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    Authors: Van Rooij, David; Vandorpe, Thomas; Versteeg, Willem; Jauniaux, Thierry;

    see further details for an overview map with the location of the seismic profiles.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2012
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2012
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Amorim, Patricia; Perán, António D; Pham, Christopher Kim; Juliano, Manuela; +3 Authors

    Obtaining a comprehensive knowledge of the spatial and temporal variations of the environmental factors characterizing the Azores region is essential for conservation and management purposes. Although many studies are available for the region, there is a need for a general overview of the best available information. Here, we assembled a comprehensive collection of environmental data for this region. Data sources used in this study included remote sensing oceanographic data for 2003?2013 (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and particulate organic carbon (POC)), derived oceanographic data (primary productivity and North Atlantic oscillation index) for 2003?2013, and in situ data (temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate and silicate) obtained from the World Ocean Atlas 2013. Supplement to: Amorim, Patricia; Perán, António D; Pham, Christopher Kim; Juliano, Manuela; Cardigos, Frederico; Tempera, Fernando; Morato, Telmo (2017): Overview of the Ocean Climatology and Its Variability in the Azores Region of the North Atlantic Including Environmental Characteristics at the Seabed. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4(56), 1-16 Inventory of some important environmental data for the Azores region, including the seabed. The objective is to ensure that our compilation is readily available for any researchers interested in this type information but also to support institutions responsible for the management and conservation of local resources.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2017
    Data sources: B2FIND
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    PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science
    Other dataset type . Dataset . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite; Sygma
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2017
      Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science
      Other dataset type . Dataset . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite; Sygma
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Morato, Telmo; Juliano, Manuela; Pham, Christopher Kim; Carreiro-Silva, Marina; +2 Authors

