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  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2023-2023
  • Open Access
  • ES

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Miguel‐Berges, María L.; Mouratidou, Theodora; Santaliestra‐Pasias, Alba; Androutsos, Odysseas; +9 Authors

    SummaryBackgroundLifestyle behaviours related to diet and physical activity are associated with increased risk of obesity and evidence suggests that associations might be stronger when a synergetic effect is examined.ObjectiveTo examine the cross‐sectional and longitudinal associations between diet, screen time (ST) and step recommendations and risk of overweight and obesity in European preschoolers participating in the ToyBox‐study.MethodsIn this cluster‐randomized clinical trial, 718 children (51.4% boys) from six European countries participated. Parents filled out questionnaires with information on socio‐demographic status, step recommendations and ST.ResultsLongitudinal results indicate that participants having a low Diet Quality Index (DQI), not meeting ST and step recommendations at T0 and T1 had higher odds of having overweight/obesity at T1 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.116; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.104–2.562) than those children having a high DQI and meeting ST and step recommendations at T0 and T1. Similarly, participants having a high DQI, but not meeting ST and step recommendations at T0 and T1 had increased odds of having overweight/obesity (OR = 2.515; 95% CI = 1.171–3.021).ConclusionsThe proportion of participants having a low DQI, not adhering to both step and ST recommendations was very high, and it was associated with a higher probability of having overweight and obesity.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
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    Pediatric Obesity
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Pediatric Obesity
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paullada Salmerón, José Antonio; Loentgen, Guillaume H.; Fuentès, M.; Besseau, L.; +3 Authors

    Neurosteroids are involved in the regulation of multiple behavioral and physiological processes and metabolic activities in the vertebrate brain. However, central mechanisms of how neurosteroid synthesis is regulated is far to be understood. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that negatively regulates gonadotropin secretion but also inhibits sexual and aggressive behaviors in birds and mammals by modulating aromatase enzyme and neuroestrogen synthesis. In a previous study performed in male sea bass, we reported that Gnih inhibited the reproductive axis by acting at the three levels of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. Moreover, the presence of Gnih cells and fibers in the telencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon suggests a role of Gnih in regulating other important brain functions in sea bass, including behavior. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of the intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of sbGnih-2 on the brain and pituitary expression of the main neurosteroids-synthesizing enzymes (stAR, cyp17, 3β-hsd, 17β-hsd, cyp19b, cyp7b), as well as on estrogen and androgen receptors (erα, erβ1, erβ2, ar). A combination of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization was also used to identify putative interaction of Gnih- and aromatase-positive cells. We also performed a mirror test study as a proxy to measure aggression levels and agonistic behavior after icv injection of sbGnih-2. Central administration of sbGnih-2 at different doses reduced the transcript levels of 3β-hsd and 17β-hsd, and increased the expression of cyp19b (brain aromatase) in the sea bass brain. Neuroanatomical results suggest that paracrine and neuroendocrine actions could mediate Gnih effects on aromatase expression. Central administration of sbGnih-2 also decreased the pituitary expression of 17β-hsd and estrogen receptors (erβ2). The mirror test analysis showed that sbGnih-2 affected the agonistic/aggressive behavior of sea bass as revealed by the decreased interaction with the mirror, lower time spent in the mirror zone, increased latency to establish contact with the mirror and higher mean distance to the mirror zone. In contrast, locomotor activity parameters measured were not affected by sbGnih-2 injection. Taken together, our results showed for the first time in fish that Gnih inhibits social-aggressive behavior and affects the gene expression of neurosteroid-synthesizing enzymes giving rise to neuroandrogens and neuroestrogens in the sea bass brain. Funded by grants from PAIDI2020-Junta de Andalucía (Grant no P18-RT-5152) and FEDER-UCA (Grant no 18‐107538) to JAM-C, and a grant from the European Union (FP7-INFRASTRUCTURES-2010-1, Grant no 262280. Ref. OOB–EMBRC-FR–AAP2018–no 2200) to GL, LB and JAM-C.

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    Frontiers in Marine Science
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Marine Science
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: María P. VELASCO-AMO; Antonio VICENT; Pablo J. ZARCO-TEJADA; Juan A. NAVAS-CORTÉS; +1 Authors

    Xylella fastidiosa is a major transboundary plant pest, causing severe socioeconomic impacts. Development of preventive strategies and methods for surveillance, early detection, monitoring, and accurate diagnosis of X. fastidiosa and its vectors, are keys to preventing the effects of this plant pathogen, and assist timely eradication or optimisation of containment measures. This review focuses on approaches for early detection of X. fastidiosa in the Mediterranean Basin, including development of climatic suitability risk maps to determine areas of potential establishment, and epidemiological models to assist in outbreak management through optimized surveillance and targeted responses. The usefulness of airborne hyperspectral and thermal images from remote sensing to discriminate X. fastidiosa infections from other biotic and abioticinduced spectral signatures is also discussed. The most commonly used methods for identifying X. fastidiosa in infected plants and vectors, and the molecular approaches available to genetically characterize X. fastidiosa strains, are described. Each of these approaches has trade-offs, but stepwise or simultaneous combinations of these methods may help to contain X. fastidiosa epidemics in the Mediterranean Basin. Some of the research presented in this review was funded by the following projects: BeXyl (Beyond Xylella, Integrated Management Strategies for Mitigating Xylella fastidiosa impact in Europe; grant ID 101060593, from European Union’s Horizon Europe ‘Food, Bioeconomy Natural Resources, Agriculture and Environment’ Programme); XF-ACTORS (Xylella fastidiosa Active Containment Through a Multidisciplinary-Oriented Research Strategy; grant 727987, from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Research Programme); POnTE (Pest Organisms Threatening Europe; grant ID 635646, from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Research Programme); E-RTA2017-00004-C06-02 (Desarrollo de estrategias de erradicación, contención y control de X. fastidiosa en España) from ‘Programa Estatal de I+D+I Orientada a los Retos de la Sociedad of the Spanish Government AEI-INIA Spain’ and the Spanish Olive Oil Interprofesional; Project P18-RT-4184 from Junta de Andalucia and the European Regional Development Fund; and the Intramural Project 201840E111 and the Thematic Interdisciplinary Platform on X. fastidiosa (PTI Sol-Xyl) from CSIC. 60th MPU Anniversary Special Section. Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Phytopathologia Medi...arrow_drop_down
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    Phytopathologia Mediterranea
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Phytopathologia Medi...arrow_drop_down
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      Phytopathologia Mediterranea
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Anguita Maeso, Manuel;

