiyoung Kang, Hae-Jeong Park P83 Local repulsive interaction between retinal ganglion cells can generate a consistent spatial periodicity of orientation map Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik P84 Phase duration of bistable perception reveals intrinsic time scale of perceptual decision under noisy condition Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik P85 Feedforward convergence between retina and primary visual cortex can determine the structure of orientation map Changju Lee, Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik P86 Computational method classifying neural network activity patterns for imaging data Min Song, Hyeonsu Lee, Se-Bum Paik P87 Symmetry of spike-timing-dependent-plasticity kernels regulates volatility of memory Youngjin Park, Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik P88 Effects of time-periodic coupling strength on the first-spike latency dynamics of a scale-free network of stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons Ergin Yilmaz, Veli Baysal, Mahmut Ozer P89 Spectral properties of spiking responses in V1 and V4 change within the trial and are highly relevant for behavioral performance Veronika Koren, Klaus Obermayer P90 Methods for building accurate models of individual neurons Daniel Saska, Thomas Nowotny P91 A full size mathematical model of the early olfactory system of honeybees Ho Ka Chan, Alan Diamond, Thomas Nowotny P92 Stimulation-induced tuning of ongoing oscillations in spiking neural networks Christoph S. Herrmann, Micah M. Murray, Silvio Ionta, Axel Hutt, Jérémie Lefebvre P93 Decision-specific sequences of neural activity in balanced random networks driven by structured sensory input Philipp Weidel, Renato Duarte, Abigail Morrison P94 Modulation of tuning induced by abrupt reduction of SST cell activity Jung H. Lee, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Stefan Mihalas P95 The functional role of VIP cell activation during locomotion Jung H. Lee, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Christof Koch, Stefan Mihalas P96 Stochastic inference with spiking neural networks Mihai A. Petrovici, Luziwei Leng, Oliver Breitwieser, David Stöckel, Ilja Bytschok, Roman Martel, Johannes Bill, Johannes Schemmel, Karlheinz Meier P97 Modeling orientation-selective electrical stimulation with retinal prostheses Timothy B. Esler, Anthony N. Burkitt, David B. Grayden, Robert R. Kerr, Bahman Tahayori, Hamish Meffin P98 Ion channel noise can explain firing correlation in auditory nerves Bahar Moezzi, Nicolangelo Iannella, Mark D. McDonnell P99 Limits of temporal encoding of thalamocortical inputs in a neocortical microcircuit Max Nolte, Michael W. Reimann, Eilif Muller, Henry Markram P100 On the representation of arm reaching movements: a computational model Antonio Parziale, Rosa Senatore, Angelo Marcelli P101 A computational model for investigating the role of cerebellum in acquisition and retention of motor behavior Rosa Senatore, Antonio Parziale, Angelo Marcelli P102 The emergence of semantic categories from a large-scale brain network of semantic knowledge K. Skiker, M. Maouene P103 Multiscale modeling of M1 multitarget pharmacotherapy for dystonia Samuel A. Neymotin, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Alexandra Seidenstein, Peter Lakatos, Terence D. Sanger, William W. Lytton P104 Effect of network size on computational capacity Salvador Dura-Bernal, Rosemary J. Menzies, Campbell McLauchlan, Sacha J. van Albada, David J. Kedziora, Samuel Neymotin, William W. Lytton, Cliff C. Kerr P105 NetPyNE: a Python package for NEURON to facilitate development and parallel simulation of biological neuronal networks Salvador Dura-Bernal, Benjamin A. Suter, Samuel A. Neymotin, Cliff C. Kerr, Adrian Quintana, Padraig Gleeson, Gordon M. G. Shepherd, William W. Lytton P107 Inter-areal and inter-regional inhomogeneity in co-axial anisotropy of Cortical Point Spread in human visual areas Juhyoung Ryu, Sang-Hun Lee P108 Two bayesian quanta of uncertainty explain the temporal dynamics of cortical activity in the non-sensory areas during bistable perception Joonwon Lee, Sang-Hun Lee P109 Optimal and suboptimal integration of sensory and value information in perceptual decision making Hyang Jung Lee, Sang-Hun Lee P110 A Bayesian algorithm for phoneme Perception and its neural implementation Daeseob Lim, Sang-Hun Lee P111 Complexity of EEG signals is reduced during unconsciousness induced by ketamine and propofol Jisung Wang, Heonsoo Lee P112 Self-organized criticality of neural avalanche in a neural model on complex networks Nam Jung, Le Anh Quang, Seung Eun Maeng, Tae Ho Lee, Jae Woo Lee P113 Dynamic alterations in connection topology of the hippocampal network during ictal-like epileptiform activity in an in vitro rat model Chang-hyun Park, Sora Ahn, Jangsup Moon, Yun Seo Choi, Juhee Kim, Sang Beom Jun, Seungjun Lee, Hyang Woon Lee P114 Computational model to replicate seizure suppression effect by electrical stimulation Sora Ahn, Sumin Jo, Eunji Jun, Suin Yu, Hyang Woon Lee, Sang Beom Jun, Seungjun Lee P115 Identifying excitatory and inhibitory synapses in neuronal networks from spike trains using sorted local transfer entropy Felix Goetze, Pik-Yin Lai P116 Neural network model for obstacle avoidance based on neuromorphic computational model of boundary vector cell and head direction cell Seonghyun Kim, Jeehyun Kwag P117 Dynamic gating of spike pattern propagation by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian spike timing-dependent plasticity in excitatory feedforward network model Hyun Jae Jang, Jeehyun Kwag P118 Inferring characteristics of input correlations of cells exhibiting up-down state transitions in the rat striatum Marko Filipović, Ramon Reig, Ad Aertsen, Gilad Silberberg, Arvind Kumar P119 Graph properties of the functional connected brain under the influence of Alzheimer’s disease Claudia Bachmann, Simone Buttler, Heidi Jacobs, Kim Dillen, Gereon R. Fink, Juraj