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    Authors: Carlos Mario Gómez Gómez; C. D. Pérez-Blanco;

    Greening the economy is mostly about improving water governance and not only about putting the existing resource saving technical alternatives into practice. Focusing on the second and forgetting the first risks finishing with a highly efficient use of water services at the level of each individual user but with an unsustainable amount of water use for the entire economy. This might be happening already in many places with the modernization of irrigated agriculture, the world’s largest water user and the one offering the most promising water saving opportunities. In spite of high expectations, modern irrigation techniques seem not to be contributing to reduce water scarcity and increase drought resiliency. In fact, according to the little evidence available, in some areas they are resulting in higher water use. Building on basic economic principles this study aims to show the conditions under which this apparently paradoxical outcome, known as the Jevons’ Paradox, might appear. This basic model is expected to serve as guidance for assessing the actual outcomes of increasing irrigation efficiency and to discuss the changes in water governance that would be required for this to make a real contribution to sustainable water management.

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    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      SSRN Electronic Journal
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Giacobbe, Simona; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Lettera, Vincenzo; +3 Authors

    Abstract Background Beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage worldwide. In the manufacture of beer, various by-products and residues are generated, and the most abundant (85% of total by-products) are spent grains. Thanks to its high (hemi)cellulose content (about 50% w/w dry weight), this secondary raw material is attractive for the production of second-generation biofuels as butanol through fermentation processes. Results This study reports the ability of two laccase preparations from Pleurotus ostreatus to delignify and detoxify milled brewer’s spent grains (BSG). Up to 94% of phenols reduction was achieved. Moreover, thanks to the mild conditions of enzymatic pretreatment, the formation of other inhibitory compounds was avoided allowing to apply the sequential enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis process (no filtration and washing steps between the two phases). As expected, the high detoxification and delignification yields achieved by laccase pretreatment resulted in great saccharification. As a fact, no loss of carbohydrates was observed thanks to the novel sequential strategy, and thus the totality of polysaccharides was hydrolysed into fermentable sugars. The enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented to acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutilycum obtaining about 12.6 g/L ABE and 7.83 g/L butanol within 190 h. Conclusions The applied sequential pretreatment and hydrolysis process resulted to be very effective for the milled BSG, allowing reduction of inhibitory compounds and lignin content with a consequent efficient saccharification. C. acetobutilycum was able to ferment the BSG hydrolysate with ABE yields similar to those obtained by using synthetic media. The proposed strategy reduces the amount of wastewater and the cost of the overall process. Based on the reported results, the potential production of butanol from the fermentation of BSG hydrolysate can be envisaged.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Biotechnology for Biofuels
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biotechnology for Biofuels
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      Biotechnology for Biofuels
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    Authors: Fasma Diele; Carmela Marangi;

    We propose novel positive numerical integrators for approximating predator-prey models. The schemes are based on suitable symplectic procedures applied to the dynamical system written in terms of the log transformation of the original variables. Even if this approach is not new when dealing with Hamiltonian systems, it is of particular interest in population dynamics since the positivity of the approximation is ensured without any restriction on the temporal step size. When applied to separable M-systems, the resulting schemes are proved to be explicit, positive, Poisson maps. The approach is generalized to predator-prey dynamics which do not exhibit an M-system structure and successively to reaction-diffusion equations describing spatially extended dynamics. A classical polynomial Krylov approximation for the diffusive term joint with the proposed schemes for the reaction, allows us to propose numerical schemes which are explicit when applied to well established ecological models for predator-prey dynamics. Numerical simulations show that the considered approach provides results which outperform the numerical approximations found in recent literature.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Discrete & Continuou...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Severin D. H. Irl; Andreas H. Schweiger; Félix M. Medina; José María Fernández-Palacios; +5 Authors