    El olivo (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) es uno de los árboles cultivados más antiguos del mundo y desempeña un papel fundamental en la sostenibilidad de los ecosistemas mediterráneos. Al ser un sistema agrícola con importantes funciones económicas, sociales y ambientales, su cultivo debe mantenerse y preservarse. Sin embargo, en la actualidad, la salud de los olivares se está viendo seriamente amenazada por un notable incremento, tanto en incidencia como en severidad, de enfermedades causadas por diversos patógenos que están afectando tanto a su desarrollo como producción. Entre las enfermedades del olivo, las causadas por la bacteria patógena Xylella fastidiosa (en particular de las subespecies multiplex y pauca) y el hongo vascular del suelo Verticillium dahliae son, sin duda, las principales amenazas globales para la producción del olivar a nivel mundial. El método más practico y económicamente eficiente para el manejo de las enfermedades vasculares del olivo es el uso de cultivares resistentes. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los cultivares de olivo más ampliamente utilizados en la cuenca mediterránea, incluida España, presentan una reacción de moderada a altamente susceptible a las variantes más virulentas de estos patógenos, que incluyen el patotipo Defoliante (D) en V. dahliae o la subespecie pauca ST53 en X. fastidiosa. Por lo tanto, es necesaria una estrategia de gestión integrada para poder prevenir la propagación y reducir la incidencia y severidad de esos patógenos. Este enfoque debe combinar medidas preventivas y paliativas para mitigar el desarrollo de la enfermedad, entre las que se incluye la explotación del microbioma beneficioso asociado a las plantas mediante el uso de agentes de control biológico que puede representar una estrategia sostenible y respetuosa con el medio ambiente a largo plazo. En la naturaleza, las plantas sanas viven en asociación permanente e interactúan con una gran variedad de microorganismos, denominados microbioma vegetal, que desempeña funciones esenciales en la salud de las plantas. Así, los microorganismos endofitos, entre los que se incluyen las bacterias y hongos que viven en el interior de las plantas estableciendo relaciones no patogénicas con su huésped, pueden controlar el crecimiento de patógenos a través de interacciones inter-microbianas y al estimular la inmunidad de la planta huésped. El potencial papel que pueden desempeñar las comunidades microbianas en la respuesta de resistencia en olivo a patógenos vasculares no ha sido considerada y permanece inexplorado. Por tanto, un mejor conocimiento de las comunidades microbianas que habitan en los vasos del xilema del olivo puede ser crucial para comprender su influencia potencial en el crecimiento saludable de la planta, así como en la resistencia que muestran genotipos específicos de olivo frente a patógenos vasculares. Esta Tesis Doctoral se ha centrado en la caracterización de las comunidades microbianas que habitan el xilema del olivo optimizando los enfoques metodológicos para su estudio y determinando el efecto de los principales factores bióticos y abióticos que son claves en la configuración de su estructura, diversidad y las interacciones existentes entre los componentes del microbioma. Para ello, como primer paso, se optimizo un protocolo de secuenciación masiva (NGS) para el análisis de comunidades microbianas asociadas al xilema, que incluía la evaluación de: i) el procedimiento de extracción del microbioma cuando se utiliza savia o tejido xilemático, ii) la influencia de los kits de extracción de ADN (Capítulo II) y iii) la elección de los cebadores de PCR dirigidos al ARNr 16S (Capítulo III). En el Capítulo II se mostró el efecto significativo del protocolo de extracción de ADN en la evaluación de la comunidad bacteriana de la savia del xilema. Así, se encontraron diferencias significativas en los valores de diversidad alfa (riqueza) y beta (distancias UniFrac) de las comunidades bacterianas que habitan en el xilema entre 12 kits de extracción de ADN, que pudieron agruparse en cuatro grupos. Aunque el número principal de taxones detectados por todos los kits de extracción de ADN incluía cuatro filos, siete clases, 12 órdenes, 21 familias y 14 géneros, algunos taxones, en particular los identificados con baja frecuencia, solo se detectaron con algunos de los kits de extracción de ADN. La recuperación y evaluación más precisa de una comunidad bacteriana inoculada artificialmente en muestras de savia se generó al utilizar los kits de extracción de ADN PowerPlant y PowerSoil. El Capítulo III abordo otro aspecto importante en los estudios de secuenciación masiva, como es la elección del cebador para la amplificación del ARNr 16S. Para ello, se compararon cuatro pares de cebadores de PCR dirigidos a diferentes regiones del ARNr por su eficacia para evitar la coamplificación de ARNr de mitocondrias y cloroplastos de la planta. Las amplificaciones más altas de secuencias de mitocondrias y cloroplastos se obtuvieron cuando se utilizó tejido xilemático con los pares de cebadores PCR1-799F/1062R (76,05 %) y PCR3-967F/1391R (99,96 %). Por el contrario, los pares de cebadores PCR2-799F/1115R y PCR4-799F/1193R mostraron la menor amplificación de ARNr 16S mitocondrial (76% de las lecturas). Entre los géneros identificados mediante NGS, 14 (41,2%) también se recuperaron en cultivo, mientras que 20 de los géneros aislados (58,8%) no pudieron ser detectados mediante NGS. En el Capítulo VI, se evaluaron seis medios de cultivo liquido diferentes (SXM, XVM2, XF26, PD3, 3G10R y XDM2) que imitan la composición de la savia del xilema por su capacidad para favorecer el crecimiento de bacterias que habitan en el xilema del olivo. Se pudieron cultivar in vitro un total de 66 géneros bacterianos habitantes del xilema del olivo, de los cuales 28 (42,4%) habían sido previamente descritos como endofitos del tallo de la planta en otros estudios, pero 38 de ellos fueron descritos por primera vez como bacterias endofitas cultivables de plantas. Las medidas de diversidad alfa y beta de las comunidades bacterianas desarrolladas durante el cultivo indicaron que las principales diferencias entre ellas se debían al medio de cultivo, seguido del genotipo de olivo del que se extrajo la savia, sin verse afectado (diversidad alfa de Riqueza y Diversidad-Shannon) o con un efecto menor (distancia de diversidad beta UniFrac) por el tiempo de incubación. PD3 fue el medio que mejor sustento el crecimiento bacteriano, pero enriqueció con el menor número de ASV bacterianos; mientras que el medio XVM2 mostro el mayor número de ASVs al utilizar savia extraída de los genotipos “Picual” y “Arbequina” (258 en ambos), seguido de 3G10R (244) en savia de “Picual” y XDM2 (244) en savia de “Arbequina”. Estos medios de cultivo pueden facilitar el cultivo in vitro de comunidades microbianas sintéticas que posteriormente pueden utilizarse para la modificación del microbioma del xilema de olivo para mejorar la reacción de este a patógenos vasculares. Además, en esta Tesis Doctoral se ha dilucidado si la propagación in vitro del olivo puede alterar la diversidad y composición del microbioma que habita en el xilema y si esos cambios pueden modificar la respuesta de resistencia que muestra un clon de olivo silvestre al patotipo D altamente virulento de V. dahliae (Capítulo VII). Los resultados indicaron que, aunque hubo diferencias en las comunidades microbianas xilemáticas en función del método de propagación de olivo, los cambios más sustanciales ocurrieron cuando las plantas se inocularon con V. dahliae D, independientemente de si se produjo colonización del tallo por el patógeno. Así, se produjo un aumento significativo en la