    It is increasingly recognised that deep-sea mining of seafloor massive sulphides (SMS) could become an important source of mineral resources. These operations will remove the targeted substrate and produce potentially sediment toxic plumes from in situ seabed excavation and from the return water pumped back down to the seafloor. However, the spatial extent of the impacts of deep-sea mining plumes is still uncertain because few field experiments and models of plumes dispersion have been conducted. Morato et al. (2022) used three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of the Azores region together with a theoretical commercial mining operation of polymetallic SMS to simulate the potential dispersal of sediment plumes originating from different phases of mining operations and to assess the magnitude of potential impacts. The areas used in the modelling work were (from North to South): Cavala seamount (38.265, -30.710), Lucky Strike Hole (37.503, -31.955), Menez Hom (37.109, -32.618), Famous (37.001, -33.039), Saldanha (36.658, -33.420), and Rainbow (36.262 -33.824). The datasets published here contain all the model outputs, namely for 1) the in situ excavation sediment plume, 2) the return water discharge plume, and 3) the return sediments discharge plume:1) The concentration of solids and of the discharge water in each horizontal 2-dimensional space cell is calculated as the maximum concentration in the 50 vertical layers of each 2-dimensional cell, for each output time step (3 hours), averaged over all time steps during each trimester and during a 12-months simulation.1.1) Concentration of sediments produced during the in situ excavation sediment plume calculated as the maximum concentration in the 50 vertical layers of each 2-dimensional cell, for each output time step (3 hours), averaged over all time steps during a 12-months simulation. Sediments were composed of six classes of different particle diameter (0-10 μm, 10-50 μm, 50-100 μm, 100-200 μm, 200-2,000 μm, and >2,000 μm), an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and resultant settling velocities ranging from 75.1 cm·s-1 to 0.002 cm·s-1.1.2) Concentration of return water discharge plume (shown in dilution folds) in six study areas calculated as the maximum concentration in the 50 vertical layers of each 2-dimensional cell, for each output time step (3 hours), averaged over all time steps during a 12-months simulation and assuming a control temperature as the annual minimum temperature of each location (T1). The salinity of discharge was calculated assuming the MOHID salinity of 83.3% surface water and 16.7% of seafloor water.1.3) Concentration of sediments in the return sediment discharge plume, calculated as the maximum concentration in the 50 vertical layers of each 2-dimensional cell, for each output time step (3 hours), averaged over all time steps during a 12-months simulation. The average particle diameter was assumed to be 4 µm with an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3 and a resultant settling velocity of 0.002 cm·s-1.2) The proportion of simulated time (temporal frequency) that a specific 2-dimensional space contained plume concentrations higher than the adopted thresholds; 1.2 mg·L-1 for sediment solids and 5,000 fold dilution for discharge water. Those cells whose temporal frequency above the thresholds was greater than 50%, i.e. 6 months out of 12 months, were considered as cells with persistent plumes.2.1) Proportion of simulated time (temporal frequency) that a specific a 2-dimensional space cell, in six study areas, contained in situ excavation sediment plume above a 1.2 mg·L-1 concentration threshold, during a 12-months simulation, assuming six classes of particle diameter (0-10 μm, 10-50 μm, 50-100 μm, 100-200 μm, 200-2,000 μm, and >2,000 μm), an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and resultant settling velocities ranging from 75.1 cm·s-1 to 0.002 cm·s-1.2.2) Proportion of simulated time (temporal frequency) that a specific 2-dimensional space, in six study areas, contained return water discharge plume concentrations higher than the adopted thresholds (i.e., 5,000 fold dilution), during a 12-months simulation and assuming a control temperature as the annual minimum temperature of each location (T1). The salinity of discharge was calculated assuming the MOHID salinity of 83.3% surface water and 16.7% of seafloor water.2.3) Proportion of simulated time (temporal frequency) that a specific 2-dimensional space cell, in six study areas, contained return sediments discharge plume above a 1.2 mg·L-1 concentration threshold, during a 12-months simulation, assuming an average particle diameter of 4 µm, an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and a resultant settling velocity of 0.002 cm·s-1.3) In addition to the thresholds and targets described above, the datasets also present the model results for Cavala seamount and Lucky Strike Hole against other thresholds: 5 mg·L-1, 10 mg·L-1 and 25 mg·L-1 for sediments and 1,000, 600, 300 and 200 fold dilution for discharge water.4) Seasonal variations in the model outputs for plumes dispersal are also presented for Cavala seamount and Lucky Strike Hole by computing the probability of concentration above thresholds for four periods of three months (January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December). In these scenarios, the model run duration was approximately 90 days.5) The sediment thickness of the settled sediments from the discharge sediment and excavation.5.1) Bottom thickness of settled sediments produced during the in situ excavation sediment plume assuming six classes of particle diameter (0-10 μm, 10-50 μm, 50-100 μm, 100-200 μm, 200-2,000 μm, and >2,000 μm), an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and resultant settling velocities ranging from 75.1 cm·s-1 to 0.002 cm·s-1. The duration of the simulation is one year.5.2) Bottom thickness of settled sediments from the return sediment discharge plume modelled assuming an average particle diameter of 4 µm, an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and a resultant settling velocity of 0.002 cm·s-1. The duration of the simulation is one year. The downloadable zip folders contain GeoTIFF files with the model outputs used in the publication: Modelling the dispersion of Seafloor Massive Sulphide mining plumes in the Mid Atlantic Ridge around the Azores. Files are organized by:Study site (Cavala, Famous, Lucky Strike Hole, Menez Home, Rainbow, Saldanha)Plume type (Discharge sediments, Discharge water, Excavation)Parameters settings (4 micra, 4 micro rho, 8 micra; Discharge temperature 1, Discharge temperature 2, Discharge temperature ambient; 2m_group)Variable measured (Footprint in mm, Max tracer in mg·L-1, Probability (i.e. temporal frequency) in %)Temporal periods (Year: 2011-12-31_2012-01-01; trimester: 2011-01-10_2011-04-01, 2011-04-01_2011-07-01, 2011-07-01_2011-10-01, 2011-10-01_2012-01-01)

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: de Matos, Valentina K F; Gomes-Pereira, José N; Tempera, Fernando; Ribeiro, Pedro A; +2 Authors