    [Main conclusion] Both AE and SIE rarity on La Palma show a clear spatial pattern, with hotspots of endemic rarity found at high elevations and in rare climates, presumably owing to geographical and climatic constraints and possibly anthropogenic pressure (e.g., land use, introduced herbivores, fire). Areas of high rarity estimates coincide with the distribution and extent of PAs on La Palma, especially since the recent addition of the Natura 2000 sites. The hypervolume approach is a promising tool to estimate species range sizes, and can be applied on all scales where point/plot data are available. [Methods] We recorded all present endemic vascular plant species in 1,212 plots covering the entire island. We calculated endemic rarity (corrected range-rarity richness for endemics) using a rarity estimation approach based on kernel density estimations (hypervolume approach). We performed a sensitivity analysis based on multiple linear regressions and relative importance estimations of environmental drivers to estimate the performance of the hypervolume-based rarity estimation compared to standard methods (occurrence frequency, convex hulls, alpha hulls). [Aim] Rarity—an important measure for conservation biogeography—can vary over many orders of magnitude. However, it is unclear which regional-scale abiotic conditions drive processes affecting rarity of endemic species on islands. To support conservation efforts, we (1) assess the main abiotic drivers of endemic rarity, (2) determine how well existing protected areas (PAs) coincide with hotspots of endemic rarity and (3) introduce and evaluate a new hypervolume-based rarity estimator. [Results] Climate variables (mean annual temperature, climatic rarity, precipitation variability) best explained archipelago endemic (AE) and single-island endemic (SIE) rarity. Existing PAs covered the majority of AE and SIE rarity, especially national and natural parks as well as the Natura 2000 sites. In our study system, hypervolumes performed better than standard measures of range size. This work contributed to and was partially supported by the European H2020 Project 641762 ECOPOTENTIAL: Improving future ecosystem benefits through Earth Observations. [Location] La Palma (Canary Islands). © 2017 The Authors. Peer Reviewed

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    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2017
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      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Marco Morabito; Alessandro Messeri; Pascal Noti; Ana Casanueva; +8 Authors

    platform (https://heatshield.zonalab.it/) operating for Europe and developed within the framework of the HEAT-SHIELD project. This system is based on probabilistic medium-range forecasts calibrated on approximately 1800 meteorological stations in Europe and provides the ensemble forecast of the daily maximum heat stress. The platform provides a non-customized output represented by a map showing the weekly maximum probability of exceeding a specific heat stress condition, for each of the four upcoming weeks. Customized output allows the forecast of the personalized local heat-stress-risk based on workers&rsquo physical, clothing and behavioral characteristics and the work environment (outdoors in the sun or shade), also taking into account heat acclimatization. Personal daily heat stress risk levels and behavioral suggestions (hydration and work breaks recommended) to be taken into consideration in the short term (5 days) are provided together with long-term heat risk forecasts (up to 46 days), all which are useful for planning work activities. The HEAT-SHIELD platform provides adaptation strategies for &ldquo health warning systems focus on warning vulnerable groups in order to reduce mortality. However, human health and performance are affected at much lower environmental heat strain levels than those directly associated with higher mortality. Moreover, workers are at elevated health risks when exposed to prolonged heat. This study describes the multilingual &ldquo HEAT-SHIELD occupational warning system&rdquo the impact of global warming. Existing heat&ndash managing&rdquo

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    UCrea
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Data sources: UCrea
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    Authors: Ioanna S. Panagea; Antonios Apostolakis; Antonio Berti; Jenny Bussell; +10 Authors