diversidad de comunidades bacterianas en plantas crecidas en suelo infestado por el patógeno. Además, se observo que las plantas de olivo multiplicadas en condiciones in vitro desarrollaron una reacción susceptible a V. dahliae D, caracterizada por síntomas severos de marchitez y un 100% de infección vascular del tallo. Además, esas plantas propagadas in vitro mostraron un microbioma de xilema alterado con una disminución en el número total de OTUs en comparación con las plantas multiplicadas en condiciones no asépticas. Pseudomonas spp. fue el género bacteriano predominante en plantas micropropagadas y Anoxybacillus se revelo como una bacteria clave en las plantas inoculadas con V. dahliae D independientemente de su método de propagación. Nuestros resultados mostraron una ruptura de la resistencia a V. dahliae D en un genotipo de olivo silvestre que podría estar potencialmente relacionada con una modificación de su microbioma xilemático. Estos resultados han contribuido a ampliar nuestro conocimiento sobre el papel de los microorganismos asociados al xilema en la resistencia del huésped, lo cual puede ser útil para luchar contra las principales enfermedades vasculares del olivo. Finalmente, en esta Tesis Doctoral se caracterizó la estructura y diversidad del microbioma del olivo en condiciones naturales y sus posibles factores determinantes y modificadores, incluidos diversos factores asociados a la planta huésped, como el nicho de esta y su genotipo, así como la influencia del medio ambiente incluyendo las condiciones climáticas, del suelo y agronómicas del olivar y la estación del año en que se lleva a cabo el muestreo (Capítulo VIII). En este capítulo se identificaron un total de 7.132 variantes de secuencia de amplicón (ASV) bacterianos, distribuidos en 28 filos y 3.469 géneros, mientras que se identificaron 1.356 ASV fúngicos que se encuadraban en 10 filos y 714 géneros. Proteobacteria fue el filo bacteriano más abundante (45,21%) seguido de Actinobacteriota (25,22%); mientras que Pseudomonas y Sphingomonas (7,37% y 5,11%, respectivamente) fueron los géneros dominantes. Para las comunidades fúngicas, Ascomycota (87,81%) seguido de Basidiomycota (9,02%) fueron los filos prevalentes; mientras que Aureobasidium y un miembro del orden Saccharomycetales (18,54% y 15,00%, respectivamente) fueron los géneros fúngicos dominantes. La diversidad alfa mostro diferencias significativas para los índices de Riqueza y Shannon según el nicho de la planta, tanto para las comunidades bacterianas como fúngicas. De manera similar, el análisis ANOSIM de disimilaridad UniFrac de la diversidad beta indico que el nicho de la planta fue el factor de mayor influencia, seguido de la localidad y el momento de muestreo, con un menor efecto del genotipo del olivo. El análisis de redes identifico asociaciones de copresencia o exclusión mutua entre los compartimentos del olivo en la parte aérea y suelo. Curiosamente, este análisis permitió identificar ASV específicos que mostraban un numero relativo diferente de asociaciones positivas y negativas con otros ASV para cada factor estudiado. Nuestros resultados son pioneros en la descripción del holobionte del olivo y sus principales factores de configuración, incluidos el nicho de la planta, las condiciones ambientales (clima y estacionalidad) y el genotipo del huésped. Estos resultados contribuirán a facilitar la exploración y selección de microorganismos clave específicos que pueden vivir en estrecha asociación con el olivo en una diversidad de condiciones ambientales/ agronómicas, y podrían ser componentes idóneos para el diseño de biofertilizantes, bioestimulantes y agentes de biocontrol para el manejo de enfermedades en olivar. Para concluir, esta Tesis Doctoral ha establecido los enfoques metodológicos para esclarecer los factores bióticos y abióticos que afectan a las comunidades microbianas del xilema de olivo. Asimismo, se han caracterizado algunos componentes clave del microbioma del xilema, sentando las bases para su aislamiento y cultivo. Estos microorganismos podrían utilizarse para la creación de un consorcio de microorganismos habitantes del xilema que pueden inocularse artificialmente en los vasos xilemáticos de plantones de olivo para modificar su microbioma xilemático nativo y así hacer frente a la infección por patógenos vasculares o mejorar su desarrollo fisiológico y su crecimiento. Olive tree (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) is one of the oldest cultivated trees in the world and plays a critical role in the sustainability of Mediterranean ecosystems. As an agricultural system with important economic, sociological and environmental roles its cultivation should be maintained and preserved. However, nowadays, the health of the olive groves is seriously threatened by a notable increase, both in incidence and severity of diseases caused by various pathogens which are affecting its growth and production. Among olive diseases, those caused by the vascular plant pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (in particular from subspecies multiplex and pauca) and the soilborne vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae are, without a doubt, global threats to olive production worldwide. The most practical and economically efficient method for the management of olive vascular diseases is the use of resistant cultivars. However, most olive cultivars widely grown in the Mediterranean Basin including Spain, are moderate to highly susceptible to the most virulent strains of these pathogens, which include V. dahliae defoliating (D) pathotype or X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca ST53. Thus, an integrated management strategy is recommended to prevent the spread and reduce the incidence and severity of those pathogens. This approach combines preventive and palliative measures to mitigate the development of the disease among which the exploitation of the beneficial plant-associated microbiome by using biological control agents might represent a long-term sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy. In nature, healthy plants live in permanent association and interact with a myriad of microorganisms, collectively called the plant microbiome, which are known to play essential roles in plant health. Thus, endophytes, known as bacteria and fungi that live within plants where they establish nonpathogenic relationships with their hosts, can control the growth of pathogens through inter-microbial interactions and by stimulating host plant immunity. The potential role that microbial communities may play in the resistant response to olive vascular pathogens has been overlooked and remains unexplored to date. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the microbial communities inhabiting the xylem vessels of olive trees may be crucial for understanding their potential influence on the healthy growth of this tree as well as on the resistance shown by specific olive genotypes against vascular plant pathogens. This Doctoral Thesis has been focused on the characterization of the microbial communities inhabiting the xylem vessels of the olive tree, optimizing the methodological approaches for its study and cultivation, determining the main biotic and abiotic factors that determine and modify the structure, diversity and the interactions existing among the members of these microbial communities. For this, as a first step, a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) protocol was optimized for analysis of xylem-associated microbial communities, which included the evaluation of: i) the procedure for extracting the microbiome when using xylem sap or xylem tissue, ii) the influence of the DNA extraction kits (Chapter II), iii) the choice of PCR primers targeting 16S rRNA (Chapter III). In Chapter II it was shown the significant effect that the DNA extraction protocol has on xylem sap bacterial community assessment. Thus, significant differences in the alpha (Richness) and beta (UniFrac distances) diversity measures of xylem-inhabiting bacterial communities were found among 12 DNA extraction kits, which could be clustered in four groups. Although the core number of taxa detected by all DNA extraction kits included four phyla, seven classes, 12 orders, 21 families, and 14 genera, some specific taxa, particularly those identified at low frequency, were only detected by some DNA extraction kits. The most accurate recovery and assessment of a bacterial mock community artificially inoculated on sap samples was generated when using the PowerPlant and PowerSoil DNA extraction kits. Chapter III addressed another important drawback in metabarcoding studies, such is the primer choice for amplification of 16S rRNA. For that, four PCR-primer pairs targeting a different región of the 16S rRNA were compared for their efficacy to avoid the co-amplification of mitochondria and chloroplast plant rRNA. The highest yields of mitochondria and chloroplast reads were obtained when using xylem woody chips and the PCR1-799F/1062R (76.05%) and PCR3-967F/1391R (99.96%) primer pairs. On the contrary, the PCR2-799F/1115R and PCR4-799F/1193R primer pairs showed the lowest mitochondria 16S rRNA amplification (76% of reads). Among the genera identified using NGS, 14 (41.2%) were also recovered in the culture collection, whereas 20 (58.8%) of the isolated bacteria were not detected by the NGS approach. In Chapter VI, we evaluated six different broth media (SXM, XVM2, XF26, PD3, 3G10R and XDM2) mimicking xylem sap composition for their ability to sustain growth of olive xylem-inhabiting bacteria. A total of 66 olive xylem-inhabiting bacterial genera could be cultured in vitro, of which 28 (42.4%) were previously described as endophytes of the plant stem in other studies; but 38 of them, were described, for the first time, as cultivable plant-endophytic bacteria. Alpha and beta-diversity measures of bacterial communities developed during cultivation indicated that the main differences were due to the broth media used, followed by the olive genotype from which the xylem sap was extracted, with no effect (Richness and Shannon alpha-diversity) or a minor effect (UniFrac beta-diversity distance) of incubation time. PD3 was the medium that best supported bacterial growth but enriched for the lowest number of bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs); whereas XVM2 medium showed the highest number of ASVs detected when using sap extracted from “Picual” and “Arbequina” genotypes (258 in both), followed by 3G10R (244) in “Picual” sap and XDM2 (244) in “Arbequina” sap. These culture media can facilitate the in vitro cultivation of synthetic microbial communities that can be later used to modify the plant xylem microbiome to enhance plant resilience to vascular pathogens. Additionally, this Doctoral Thesis elucidated whether in vitro olive propagation may alter the diversity and composition of the xylem-inhabiting microbiome and if those changes may modify the resistance response that a wild olive clone shows to the highly virulent D pathotype of V. dahliae (Chapter VII). Results from this chapter indicated that although there were differences in microbial communities among the different plant propagation methods, most substantial changes occurred when plants were inoculated with V. dahliae, regardless of whether the infection process of the stem took place. Thus, a significant increase in the diversity of bacterial communities occurred when the pathogen was present in the soil. Furthermore, it was noticeable that olive plants multiplied under in vitro conditions developed a susceptible reaction to D V. dahliae, characterized by severe wilting symptoms and a 100% of stem vascular colonization. Moreover, those in vitro propagated plants showed an altered xylem microbiome with a decrease in total OTU numbers as compared to that of plants multiplied under non-aseptic conditions. Pseudomonas spp. appeared as the most predominant bacterial group in micropropagated plants and Anoxybacillus was revealed as a keystone bacterium in V. dahliae-inoculated plants, irrespective of their propagation process. Our results showed a breakdown of resistance to V. dahliae in a wild olive genotype that could potentially be related to a modification of its xylem microbiome. These results have contributed to expand our knowledge of the role of indigenous xylem-associated microorganisms on host resistance, which can be of use to fight against the main vascular diseases of olive. Finally, this Doctoral Thesis characterized the structure and diversity of the olive microbiome under natural conditions and their potential determinant and modifying factors including plant-associated host factors such as plant niche and olive genotype, and the influence of environment including climate, soil and agronomic conditions of the orchard and the season of sampling (Chapter VIII). This chapter resulted in the identification of a total of 7,132 bacterial ASVs, distributed in 28 phyla and 3,469 genera, whereas 1,356 ASVs were identified for fungal communities that were composed of 10 phyla and 714 genera. Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial phylum (45.21%) followed by Actinobacteriota (25.22%); whereas Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas (7.37% and 5.11%, respectively) were the dominant genera. For fungal communities, Ascomycota (87.81%) followed by Basidiomycota (9.02%) were the most abundant phyla; whereas Aureobasidium and a member of the order Saccharomycetales (18.54% and 15.00%, respectively) were the dominant fungal genera. Alpha diversity showed main significant differences for the Richness and Shannon indexes according to the plant niche, both for bacterial and fungal communities. Similarly, ANOSIM analysis of beta diversity weighted UniFrac distances indicated a significant main effect of the plant niche, followed by the field location and season of sampling, with a minor effect of the olive genotype. Network analysis identified co-presence or mutual exclusion associations between the above- and below-ground compartments of olive trees. Interestingly, specific ASVs were identified showing different relative number of positive and negative associations with other ASVs in the network analysis within each studied factor. Our results are pioneer in describing the olive holobiont and its main shaping factors including the plant niche, environmental conditions (soil physico-chemical properties, climate and seasonality) and host genotype. These results will contribute to facilitate the exploration and selection of specific keystone microorganisms that can live in close association with olive under a range of environmental/agronomic conditions and could be ideal targets for the design of biofertilizers, biostimulants and biocontrol agents for management of olive diseases. To conclude, this Doctoral Thesis has settled the methodological approaches to unravel the biotic and abiotic factors that affect the xylem microbial communities and have characterized some members of the core xylem microbiome, establishing the basis to isolate and culture them. These isolated microorganisms could be used to produce a consortium of xylem-inhabiting microorganisms that can be artificially inoculated into xylem vessels of olive plantlets to modify their native xylem microbiome to obtain plants more resilient to infection by xylem-inhabiting pathogens or to enhance olive plant physiology and growth.