    The first record of Antipathella subpinnata ( Ellis and Solander, 1786) for the Azores archipelago is presented based on bottom longline by-catch analysis and ROV seafloor surveys, extending the species western-most boundary of distribution in the NE Atlantic. The species was determined using classic taxonomy and molecular analysis targeting nuclear DNA. Although maximum spine height on Azorean colonies branchlets is slightly smaller than that reported from Mediterranean colonies (0.12 vs 0.16 mm), the analysis of partial 18S rDNA, complete ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA suggests that the Azorean and Mediterranean specimens belong to the same species. Video surveys of an A. subpinnata garden detected near Pico Island are used to provide the first in situ description of the species habitat in the region and the first detailed description of a black coral garden in the NE Atlantic. With A. subpinnata being the only coral found between 150 and 196 m depths, this is the deepest black coral garden recorded in the NE Atlantic and the first one to be monospecific. The species exhibited a maximum density of 2.64 colonies/m**2 and occurred across a surface area estimated at 67,333 m**2, yielding a local population estimate of 50,500 colonies.

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    Authors: Martins, Ines; Godinho, Antonio; Rakka, Maria; Carreiro-Silva, Marina;

    Herein we report the respiration rates (O2 consumption) of the cold-water coral Viminella flagellum exposed to acute Cu concentrations. In a lab experiment, sixty nubbins of V. flagellum were distributed in six aquaria of 8 L (ten nubbins per aquarium) of each Cu solution (0 (control); 60; 150; 250; 450 and 600 μg/L) for 96 h. After this period, four nubbins from each Cu treatment, selected randomly, were incubated individually for 6 h in glass chambers filled with ca. 110 mL of 0.2 μm pre-filtered seawater, with the respective Cu dilutions (4 chambers per Cu concentration). The incubation period was set to 6 h to record changes in O2 consumption without exposing corals to oxygen levels below 80 % (air saturation, a.s.). During the incubation period, dissolved O2 (μmol/L) depletion rates were recorded every 30 min and corrected by the corresponding rates/variations in chambers without corals. Coral respiration rates were normalized to the coral surface area and time. Results are presented by µmol of O2 consumption per m2 per h. Treatment [Cu] µg/L: [0]: Control, no copper addition[60]: Cu concentration of 60 μg/L[150]: Cu concentration of 150 μg/L[250]: Cu concentration of 250 μg/L[450]: Cu concentration of 450 μg/L[600]: Cu concentration of 600 μg/L

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Van Rooij, David; Vandorpe, Thomas; Versteeg, Willem; Jauniaux, Thierry;

    see further details for an overview map with the location of the seismic profiles.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2012
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2012
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Amorim, Patricia; Perán, António D; Pham, Christopher Kim; Juliano, Manuela; +3 Authors

    Obtaining a comprehensive knowledge of the spatial and temporal variations of the environmental factors characterizing the Azores region is essential for conservation and management purposes. Although many studies are available for the region, there is a need for a general overview of the best available information. Here, we assembled a comprehensive collection of environmental data for this region. Data sources used in this study included remote sensing oceanographic data for 2003?2013 (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and particulate organic carbon (POC)), derived oceanographic data (primary productivity and North Atlantic oscillation index) for 2003?2013, and in situ data (temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate and silicate) obtained from the World Ocean Atlas 2013. Supplement to: Amorim, Patricia; Perán, António D; Pham, Christopher Kim; Juliano, Manuela; Cardigos, Frederico; Tempera, Fernando; Morato, Telmo (2017): Overview of the Ocean Climatology and Its Variability in the Azores Region of the North Atlantic Including Environmental Characteristics at the Seabed. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4(56), 1-16 Inventory of some important environmental data for the Azores region, including the seabed. The objective is to ensure that our compilation is readily available for any researchers interested in this type information but also to support institutions responsible for the management and conservation of local resources.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2017
    Data sources: B2FIND
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    PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science
    Other dataset type . Dataset . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite; Sygma
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2017
      Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science
      Other dataset type . Dataset . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite; Sygma
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    Authors: Morato, Telmo; Juliano, Manuela; Pham, Christopher Kim; Carreiro-Silva, Marina; +2 Authors