    Inversion tillage is a commonly applied soil cultivation practice in Europe, which often has been blamed for deteriorating topsoil stability and organic carbon (OC) content. In this study, the potential to reverse these negative effects in the topsoil by alternative agricultural management practices are evaluated in seven long-term experiments (running from 8 to 54 years the moment of sampling) in five European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy and UK). Topsoil samples (0–15 cm) were collected and analysed to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage (reduced and no tillage) and increased organic inputs of different origin (farmyard manure, compost, crop residues) combined with inversion tillage on topsoil stability, soil aggregates and, within these, OC distribution using wet sieving after slaking. Effects from the treatments on the two main components of organic matter, i.e. particulate (POM) and mineral associated (MAOM), were also evaluated using dispersion and size fractionation. Reduced and no-tillage practices, as well as the additions of manure or compost, increased the aggregates mean weight diameter (MWD) (up to 49 % at the Belgian study site) and topsoil OC (up to 51 % at the Belgian study site), as well as the OC corresponding to the different aggregate size fractions. The incorporation of crop residues had a positive impact on the MWD but a less profound effect both on total OC and on OC associated with the different aggregates. A negative relationship between the mass and the OC content of the microaggregates (53–250 µm) was identified in all experiments. There was no effect on the mass of the macroaggregates and the occluded microaggregates (mM) within these macroaggregates, while the corresponding OC contents increased with less tillage and more organic inputs. Inversion tillage led to less POM within the mM, whereas the different organic inputs did not affect it. In all experiments where the total POM increased, the total soil organic carbon (SOC) was also affected positively. We concluded that the negative effects of inversion tillage on topsoil can be mitigated by reducing the tillage intensity or adding organic materials, optimally combined with non-inversion tillage methods. ispartof: Soil vol:8 issue:2 pages:621-644 status: Published online

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-2...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    SOIL
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Lirias
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-2...
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    Authors: Menconi V.; Gustinelli A.; Caffara M.; Francalacci C.; +1 Authors

    L’anisakiasi è una zoonosi parassitaria di origine alimentare sostenuta da larve al terzo stadio (L3) di nematodi appartenenti alla famiglia Anisakidae ed in particolare al genere Anisakis. Soprattutto in seguito alla recente emergenza di sindromi allergiche da Anisakis, l’EFSA nel 2010 ha pubblicato un parere scientifico sui rischi correlati alla presenza di parassiti zoonotici in prodotti ittici, considerando sicura la pratica d’allevamento del salmone atlantico (Salmo salar) in quanto, se allevati partendo da avannotti prodotti in sistemi chiusi e alimentati sempre con mangime inerte, questi animali presenterebbero un rischio di infestazione da larve di Anisakis trascurabile. Su questa base, il Reg. UE n. 1276/2011, che modifica l’allegato III del Reg. CE n. 853\2004, puntualizza la possibile deroga al trattamento di congelamento, obbligatorio per i prodotti della pesca destinati ad essere consumati sotto forma di preparazioni a rischio (crudi, marinati, affumicati a freddo, ecc.), per i prodotti ittici derivanti da allevamento quando vengono rispettati i criteri definiti dall’EFSA analogamente al salmone atlantico. Appare quindi d’importanza strategica fornire dati scientifici estesi ed attendibili sull’assenza di parassiti zoonotici nei prodotti della maricoltura mediterranea non solo ai fini di una loro migliore qualificazione commerciale ma anche per una più facile applicabilità di tale deroga da parte delle autorità competenti. Nell’ambito delle attività di ricerca previste dal progetto europeo H2020 ParaFishControl “Advanced Tools and Research Strategies for Parasite Control in European farmed fish”, da marzo 2016 a giugno 2017 è stato condotto un esteso monitoraggio parassitologico in spigole (Dicentrarchus labrax) ed orate (Sparus aurata) allevate in Italia. Le attività di campionamento hanno coinvolto 4 allevamenti nazionali, di cui 3 in gabbie galleggianti ed uno in vasche a terra, prelevando almeno 258 esemplari per specie/allevamento suddivisi in 4 campionamenti a cadenza stagionale per un totale di 1040 spigole e 1090 orate. La numerosità campionaria è stata calcolata in modo da ottenere almeno il 95% di probabilità di evidenziare un esemplare positivo con prevalenza >2%. Per la ricerca di larve di nematodi Anisakidae sono stati associati: esame visivo diretto e mediante transilluminatore di visceri e porzioni muscolari, metodo della UV-press dei filetti e digestione con soluzione cloro- peptica del pacchetto viscerale. Tutti gli esemplari di spigola e orata esaminati sono risultati negativi per la presenza di stadi larvali di Anisakis spp. In un unico esemplare di spigola proveniente da un allevamento in gabbia è stata evidenziata la presenza di una larva di Hysterothylacium fabri (nematode non zoonotico) incistata sulla superficie del fegato ed identificata a livello di specie mediante PCR-RFLP. Alla luce della trasmissione di questo parassita a pesci predatori per via trofica, similmente ai nematodi Anisakidae zoonotici, nel prossimo futuro verranno condotte indagini mirate ad identificare i fattori di rischio che hanno condotto all’infestazione da H. fabri in allevamento, seppur in un unico esemplare, ed individuare gli eventuali punti critici da monitorare. I risultati ottenuti da questa indagine indicano comunque come nelle spigole e nelle orate allevate in Italia il rischio d’infestazione da Anisakis sia da ritenersi trascurabile, aprendo la via ad azioni di qualificazione dei prodotti della maricoltura mediterranea.