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    Authors: François Clayer; Leah Jackson-Blake; Daniel Mercado-Bettín; Muhammed Shikhani; +11 Authors

    Despite high potential benefits, the development of seasonal forecasting tools in the water sector has been slower than in other sectors. Here we assess the skill of seasonal forecasting tools for lakes and reservoirs set up at four sites in Australia and Europe. These tools consist of coupled hydrological catchment and lake models forced with seasonal meteorological forecast ensembles to provide probabilistic predictions of seasonal anomalies in water discharge, temperature and ice-off. Successful implementation requires a vigorous assessment of the tools? predictive skill and an apportionment of the predictability between legacy effects and input forcing data. To this end, models were forced with two meteorological datasets from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the seasonal forecasting system, SEAS5, with 3-month lead times and the ERA5 reanalysis. Historical skill was assessed by comparing both model outputs, i.e. seasonal lake hindcasts (forced with SEAS5), and pseudo-observations (forced with ERA5). The skill of the seasonal lake hindcasts was generally low although higher than the reference hindcasts, i.e. pseudo-observations, at some sites for certain combinations of season and variable. The SEAS5 meteorological predictions showed less skill than the lake hindcasts. In fact, skilful lake hindcasts identified for selected seasons and variables were not always synchronous with skilful SEAS5 meteorological hindcasts, raising questions on the source of the predictability.A set of sensitivity analyses showed that most of the forecasting skill originates from legacy effects, although during winter and spring in Norway some skill was coming from SEAS5 over the 3-month target season. When SEAS5 hindcasts were skilful, additional predictive skill originates from the interaction between legacy and SEAS5 skill. We conclude that lake forecasts forced with an ensemble of boundary conditions resampled from historical meteorology are currently likely to yield higher-quality forecasts in most cases. This research has been supported by the Norges Forskningsråd (grant no. 274208), the European Union (grant no. 690462) and MINECO-AEI (projects PCIN-2017-062 and PCIN-2017-092).