Kukolja, Abigail Morrison P120 Learning sparse representations in the olfactory bulb Daniel Kepple, Hamza Giaffar, Dima Rinberg, Steven Shea, Alex Koulakov P121 Functional classification of homologous basal-ganglia networks Jyotika Bahuguna,Tom Tetzlaff, Abigail Morrison, Arvind Kumar, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski P122 Short term memory based on multistability Tim Kunze, Andre Peterson, Thomas Knösche P123 A physiologically plausible, computationally efficient model and simulation software for mammalian motor units Minjung Kim, Hojeong Kim P125 Decoding laser-induced somatosensory information from EEG Ji Sung Park, Ji Won Yeon, Sung-Phil Kim P126 Phase synchronization of alpha activity for EEG-based personal authentication Jae-Hwan Kang, Chungho Lee, Sung-Phil Kim P129 Investigating phase-lags in sEEG data using spatially distributed time delays in a large-scale brain network model Andreas Spiegler, Spase Petkoski, Matias J. Palva, Viktor K. Jirsa P130 Epileptic seizures in the unfolding of a codimension-3 singularity Maria L. Saggio, Silvan F. Siep, Andreas Spiegler, William C. Stacey, Christophe Bernard, Viktor K. Jirsa P131 Incremental dimensional exploratory reasoning under multi-dimensional environment Oh-hyeon Choung, Yong Jeong P132 A low-cost model of eye movements and memory in personal visual cognition Yong-il Lee, Jaeseung Jeong P133 Complex network analysis of structural connectome of autism spectrum disorder patients Su Hyun Kim, Mir Jeong, Jaeseung Jeong P134 Cognitive motives and the neural correlates underlying human social information transmission, gossip Jeungmin Lee, Jaehyung Kwon, Jerald D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong P135 EEG hyperscanning detects neural oscillation for the social interaction during the economic decision-making Jaehwan Jahng, Dong-Uk Hwang, Jaeseung Jeong P136 Detecting purchase decision based on hyperfrontality of the EEG Jae-Hyung Kwon, Sang-Min Park, Jaeseung Jeong P137 Vulnerability-based critical neurons, synapses, and pathways in the Caenorhabditis elegans connectome Seongkyun Kim, Hyoungkyu Kim, Jerald D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong P138 Motif analysis reveals functionally asymmetrical neurons in C. elegans Pyeong Soo Kim, Seongkyun Kim, Hyoungkyu Kim, Jaeseung Jeong P139 Computational approach to preference-based serial decision dynamics: do temporal discounting and working memory affect it? Sangsup Yoon, Jaehyung Kwon, Sewoong Lim, Jaeseung Jeong P141 Social stress induced neural network reconfiguration affects decision making and learning in zebrafish Choongseok Park, Thomas Miller, Katie Clements, Sungwoo Ahn, Eoon Hye Ji, Fadi A. Issa P142 Descriptive, generative, and hybrid approaches for neural connectivity inference from neural activity data JeongHun Baek, Shigeyuki Oba, Junichiro Yoshimoto, Kenji Doya, Shin Ishii P145 Divergent-convergent synaptic connectivities accelerate coding in multilayered sensory systems Thiago S. Mosqueiro, Martin F. Strube-Bloss, Brian Smith, Ramon Huerta P146 Swinging networks Michal Hadrava, Jaroslav Hlinka P147 Inferring dynamically relevant motifs from oscillatory stimuli: challenges, pitfalls, and solutions Hannah Bos, Moritz Helias P148 Spatiotemporal mapping of brain network dynamics during cognitive tasks using magnetoencephalography and deep learning Charles M. Welzig, Zachary J. Harper P149 Multiscale complexity analysis for the segmentation of MRI images Won Sup Kim, In-Seob Shin, Hyeon-Man Baek, Seung Kee Han P150 A neuro-computational model of emotional attention René Richter, Julien Vitay, Frederick Beuth, Fred H. Hamker P151 Multi-site delayed feedback stimulation in parkinsonian networks Kelly Toppin, Yixin Guo P152 Bistability in Hodgkin–Huxley-type equations Tatiana Kameneva, Hamish Meffin, Anthony N. Burkitt, David B. Grayden P153 Phase changes in postsynaptic spiking due to synaptic connectivity and short term plasticity: mathematical analysis of frequency dependency Mark D. McDonnell, Bruce P. Graham P154 Quantifying resilience patterns in brain networks: the importance of directionality Penelope J. Kale, Leonardo L. Gollo P155 Dynamics of rate-model networks with separate excitatory and inhibitory populations Merav Stern, L. F. Abbott P156 A model for multi-stable dynamics in action recognition modulated by integration of silhouette and shading cues Leonid A. Fedorov, Martin A. Giese P157 Spiking model for the interaction between action recognition and action execution Mohammad Hovaidi Ardestani, Martin Giese P158 Surprise-modulated belief update: how to learn within changing environments? Mohammad Javad Faraji, Kerstin Preuschoff, Wulfram Gerstner P159 A fast, stochastic and adaptive model of auditory nerve responses to cochlear implant stimulation Margriet J. van Gendt, Jeroen J. Briaire, Randy K. Kalkman, Johan H. M. Frijns P160 Quantitative comparison of graph theoretical measures of simulated and empirical functional brain networks Won Hee Lee, Sophia Frangou P161 Determining discriminative properties of fMRI signals in schizophrenia using highly comparative time-series analysis Ben D. Fulcher, Patricia H. P. Tran, Alex Fornito P162 Emergence of narrowband LFP oscillations from completely asynchronous activity during seizures and high-frequency oscillations Stephen V. Gliske, William C. Stacey, Eugene Lim, Katherine A. Holman, Christian G. Fink P163 Neuronal diversity in structure and function: cross-validation of anatomical and physiological classification of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse Jinseop S. Kim, Shang Mu, Kevin L. Briggman, H. Sebastian Seung, the EyeWirers P164 Analysis and modelling of transient firing rate changes in area MT in response to rapid stimulus feature changes Detlef Wegener, Lisa Bohnenkamp, Udo A. Ernst P165 Step-wise model fitting accounting for high-resolution spatial measurements: construction of a layer V pyramidal cell model with reduced