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    Authors: Teresa Amaro; Gian Marco Luna; Roberto Danovaro; David S.M. Billett; +1 Authors

    Sediments in the Nazare Canyon (NE Atlantic) are inhabited by unexpectedly high abundances of the deposit-feeding holothurian Molpadia musculus. The energetic demand of such a large megafaunal biomass is presumably high and requires the efficient exploitation of the food inputs coming from the photic zone. We hypothesise the existence of cooperative interactions between these deep-sea holothurians and prokaryotes in their guts. To investigate these interactions, sediment samples and holothurians were collected at ca. 3500 m depth using a Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) and an incubation chamber used to "harvest" faeces from the holothurian. In all of these samples (ingested sediment from different sectors of the holothurian gut content, faeces and sediments) we determined total prokaryotic abundance, the relative abundance of Bacteria and Archaea (by means of Catalysed Reporter Deposition-Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation) and bacterial diversity (by means of fingerprinting techniques: ARISA and T-RFLP). Prokaryotic abundances and bacterial diversity in the holothurian gut were very high (up to 10(5) bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units) and significantly greater than in surrounding bottom sediments. Archaea represented a key component within the gut of the holothurians and in certain tracts dominated the prokaryotic assemblage. We also found that ca. 40% of bacterial OTUs were associated uniquely with the gut contents (i.e., absent in surrounding sediments). These findings suggest the occurrence of wide and highly diversified interactions between prokaryotes and deep-sea holothurians. Results presented here provide new insights into the potential relationships between deep-sea holothurians and specific associations of Archaea and Bacteria within their guts. The work opens new perspectives for investigating the diversity of prokaryotes associated to deep-sea megafauna. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    Authors: Laura Airoldi; Fabio Bulleri;

    Background: Coastal landscapes are being transformed as a consequence of the increasing demand for infrastructures to sustain residential, commercial and tourist activities. Thus, intertidal and shallow marine habitats are largely being replaced by a variety of artificial substrata (e.g. breakwaters, seawalls, jetties). Understanding the ecological functioning of these artificial habitats is key to planning their design and management, in order to minimise their impacts and to improve their potential to contribute to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to assess the role of human disturbances in shaping the structure of assemblages on marine artificial infrastructures. We tested the hypothesis that some negative impacts associated with the expansion of opportunistic and invasive species on urban infrastructures can be related to the severe human disturbances that are typical of these environments, such as those from maintenance and renovation works. Methodology/Principal Findings: Maintenance caused a marked decrease in the cover of dominant space occupiers, such as mussels and oysters, and a significant enhancement of opportunistic and invasive forms, such as biofilm and macroalgae. These effects were particularly pronounced on sheltered substrata compared to exposed substrata. Experimental application of the disturbance in winter reduced the magnitude of the impacts compared to application in spring or summer. We use these results to identify possible management strategies to inform the improvement of the ecological value of artificial marine infrastructures. Conclusions/Significance: We demonstrate that some of the impacts of globally expanding marine urban infrastructures, such as those related to the spread of opportunistic, and invasive species could be mitigated through ecologically-driven planning and management of long-term maintenance of these structures. Impact mitigation is a possible outcome of policies that consider the ecological features of built infrastructures and the fundamental value of controlling biodiversity in marine urban systems.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2011
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    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2011
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      Article . 2011
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    Authors: Eniko Kadar; Andrew Fisher; Björn Stolpe; Roy M. Harrison; +2 Authors