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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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    Authors: Víctor Fernández; Elena Laborda; Felipe Del-Busto; Carmen Bartolomé;

    This study explores and compares stakeholders’ perceptions of biobased products over the last few years. Three groups of stakeholders are included: consumers, the business-to-business market, and public procurers. The main research method consists of a qualitative analysis of some of the results obtained in a series of surveys in Europe-wide projects with the aim of understanding the behaviour, motivations, and concerns of stakeholders related to biobased products. The aim is to gather up-to-date information on the opinion of society from the perspective of the different actors on this type of product, focusing on textiles, in order to make a series of proposals to favour their inclusion in the market, while at the same time answering which are the most influential aspects when it comes to favouring or complicating the access of bioproducts to the market. The document compiles information from multiple sources and years (2014–2020) and, together with the most current and available information (2021), is processed in such a way that the information can be compared across years and stakeholders, allowing to observe the evolution over time of societal perspectives and the variation in opinion according to stakeholder. The results are presented according to three themes: (1) level of awareness, (2) product information, and (3) benefits, drivers, and barriers. The main findings indicate a general lack of awareness of biobased products, as well as several divergences in terms of the best methods to promote market access for biobased textiles.

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    Authors: Solà, M.d.M; Escapa, M.; Galarraga, I.;

    The effectiveness of energy labels is crucial in nudging the adoption of energy-efficient products. Here we analyse how providing monetary information on the cost of energy affects the purchases of energy-efficient appliances. To that end, a field experiment was carried out at a major Spanish retailer. The appliances under study were washing-machines, fridges, dishwashers and tumble-driers. Monetary information was provided in two different ways: (i) directly by sales staff; and (ii) directly by sales staff and via a supplementary label. We find that providing monetary information is not always effective to increase the purchases of more energy-efficient appliances. Moreover, the effectiveness is different depending on both the appliance and the specific way in which information is provided. The monetary information provided only by sales staff is effective in promoting purchases of A++ washing-machines, fridges and dishwashers but no effect is found for tumble-driers. Monetary information given out by sales staff together with the supplementary label is effective in increasing purchases of A++ washing-machines and dishwashers and A+++ tumble-driers, but no effect is found for fridges. Prior to the experiment, a rebate programme for energy-efficient appliances was in place for a few months in some regions. We find that this rebate programme had an impact on purchases of those types of appliances even after it ended. This “memory effect” should be considered when analysing the effectiveness of such rebate programmes. © 2022 This study was conducted with the collaboration of El Corte Inglés as part of the CONSumer Energy Efficiency Decision making (CONSEED) project, an EU-funded H2020 research project under grant agreement number 723741. This research is also supported by the Spanish State Research Agency through María de Maeztu Excellence Unit accreditation 2018-2022 (Ref. MDM-2017-0714 ) and by the Basque Government (Spain) through the BERC 2018-2021 programme. Authors are also grateful for financial support from the University of the Basque Country (Grant GIU18/136 ), Basque Government ( IT1777-22 ) and from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (Grant RTI2018-093352-B-I00 ).

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    Energy Research & Social Science
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Energy Research & Social Science
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    Authors: Serrano Juan, Alejandro;