    It is increasingly recognised that deep-sea mining of seafloor massive sulphides (SMS) could become an important source of mineral resources. These operations will remove the targeted substrate and produce potentially sediment toxic plumes from in situ seabed excavation and from the return water pumped back down to the seafloor. However, the spatial extent of the impacts of deep-sea mining plumes is still uncertain because few field experiments and models of plumes dispersion have been conducted. Morato et al. (2022) used three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of the Azores region together with a theoretical commercial mining operation of polymetallic SMS to simulate the potential dispersal of sediment plumes originating from different phases of mining operations and to assess the magnitude of potential impacts. The areas used in the modelling work were (from North to South): Cavala seamount (38.265, -30.710), Lucky Strike Hole (37.503, -31.955), Menez Hom (37.109, -32.618), Famous (37.001, -33.039), Saldanha (36.658, -33.420), and Rainbow (36.262 -33.824). The datasets published here contain all the model outputs, namely for 1) the in situ excavation sediment plume, 2) the return water discharge plume, and 3) the return sediments discharge plume:1) The concentration of solids and of the discharge water in each horizontal 2-dimensional space cell is calculated as the maximum concentration in the 50 vertical layers of each 2-dimensional cell, for each output time step (3 hours), averaged over all time steps during each trimester and during a 12-months simulation.1.1) Concentration of sediments produced during the in situ excavation sediment plume calculated as the maximum concentration in the 50 vertical layers of each 2-dimensional cell, for each output time step (3 hours), averaged over all time steps during a 12-months simulation. Sediments were composed of six classes of different particle diameter (0-10 μm, 10-50 μm, 50-100 μm, 100-200 μm, 200-2,000 μm, and >2,000 μm), an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and resultant settling velocities ranging from 75.1 cm·s-1 to 0.002 cm·s-1.1.2) Concentration of return water discharge plume (shown in dilution folds) in six study areas calculated as the maximum concentration in the 50 vertical layers of each 2-dimensional cell, for each output time step (3 hours), averaged over all time steps during a 12-months simulation and assuming a control temperature as the annual minimum temperature of each location (T1). The salinity of discharge was calculated assuming the MOHID salinity of 83.3% surface water and 16.7% of seafloor water.1.3) Concentration of sediments in the return sediment discharge plume, calculated as the maximum concentration in the 50 vertical layers of each 2-dimensional cell, for each output time step (3 hours), averaged over all time steps during a 12-months simulation. The average particle diameter was assumed to be 4 µm with an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3 and a resultant settling velocity of 0.002 cm·s-1.2) The proportion of simulated time (temporal frequency) that a specific 2-dimensional space contained plume concentrations higher than the adopted thresholds; 1.2 mg·L-1 for sediment solids and 5,000 fold dilution for discharge water. Those cells whose temporal frequency above the thresholds was greater than 50%, i.e. 6 months out of 12 months, were considered as cells with persistent plumes.2.1) Proportion of simulated time (temporal frequency) that a specific a 2-dimensional space cell, in six study areas, contained in situ excavation sediment plume above a 1.2 mg·L-1 concentration threshold, during a 12-months simulation, assuming six classes of particle diameter (0-10 μm, 10-50 μm, 50-100 μm, 100-200 μm, 200-2,000 μm, and >2,000 μm), an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and resultant settling velocities ranging from 75.1 cm·s-1 to 0.002 cm·s-1.2.2) Proportion of simulated time (temporal frequency) that a specific 2-dimensional space, in six study areas, contained return water discharge plume concentrations higher than the adopted thresholds (i.e., 5,000 fold dilution), during a 12-months simulation and assuming a control temperature as the annual minimum temperature of each location (T1). The salinity of discharge was calculated assuming the MOHID salinity of 83.3% surface water and 16.7% of seafloor water.2.3) Proportion of simulated time (temporal frequency) that a specific 2-dimensional space cell, in six study areas, contained return sediments discharge plume above a 1.2 mg·L-1 concentration threshold, during a 12-months simulation, assuming an average particle diameter of 4 µm, an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and a resultant settling velocity of 0.002 cm·s-1.3) In addition to the thresholds and targets described above, the datasets also present the model results for Cavala seamount and Lucky Strike Hole against other thresholds: 5 mg·L-1, 10 mg·L-1 and 25 mg·L-1 for sediments and 1,000, 600, 300 and 200 fold dilution for discharge water.4) Seasonal variations in the model outputs for plumes dispersal are also presented for Cavala seamount and Lucky Strike Hole by computing the probability of concentration above thresholds for four periods of three months (January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December). In these scenarios, the model run duration was approximately 90 days.5) The sediment thickness of the settled sediments from the discharge sediment and excavation.5.1) Bottom thickness of settled sediments produced during the in situ excavation sediment plume assuming six classes of particle diameter (0-10 μm, 10-50 μm, 50-100 μm, 100-200 μm, 200-2,000 μm, and >2,000 μm), an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and resultant settling velocities ranging from 75.1 cm·s-1 to 0.002 cm·s-1. The duration of the simulation is one year.5.2) Bottom thickness of settled sediments from the return sediment discharge plume modelled assuming an average particle diameter of 4 µm, an average particle density of 3,780 kg·m-3, and a resultant settling velocity of 0.002 cm·s-1. The duration of the simulation is one year. The downloadable zip folders contain GeoTIFF files with the model outputs used in the publication: Modelling the dispersion of Seafloor Massive Sulphide mining plumes in the Mid Atlantic Ridge around the Azores. Files are organized by:Study site (Cavala, Famous, Lucky Strike Hole, Menez Home, Rainbow, Saldanha)Plume type (Discharge sediments, Discharge water, Excavation)Parameters settings (4 micra, 4 micro rho, 8 micra; Discharge temperature 1, Discharge temperature 2, Discharge temperature ambient; 2m_group)Variable measured (Footprint in mm, Max tracer in mg·L-1, Probability (i.e. temporal frequency) in %)Temporal periods (Year: 2011-12-31_2012-01-01; trimester: 2011-01-10_2011-04-01, 2011-04-01_2011-07-01, 2011-07-01_2011-10-01, 2011-10-01_2012-01-01)