morphology Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Geir Halnes, Anna Devor, Christoph Metzner, Anders M. Dale, Ole A. Andreassen, Gaute T. Einevoll P166 Contributions of schizophrenia-associated genes to neuron firing and cardiac pacemaking: a polygenic modeling approach Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen, Glenn T. Lines, Andy Edwards, Aslak Tveito, Anders M. Dale, Gaute T. Einevoll, Ole A. Andreassen P167 Local field potentials in a 4 × 4 mm2 multi-layered network model Espen Hagen, Johanna Senk, Sacha J. van Albada, Markus Diesmann P168 A spiking network model explains multi-scale properties of cortical dynamics Maximilian Schmidt, Rembrandt Bakker, Kelly Shen, Gleb Bezgin, Claus-Christian Hilgetag, Markus Diesmann, Sacha Jennifer van Albada P169 Using joint weight-delay spike-timing dependent plasticity to find polychronous neuronal groups Haoqi Sun, Olga Sourina, Guang-Bin Huang, Felix Klanner, Cornelia Denk P170 Tensor decomposition reveals RSNs in simulated resting state fMRI Katharina Glomb, Adrián Ponce-Alvarez, Matthieu Gilson, Petra Ritter, Gustavo Deco P171 Getting in the groove: testing a new model-based method for comparing task-evoked vs resting-state activity in fMRI data on music listening Matthieu Gilson, Maria AG Witek, Eric F. Clarke, Mads Hansen, Mikkel Wallentin, Gustavo Deco, Morten L. Kringelbach, Peter Vuust P172 STochastic engine for pathway simulation (STEPS) on massively parallel processors Guido Klingbeil, Erik De Schutter P173 Toolkit support for complex parallel spatial stochastic reaction–diffusion simulation in STEPS Weiliang Chen, Erik De Schutter P174 Modeling the generation and propagation of Purkinje cell dendritic spikes caused by parallel fiber synaptic input Yunliang Zang, Erik De Schutter P175 Dendritic morphology determines how dendrites are organized into functional subunits Sungho Hong, Akira Takashima, Erik De Schutter P176 A model of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in long term depression at Purkinje cells Criseida Zamora, Andrew R. Gallimore, Erik De Schutter P177 Reward-modulated learning of population-encoded vectors for insect-like navigation in embodied agents Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta P178 Data-driven neural models part II: connectivity patterns of human seizures Philippa J. Karoly, Dean R. Freestone, Daniel Soundry, Levin Kuhlmann, Liam Paninski, Mark Cook P179 Data-driven neural models part I: state and parameter estimation Dean R. Freestone, Philippa J. Karoly, Daniel Soundry, Levin Kuhlmann, Mark Cook P180 Spectral and spatial information processing in human auditory streaming Jaejin Lee, Yonatan I. Fishman, Yale E. Cohen P181 A tuning curve for the global effects of local perturbations in neural activity: Mapping the systems-level susceptibility of the brain Leonardo L. Gollo, James A. Roberts, Luca Cocchi P182 Diverse homeostatic responses to visual deprivation mediated by neural ensembles Yann Sweeney, Claudia Clopath P183 Opto-EEG: a novel method for investigating functional connectome in mouse brain based on optogenetics and high density electroencephalography Soohyun Lee, Woo-Sung Jung, Jee Hyun Choi P184 Biphasic responses of frontal gamma network to repetitive sleep deprivation during REM sleep Bowon Kim, Youngsoo Kim, Eunjin Hwang, Jee Hyun Choi P185 Brain-state correlate and cortical connectivity for frontal gamma oscillations in top-down fashion assessed by auditory steady-state response Younginha Jung, Eunjin Hwang, Yoon-Kyu Song, Jee Hyun Choi P186 Neural field model of localized orientation selective activation in V1 James Rankin, Frédéric Chavane P187 An oscillatory network model of Head direction and Grid cells using locomotor inputs Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy P188 A computational model of hippocampus inspired by the functional architecture of basal ganglia Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy P189 A computational architecture to model the microanatomy of the striatum and its functional properties Sabyasachi Shivkumar, Vignesh Muralidharan, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy P190 A scalable cortico-basal ganglia model to understand the neural dynamics of targeted reaching Vignesh Muralidharan, Alekhya Mandali, B. Pragathi Priyadharsini, Hima Mehta, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy P191 Emergence of radial orientation selectivity from synaptic plasticity Catherine E. Davey, David B. Grayden, Anthony N. Burkitt P192 How do hidden units shape effective connections between neurons? Braden A. W. Brinkman, Tyler Kekona, Fred Rieke, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael Buice P193 Characterization of neural firing in the presence of astrocyte-synapse signaling Maurizio De Pittà, Hugues Berry, Nicolas Brunel P194 Metastability of spatiotemporal patterns in a large-scale network model of brain dynamics James A. Roberts, Leonardo L. Gollo, Michael Breakspear P195 Comparison of three methods to quantify detection and discrimination capacity estimated from neural population recordings Gary Marsat, Jordan Drew, Phillip D. Chapman, Kevin C. Daly, Samual P. Bradley P196 Quantifying the constraints for independent evoked and spontaneous NMDA receptor mediated synaptic transmission at individual synapses Sat Byul Seo, Jianzhong Su, Ege T. Kavalali, Justin Blackwell P199 Gamma oscillation via adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neurons LieJune Shiau, Laure Buhry, Kanishka Basnayake P200 Visual face representations during memory retrieval compared to perception Sue-Hyun Lee, Brandon A. Levy, Chris I. Baker P201 Top-down modulation of sequential activity within packets modeled using avalanche dynamics Timothée Leleu, Kazuyuki Aihara Q28 An auto-encoder network realizes sparse features under the influence of desynchronized vascular dynamics Ryan T. Philips, Karishma Chhabria, V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy

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    Authors: Tittensor, Derek P.; Eddy, Tyler D.||; Lotze, Heike K..||; Galbraith, Eric||; +33 Authors

    Unidad de excelencia María de Maeztu MdM-2015-0552 Model intercomparison studies in the climate and Earth sciences communities have been crucial to building credibility and coherence for future projections. They have quantified variability among models, spurred model development, contrasted within-and among-model uncertainty, assessed model fits to historical data, and provided ensemble projections of future change under specified scenarios. Given the speed and magnitude of anthropogenic change in the marine environment and the consequent effects on food security, biodiversity, marine industries, and society, the time is ripe for similar comparisons among models of fisheries and marine ecosystems. Here, we describe the Fisheries and Marine Ecosystem Model Intercomparison Project protocol version 1.0 (Fish-MIP v1.0), part of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), which is a cross-sectoral network of climate impact modellers. Given the complexity of the marine ecosystem, this class of models has substantial heterogeneity of purpose, scope, theoretical underpinning, processes considered, parameterizations, resolution (grain size), and spatial extent. This heterogeneity reflects the lack of a unified understanding of the marine ecosystem and implies that the assemblage of all models is more likely to include a greater number of relevant processes than any single model. The current Fish-MIP protocol is designed to allow these heterogeneous models to be forced with common Earth System Model (ESM) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) outputs under prescribed scenarios for historic (from the 1950s) and future (to 2100) time periods; it will be adapted to CMIP phase 6 (CMIP6) in future iterations. It also describes a standardized set of outputs for each participating Fish-MIP model to produce. This enables the broad characterization of differences between and uncertainties within models and projections when assessing climate and fisheries impacts on marine ecosystems and the services they provide. The systematic generation, collation, and comparison of results from Fish-MIP will inform an understanding of the range of plausible changes in marine ecosystems and improve our capacity to define and convey the strengths and weaknesses of model-based advice on future states of marine ecosystems and fisheries. Ultimately, Fish-MIP represents a step towards bringing together the marine ecosystem modelling community to produce consistent ensemble medium-and long-term projections of marine ecosystems.