    La limitación de espacio en áreas urbanas junto al crecimiento exponencial de la población, hace necesaria la construcción de infraestructuras subterráneas. Nuevos conceptos en planificación urbana junto con los avances tecnológicos en la construcción hacen posible la ejecución de infraestructuras más grandes y de más eficiencia. No obstante, variables tales como el coste, la duración, la seguridad y la gestión; los problemas políticos, sociales, económicos y ambientales; y garantizar la sostenibilidad futura, el mantenimiento y la eficiencia energética, hacen de esta ejecución un problema complejo. Por ello, todas estas variables deben estar presentes durante todo el proceso constructivo: (I) diseño del proyecto, (II) construcción del proyecto y (III) explotación del proyecto. Esta tesis tiene como objetivo principal saber cómo el ciclo constructivo (diseño del proyecto, construcción y explotación de proyectos) procesa las problemáticas inducidas por la interacción de las nuevas infraestructuras subterráneas urbanas con las aguas subterráneas para luego mejorarlo. Durante el diseño del proyecto (fase I) se recogen los datos históricos, se generan nuevos datos (pozos, pruebas de campo, muestras químicas ...) y se procesa conjuntamente, lo que ayuda a entender el contexto y el diseño de la infraestructura. Existen herramientas muy avanzadas para almacenar y procesar información geológica, hidroquímica e hidrogeológica, aunque la mayoría de estas herramientas no son comunes en los proyectos de infraestructuras subterráneas ya que es común que la mayoría de las construcciones sólo se realice una prueba de bombeo para caracterizar el subsuelo. Por lo tanto, hay una necesidad de proporcionar un conjunto de métodos y de herramientas a los constructores para que puedan aumentar la calidad de su análisis (como pruebas de bombeo), para aumentar así la detección temprana de problemas asociados a las aguas subterráneas. La interacción de las construcciones subterráneas con las aguas subterráneas genera impactos. Estos impactos generalmente pueden minimizarse mediante el uso de medidas correctoras. Los impactos más comunes causados por las construcciones subterráneas son el efecto barrera (impacto en las aguas subterráneas) y la distribución y limitación de subpresiones bajo la losa de fondo (impacto en la construcción subterránea). En la literatura hay muchos ejemplos de diseños para mitigar tanto el efecto barrera y como para mejorar la distribución de las subpresiones bajo la losa de fondo. Sin embargo, no hay ningún diseño que integre ambas soluciones. Es ilógico diseñar una medida correctora sin tener en cuenta todos los factores que intervienen en el problema. Esta tesis presenta un diseño innovador de by-pass para las aguas subterráneas que permite el flujo de agua subterránea a través de la estructura a la vez que proporciona una distribución homogénea de las subpresiones bajo la losa de fondo. El nuevo diseño se ha aplicado en la infraestructura subterránea más grande de Barcelona: la futura estación de tren de La Sagrera. Se ha realizado un modelo hidrogeológico para probar los nuevos diseños en tres escenarios diferentes. Esta nueva solución mitiga el efecto barrera de las aguas subterráneas y optimiza la losa de fondo, lo que reduce considerablemente los costes y aumenta la seguridad durante la fase de construcción. Durante la construcción (fase II) se genera una gran cantidad de nuevos datos. Es necesario auscultar los niveles y la deformación del terreno cuando una construcción rebaja el freático con el fin de anticiparse a acontecimientos inesperados y a preservar las estructuras y / o edificios cercanos existentes. El método actual más usado para medir desplazamientos en el terreno es la nivelación, una técnica que permite evaluar in situ decenas de puntos discretos con una precisión sub-milimétrica. Una técnica emergente para medir la deformación del suelo es el Radar de Apertura Sintética Interferométrica (InSAR), que se basa en imágenes SAR adquiridas o bien desde satélites en órbita o bien desde estaciones en tierra (GB-SAR). Esta técnica de detección remota proporciona una mayor cobertura espacial y más barata que los métodos de auscultación tradicionales. Aunque la tecnología SAR se ha utilizado y validado en una gran variedad de análisis, nadie ha aplicado esta tecnología como una herramienta de auscultación durante la construcción de infraestructuras. Esta tesis contribuye a mejorar el almacenamiento y tratamiento de datos a través de nuevos desarrollos y métodos que permiten aumentar la calidad del análisis hidrogeológico; ofrece nuevas formas de análisis para el diseño de medidas correctoras durante la etapa de diseño; y desarrolla y aplica nuevos métodos de auscultación de infraestructura a través de sensores SAR (terrestres y satélite) durante la fase constructiva The competition for space in urban areas due to an exponential growth of population makes derground engineering plays a crucial role in the development of cities. Urban underground infrastructures deal with variables such as cost, duration, safety, and management; faces political, social, economic and environmental issues; and guarantees future sustainability, maintenance, and energy efficiency. To do so, all these concepts and variables must be kept in mind during the whole construction process: (I) project design, (II) project construction and (III) project exploitation. This thesis aims to demonstrate how the construction cycle deals with the various impacts produced by the interaction of underground constructions with groundwater at each stage of the process, with a view to providing improved processes. During the project design previous data is collected, new data is generated, created and processed, helping to understand the context and to design the infrastructure. There are very advanced tools to store and process hydrogeological data, but most of these tools are not common in infrastructure projects. Often most of the constructions only perform the minimum legal requirement to characterize the ground: a pumping test. Therefore, there is a need to provide the constructors with a set of methods and tools to allow them to increase the quality of their hydrogeological analysis, which will allow early detection problems associated with the groundwater. The interaction of underground constructions with groundwater generates impacts. These impacts can usually be minimized by using mitigation measures. The most common impacts caused by underground constructions are the groundwater barrier effect and the groundwater pressure distribution and limitation under the bottom slab. In the literature there are many examples and designs to mitigate both groundwater barrier effect and groundwater pressure distribution impacts. However, there is no design that integrates both solutions. This thesis presents an innovative groundwater by-pass design that enables the groundwater to flow through the structure and provide a homogenous distribution of the water pressure under the bottom slab. The new integrated design was applied to the largest underground infrastructure of Barcelona: La Sagrera railway station. A hydrogeological model was implemented to test the original and the integrated designs in three different scenarios. This new solution mitigates the groundwater barrier effect and optimizes the bottom slab, considerably reducing the costs and increasing safety during the construction phase. Monitoring is required when dewatering underground constructions in order to anticipate unexpected events and preserve nearby existing structures. The most accurate and spread monitoring method to measure displacements is levelling, a pointlike surveying technique that typically allows for tens of discrete in-situ sub-millimetric measurements per squared kilometer. Another emerging technique for mapping soil deformation is the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which is based on SAR images acquired from orbiting satellites or by ground-based stations (GB-SAR). This remote sensing technique can provide better spatial point density than levelling, more extensive spatial coverage and cheaper acquisitions. Both satellite and ground-based SAR systems have been used and tested in a variety of analyses. However, nobody has applied this technology as a monitoring tool during construction works yet. This thesis contributes to data storing and data analysis software that implies new and significant method developments for increasing the quality of the hydrogeological analysis; it provides new approaches to address the groundwater corrective measures definition during the design stage, and it develops and applies new methods of nfrastructure monitoring using ground-based and satellite SAR sensors during the construction stage. Degut al creixement exponencial de la població i tenint en compte que l'espai dins les àrees urbanes és finit és, necessari la construcció d'infraestructures subterrànies. Variables com el cost, la durada, la seguretat i la gestió; els problemes polítics, socials, econòmics i ambientals; garantir la sostenibilitat futura, el manteniment i l'eficiència energètica, han d'estar presents durant totes les fases del procés constructiu: (I) fase de disseny, (II) fase de construcció, i (III) fase d'explotació. Les construccions subterrànies interactuen amb el medi subterrani, el resultat de la interacció són uns impactes en la construcció i en el medi ambient. Tots aquests impactes són avaluats al llarg del procés constructiu per tal de ser corregits o minimitzats. L'objectiu principal d'aquesta tesi és conèixer com s'avaluen els diferents impactes a cadascuna de les fas es del procés constructiu per poder així proposar millores. Durant el disseny del projecte i per tal d'entendre el context i el disseny de la infraestructura es recullen dades històriques i es generen noves dades . L'ús de la majoria d'eines hidrogeològiques no és habitual en els projectes d'infraestructures ja que la majoria caracteritzen el terreny amb una prova de bombament. Per tant, és necessari proporcionar als constructors un conjunt de mètodes i d'eines que permetin augmentar la qualitat dels seus anàlisis, per augmentar així la detecció primerenca de problemes associats a les aigües subterrànies. Els impactes produïts per la interacció de les construccions subterrànies amb les aigües subterrànies es poden minimitzar mitjançant l'ús de mesures de mitigació. Els impactes més comuns causats per construccions subterrànies són l'efecte barrera i la distribució i limitació de subpressions sota la llosa de fons. A la literatura hi ha molts dissenys que permeten mitigar l'efecte barrera i millorar la distribució de les subpressions, però no hi ha cap disseny que integri les dues solucions. Aquesta tesi presenta un disseny innovador per bypassar les aigües subterrànies a través de l'estructura proporcionant una distribució homogènia de les subpressions sota la llosa de fons. Aquesta nova solució minimitza l'efecte barrera de les aigües subterrànies i optimitza la llosa de fons, reduint considerablement els costos i augmentant la seguretat durant la fase de construcció. Quan una construcció rebaixa el nivell freàtic cal auscultar els nivells i la deformació del terreny per tal d'anticipar esdeveniments inesperats i preservar les estructures properes existents. El mètode actual més utilitzat per mesurar desplaçaments és l'anivellament, que permet avaluar in situ desenes de punts discrets amb una precisi ó submil·limètrica. Una tècnica emergent és el Radar d'Obertura Sintètica Interferomètrica (InSAR), que es basa en imatges SAR adquirides des de satèl·lits en òrbita o bé des d'estacions al terra (GB-SAR). Aquesta tècnica de detecció remota proporciona una major cobertura espacial i més econòmica que els mètodes d'auscultació tradicionals. Tot i que la tecnologia SAR s'ha utilitzat i validat en una gran varietat d'anàlisis, ningú ha aplicat encara aquesta tecnologia com a eina d'auscultació durant la construcció d'infraestructures. Aquesta tesi contribueix a: (I) millorar l'emmagatzematge i processament de dades a través de nous desenvolupaments i mètodes que permeten augmentar la qualitat de l'anàlisi hidrogeològica; (II) oferir noves formes d'anàlisi per al disseny de mesures correctores durant l'etapa de disseny; i (III) desenvolupar i aplicar nous mètodes d'auscultació d'infraestructura a través de sensors SAR (terrestres i satèl·lit) durant la fase constructiva.