    We report on metal enrichment along a natural pH gradient owing to increased CO2 degassing at cold, shallow seeps of Vulcano Island in the Mediterranean Sea, off Sicily. We assessed composition of unfiltered and filtered seawater (<100 nm) along acidic zones ranging between ambient and pH 5, and showed that most seep derived elements are present as nanoclusters which then aggregate into larger colloids while mixing with ambient seawater along a pH gradient. Size and elemental composition of such naturally occurring nanoparticles assessed by modern characterisation methods were in good agreement with the results from conventional analytical methods. We provide analytical evidence for the presence in the water column of a large fraction of seep derived elements (e.g. approximately 50% of iron, over 80% of Mn, 100% of Cr, S and Zn) in the form of nano sized particles (e.g. <100 nm) even at typical open ocean pHs. We launch in situ sampling protocols and sample preparation procedures for multi-method suitable to obtain accurate measurements on nanoparticles from environmental samples. Based on our results a first insight to the formation of natural nanoparticles at cold CO2 seeps is presented and the persistence of such nano-clusters in the surrounding seawater is stipulated.

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    Marine Chemistry
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    Marine Chemistry
    Other literature type . Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Marine Chemistry
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      Marine Chemistry
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    Authors: Carlos Mario Gómez Gómez; C. D. Pérez-Blanco;

    Greening the economy is mostly about improving water governance and not only about putting the existing resource saving technical alternatives into practice. Focusing on the second and forgetting the first risks finishing with a highly efficient use of water services at the level of each individual user but with an unsustainable amount of water use for the entire economy. This might be happening already in many places with the modernization of irrigated agriculture, the world’s largest water user and the one offering the most promising water saving opportunities. In spite of high expectations, modern irrigation techniques seem not to be contributing to reduce water scarcity and increase drought resiliency. In fact, according to the little evidence available, in some areas they are resulting in higher water use. Building on basic economic principles this study aims to show the conditions under which this apparently paradoxical outcome, known as the Jevons’ Paradox, might appear. This basic model is expected to serve as guidance for assessing the actual outcomes of increasing irrigation efficiency and to discuss the changes in water governance that would be required for this to make a real contribution to sustainable water management.

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    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Giacobbe, Simona; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Lettera, Vincenzo; +3 Authors

    Abstract Background Beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage worldwide. In the manufacture of beer, various by-products and residues are generated, and the most abundant (85% of total by-products) are spent grains. Thanks to its high (hemi)cellulose content (about 50% w/w dry weight), this secondary raw material is attractive for the production of second-generation biofuels as butanol through fermentation processes. Results This study reports the ability of two laccase preparations from Pleurotus ostreatus to delignify and detoxify milled brewer’s spent grains (BSG). Up to 94% of phenols reduction was achieved. Moreover, thanks to the mild conditions of enzymatic pretreatment, the formation of other inhibitory compounds was avoided allowing to apply the sequential enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis process (no filtration and washing steps between the two phases). As expected, the high detoxification and delignification yields achieved by laccase pretreatment resulted in great saccharification. As a fact, no loss of carbohydrates was observed thanks to the novel sequential strategy, and thus the totality of polysaccharides was hydrolysed into fermentable sugars. The enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented to acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutilycum obtaining about 12.6 g/L ABE and 7.83 g/L butanol within 190 h. Conclusions The applied sequential pretreatment and hydrolysis process resulted to be very effective for the milled BSG, allowing reduction of inhibitory compounds and lignin content with a consequent efficient saccharification. C. acetobutilycum was able to ferment the BSG hydrolysate with ABE yields similar to those obtained by using synthetic media. The proposed strategy reduces the amount of wastewater and the cost of the overall process. Based on the reported results, the potential production of butanol from the fermentation of BSG hydrolysate can be envisaged.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Biotechnology for Biofuels
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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