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    Authors: Heike K. Lotze; Derek P. Tittensor; Andrea Bryndum-Buchholz; Tyler D. Eddy; +31 Authors

    While the physical dimensions of climate change are now routinely assessed through multimodel intercomparisons, projected impacts on the global ocean ecosystem generally rely on individual models with a specific set of assumptions. To address these single-model limitations, we present standardized ensemble projections from six global marine ecosystem models forced with two Earth system models and four emission scenarios with and without fishing. We derive average biomass trends and associated uncertainties across the marine food web. Without fishing, mean global animal biomass decreased by 5% (±4% SD) under low emissions and 17% (±11% SD) under high emissions by 2100, with an average 5% decline for every 1 °C of warming. Projected biomass declines were primarily driven by increasing temperature and decreasing primary production, and were more pronounced at higher trophic levels, a process known as trophic amplification. Fishing did not substantially alter the effects of climate change. Considerable regional variation featured strong biomass increases at high latitudes and decreases at middle to low latitudes, with good model agreement on the direction of change but variable magnitude. Uncertainties due to variations in marine ecosystem and Earth system models were similar. Ensemble projections performed well compared with empirical data, emphasizing the benefits of multimodel inference to project future outcomes. Our results indicate that global ocean animal biomass consistently declines with climate change, and that these impacts are amplified at higher trophic levels. Next steps for model development include dynamic scenarios of fishing, cumulative human impacts, and the effects of management measures on future ocean biomass trends Financial support was provided by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research through ISI-MIP (Grant01LS1201A1), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (Grant 678193), and the Ocean Frontier Institute (Module G). We acknowledge additional financial support as follows: to H.K.L., W.W.L.C., and B.W. from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada; to D.P.T. from the Kanne Rasmussen Foundation Denmark; to A.B.-B. from the NSERC Transatlantic Ocean Science and Technology Program; to W.W.L.C. and T.D.E. from the Nippon Foundation-Nereus Program; to E.D.G., M.C. and J. Steenbeek from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Re-search and Innovation Program (Grants 682602 and 689518); to E.A.F., J.L.B., andT.R. from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization and the Australian Research Council; to N.B., L.B., and O.M. from the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche and Pôle de Calcul et de Données pour la Mer; and to S.J. from the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs 6 pages, 5 figures, supporting information https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900194116.-- All data reported in this paper are archived and publicly available at http://dataservices.gfz-potsdam.de/pik/showshort.php?id=escidoc:2956913. Peer Reviewed