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: de Matos, Valentina K F; Gomes-Pereira, José N; Tempera, Fernando; Ribeiro, Pedro A; +2 Authors

    The first record of Antipathella subpinnata ( Ellis and Solander, 1786) for the Azores archipelago is presented based on bottom longline by-catch analysis and ROV seafloor surveys, extending the species western-most boundary of distribution in the NE Atlantic. The species was determined using classic taxonomy and molecular analysis targeting nuclear DNA. Although maximum spine height on Azorean colonies branchlets is slightly smaller than that reported from Mediterranean colonies (0.12 vs 0.16 mm), the analysis of partial 18S rDNA, complete ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA suggests that the Azorean and Mediterranean specimens belong to the same species. Video surveys of an A. subpinnata garden detected near Pico Island are used to provide the first in situ description of the species habitat in the region and the first detailed description of a black coral garden in the NE Atlantic. With A. subpinnata being the only coral found between 150 and 196 m depths, this is the deepest black coral garden recorded in the NE Atlantic and the first one to be monospecific. The species exhibited a maximum density of 2.64 colonies/m**2 and occurred across a surface area estimated at 67,333 m**2, yielding a local population estimate of 50,500 colonies.

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    Authors: Martins, Ines; Godinho, Antonio; Rakka, Maria; Carreiro-Silva, Marina;

    Herein we report the respiration rates (O2 consumption) of the cold-water coral Viminella flagellum exposed to acute Cu concentrations. In a lab experiment, sixty nubbins of V. flagellum were distributed in six aquaria of 8 L (ten nubbins per aquarium) of each Cu solution (0 (control); 60; 150; 250; 450 and 600 μg/L) for 96 h. After this period, four nubbins from each Cu treatment, selected randomly, were incubated individually for 6 h in glass chambers filled with ca. 110 mL of 0.2 μm pre-filtered seawater, with the respective Cu dilutions (4 chambers per Cu concentration). The incubation period was set to 6 h to record changes in O2 consumption without exposing corals to oxygen levels below 80 % (air saturation, a.s.). During the incubation period, dissolved O2 (μmol/L) depletion rates were recorded every 30 min and corrected by the corresponding rates/variations in chambers without corals. Coral respiration rates were normalized to the coral surface area and time. Results are presented by µmol of O2 consumption per m2 per h. Treatment [Cu] µg/L: [0]: Control, no copper addition[60]: Cu concentration of 60 μg/L[150]: Cu concentration of 150 μg/L[250]: Cu concentration of 250 μg/L[450]: Cu concentration of 450 μg/L[600]: Cu concentration of 600 μg/L

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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