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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2019
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
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    Authors: Cristina Coscolín; Mónica Martínez-Martínez; Jennifer Chow; Rafael Bargiela; +12 Authors

    Substrate specificity and selectivity of a biocatalyst are determined by the protein sequence and structure of its active site. Finding versatile biocatalysts acting against multiple substrates while at the same time being chiral selective is of interest for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry. However, the relationships between these two properties in natural microbial enzymes remain underexplored. Here, we performed an experimental analysis of substrate promiscuity and chiral selectivity in a set of 145 purified esterases from phylogenetically and environmentally diverse microorganisms, which were assayed against 96 diverse esters, 20 of which were enantiomers. Our results revealed a negative correlation between substrate promiscuity and chiral selectivity in the evaluated enzymes. Esterases displaying prominent substrate promiscuity and large catalytic environments are characterized by low chiral selectivity, a feature that has limited commercial value. Although a low level of substrate promiscuity does not guarantee high chiral selectivity, the probability that esterases with smaller active sites possess chiral selectivity factors of interest for industry (>25) is significantly higher than for promiscuous enzymes. Together, the present study unambiguously demonstrates that promiscuous and selective esterases appear to be rare in nature and that substrate promiscuity can be used as an indicator of the chiral selectivity level of esterases, and vice versa.

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    Article . 2018
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    Catalysts
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Heike K. Lotze; Marta Coll; Anna M. Magera; Christine A. Ward-Paige; +1 Authors

    Many marine populations and ecosystems have experienced strong historical depletions, yet reports of recoveries are increasing. Here, we review the growing research on marine recoveries to reveal how common recovery is, its magnitude, timescale and major drivers. Overall, 10–50% of depleted populations and ecosystems show some recovery, but rarely to former levels of abundance. In addition, recovery can take many decades for long-lived species and complex ecosystems. Major drivers of recovery include the reduction of human impacts, especially exploitation, habitat loss and pollution, combined with favorable life-history and environmental conditions. Awareness, legal protection and enforcement of management plans are also crucial. Learning from historical recovery successes and failures is essential for implementing realistic conservation goals and promising management strategies Financial support was provided by the Sloan Foundation’s Census of Marine Life FMAP Program, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Dalhousie University. MC was funded by the European Community Marie-Curie Post-doctoral Fellowship through the International Outgoing Fellowships (IOF; Call: FP7-PEOPLE-2007-4-1-IOF) to ECOFUN and LA by the European Commission through FP7.2009-1, Contract 244104–THESEUS 11 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables Peer reviewed

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    Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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      Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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    Authors: Erin K. Cameron; Inês S. Martins; Patrick Lavelle; Jérôme Mathieu; +19 Authors

    Human activities are accelerating global biodiversity change and have resulted in severely threatened ecosystem services. A large proportion of terrestrial biodiversity is harbored by soil, but soil biodiversity has been omitted from many global biodiversity assessments and conservation actions, and understanding of global patterns of soil biodiversity remains limited. In particular, the extent to which hotspots and coldspots of aboveground and soil biodiversity overlap is not clear. We examined global patterns of these overlaps by mapping indices of aboveground (mammals, birds, amphibians, vascular plants) and soil (bacteria, fungi, macrofauna) biodiversity that we created using previously published data on species richness. Areas of mismatch between aboveground and soil biodiversity covered 27% of Earth's terrestrial surface. The temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome had the highest proportion of grid cells with high aboveground biodiversity but low soil biodiversity, whereas the boreal and tundra biomes had intermediate soil biodiversity but low aboveground biodiversity. While more data on soil biodiversity are needed, both to cover geographic gaps and to include additional taxa, our results suggest that protecting aboveground biodiversity may not sufficiently reduce threats to soil biodiversity. Given the functional importance of soil biodiversity and the role of soils in human well-being, soil biodiversity should be considered further in policy agendas and conservation actions by adapting management practices to sustain soil biodiversity and considering soil biodiversity when designing protected areas.Disparidades Mundiales entre la Biodiversidad Sobre y Bajo el Suelo Resumen Las actividades humanas están acelerando el cambio en la biodiversidad mundial y han tenido como resultado unos servicios ambientales severamente amenazados. Una gran proporción de la biodiversidad terrestre está albergada en el suelo, pero la biodiversidad de este ha sido omitida de varias evaluaciones mundiales de biodiversidad y de las acciones de conservación, además de que el entendimiento de los patrones mundiales de la biodiversidad del suelo permanece limitado; particularmente, la extensión del traslape entre los puntos fríos y calientes de biodiversidad sobre y bajo suelo no está clara. Examinamos los patrones mundiales de estos traslapes mapeando los índices de biodiversidad sobre el suelo (mamíferos, aves, anfibios y plantas vasculares) y bajo el suelo (bacterias, hongos y macrofauna) que creamos con datos previamente publicados de la riqueza de especies. Las áreas de disparidad entre la biodiversidad sobre y bajo el suelo cubrieron el 27% de la superficie terrestre del planeta. El bioma de los bosques templados de plantas frondosas y mixtas tuvo la proporción más alta de celdas de cuadrícula con una biodiversidad alta sobre el suelo, pero baja para en el subsuelo, mientras que los biomas boreales y de la tundra tuvieron una biodiversidad intermedia bajo el suelo, pero baja para el sobre suelo. Aunque se requieren más datos sobre la biodiversidad del suelo, tanto para cubrir los vacíos geográficos como para incluir a taxones adiciones, nuestros resultados sugieren que la protección a la biodiversidad sobre el suelo puede no reducir suficientemente las amenazas para la biodiversidad del suelo. Dada la importancia funcional de la biodiversidad del suelo y el papel de los suelos en el bienestar humano, se debería considerar a la biodiversidad del suelo mucho más en las agendas políticas y en las acciones de conservación, adaptando a las prácticas de manejo para que mantengan a la biodiversidad del suelo y la consideren cuando designen áreas protegidas.人类活动正在导致全球生物多样性的快速变化, 并已严重影响到生态系统服务功能。陆地生物多样性中很大一部分存在于土壤之中, 然而, 许多全球生物多样性评估和保护行动都没有考虑土壤生物多样性, 人们对全球土壤生物多样性格局的认识也十分有限, 特别是对地表生物多样性和土壤生物多样性的热点地区及贫瘠地区的重叠程度知之甚少。为了研究全球地表生物多样性和土壤生物多样性的重叠情况, 我们利用已发表的物种丰富度数据设计了地表生物多样性 (哺乳动物、鸟类、两栖类、维管植物) 及土壤生物多样性 (细菌、真菌、大型动物群) 指标, 用于绘制相应的地图。结果显示, 地表和土壤生物多样性不匹配的地区占地球陆地面积的 27% 。在温带阔叶林和混交林生物群中, 地表生物多样性高而土壤生物多样性低的栅格占比最高, 而寒带和苔原生物群则是土壤生物多样性中等而地表生物多样性低。虽然还有待增加土壤生物多样性的数据以囊括更多地理区域和生物类群, 但我们的结果已经表明, 保护地表生物多样性可能不足以减少对土壤生物多样性的威胁。鉴于土壤生物多样性的重要功能以及土壤对人类福祉的作用, 应在政策议程和保护行动中更多地考虑土壤生物多样性, 如调整管理实践以保护土壤生物多样性、在保护区设计中纳入土壤生物多样性等等。【翻译: 胡怡思; 审校: 聂永刚】.

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    Conservation Biology
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    Authors: Paul V. R. Snelgrove; Karline Soetaert; Martin Solan; Simon F. Thrush; +8 Authors

    Diverse biological communities mediate the transformation, transport, and storage of elements fundamental to life on Earth, including carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. However, global biogeochemical model outcomes can vary by orders of magnitude, compromising capacity to project realistic ecosystem responses to planetary changes, including ocean productivity and climate. Here, we compare global carbon turnover rates estimated using models grounded in biological versus geochemical theory and argue that the turnover estimates based on each perspective yield divergent outcomes. Importantly, empirical studies that include sedimentary biological activity vary less than those that ignore it. Improving the relevance of model projections and reducing uncertainty associated with the anticipated consequences of global change requires reconciliation of these perspectives, enabling better societal decisions on mitigation and adaptation.

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    Authors: Tittensor, Derek P.; Coll, Marta; Walker, Nicola D.;

    Model intercomparison studies in the climate and Earth sciences communities have been crucial to building credibility and coherence for future projections. They have quantified variability among models, spurred model development, contrasted within-and among-model uncertainty, assessed model fits to historical data, and provided ensemble projections of future change under specified scenarios. Given the speed and magnitude of anthropogenic change in the marine environment and the consequent effects on food security, biodiversity, marine industries, and society, the time is ripe for similar comparisons among models of fisheries and marine ecosystems. Here, we describe the Fisheries and Marine Ecosystem Model Intercomparison Project protocol version 1.0 (Fish-MIP v1.0), part of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), which is a cross-sectoral network of climate impact modellers. Given the complexity of the marine ecosystem, this class of models has substantial heterogeneity of purpose, scope, theoretical underpinning, processes considered, parameterizations, resolution (grain size), and spatial extent. This heterogeneity reflects the lack of a unified understanding of the marine ecosystem and implies that the assemblage of all models is more likely to include a greater number of relevant processes than any single model. The current Fish-MIP protocol is designed to allow these heterogeneous models to be forced with common Earth System Model (ESM) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) outputs under prescribed scenarios for historic (from the 1950s) and future (to 2100) time periods; it will be adapted to CMIP phase 6 (CMIP6) in future iterations. It also describes a standardized set of outputs for each participating Fish-MIP model to produce. This enables the broad characterization of differences between and uncertainties within models and projections when assessing climate and fisheries impacts on marine ecosystems and the services they provide. The systematic generation, collation, and comparison of results from Fish-MIP will inform an understanding of the range of plausible changes in marine ecosystems and improve our capacity to define and convey the strengths and weaknesses of model-based advice on future states of marine ecosystems and fisheries. Ultimately, Fish-MIP represents a step towards bringing together the marine ecosystem modelling community to produce consistent ensemble medium-and long-term projections of marine ecosystems Tittensor, D. et al.-- 22 pages, 1 figure, 6 tables, supplementary material https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-1421-2018 Peer Reviewed

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