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    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 2016
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    https://doi.org/10.5821/disser...
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      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 2016
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      https://doi.org/10.5821/disser...
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    Authors: Mytilinaios, Michail; Basart, Sara; Ciamprone, Sergio; Cuesta, Juan; +9 Authors

    Aerosol reanalysis datasets are model-based, observationally constrained, continuous 3D aerosol fields with a relatively high temporal frequency that can be used to assess aerosol variations and trends, climate effects, and impacts on socioeconomic sectors, such as health. Here we compare and assess the recently published MONARCH (Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry) high-resolution regional desert dust reanalysis over northern Africa, the Middle East, and Europe (NAMEE) with a combination of ground-based observations and space-based dust retrievals and products. In particular, we compare the total and coarse dust optical depth (DOD) from the new reanalysis with DOD products derived from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), and IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) spaceborne instruments. Despite the larger uncertainties, satellite-based datasets provide a better geographical coverage than ground-based observations, and the use of different retrievals and products allows at least partially overcoming some single-product weaknesses in the comparison. Nevertheless, limitations and uncertainties due to the type of sensor, its operating principle, its sensitivity, its temporal and spatial resolution, and the methodology for retrieving or further deriving dust products are factors that bias the reanalysis assessment. We, therefore, also use ground-based DOD observations provided by 238 stations of the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) located within the NAMEE region as a reference evaluation dataset. In particular, prior to the reanalysis assessment, the satellite datasets were evaluated against AERONET, showing moderate underestimations in the vicinities of dust sources and downwind regions, whereas small or significant overestimations, depending on the dataset, can be found in the remote regions. Taking these results into consideration, the MONARCH reanalysis assessment shows that total and coarse-DOD simulations are consistent with satellite- and ground-based data, qualitatively capturing the major dust sources in the area in addition to the dust transport patterns. Moreover, the MONARCH reanalysis reproduces the seasonal dust cycle, identifying the increased dust activity that occurred in the NAMEE region during spring and summer. The quantitative comparison between the MONARCH reanalysis DOD and satellite multi-sensor products shows that the reanalysis tends to slightly overestimate the desert dust that is emitted from the source regions and underestimate the transported dust over the outflow regions, implying that the model's removal of dust particles from the atmosphere, through deposition processes, is too effective. More specifically, small positive biases are found over the Sahara desert (0.04) and negative biases over the Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea (−0.04), which constitute the main pathways of the long-range dust transport. Considering the DOD values recorded on average there, such discrepancies can be considered low, as the low relative bias in the Sahara desert (< 50 %) and over the adjacent maritime regions (< 100 %) certifies. Similarly, over areas with intense dust activity, the linear correlation coefficient between the MONARCH reanalysis simulations and the ensemble of the satellite products is significantly high for both total and coarse DOD, reaching 0.8 over the Middle East, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Arabian Sea and exceeding it over the African continent. Moreover, the low relative biases and high correlations are associated with regions for which large numbers of observations are available, thus allowing for robust reanalysis assessment.

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    Authors: Maluk, Marta; Giles, Madeline; Wardell, Grace E.; Akramin, Aminin Taqrir; +10 Authors

    It is currently not recommended to grow soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) further than 54° North, but climate change and the development of new high latitude-adapted varieties raises the possibility that it could be introduced into Scotland as a novel high protein crop deriving most of its nitrogen (N) requirements through biological N fixation (BNF). This was evaluated via field trials in 2017 and 2018 near Dundee (56.48°N). As there are no native soybean-nodulating bacteria (SNB) in UK soils, soybean requires inoculation to exploit its BNF potential. In 2017, three commercial inoculants containing elite Bradyrhizobium strains significantly increased plant biomass in plot trials with a soybean 000 maturity group variety (ES Comandor). Rhizobia were isolated from the nodules and identified as the original inoculant species, B. diazoefficiens and B. japonicum. One inoculant (Rizoliq Top) was used for larger-scale trials in 2018 with two varieties (ES Comandor, ES Navigator); inoculation doubled the grain yield to 1 t ha-1 compared to the uninoculated crop. The inoculated soybean obtained most of its N through BNF in both years regardless of plant genotype i.e. &gt;73%Ndfa, with BNF contributions to aerial biomass exceeding 250 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in 2017 and that to grain 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in 2018. These data suggest that N-fixing soybean could be grown in Scotland without mineral N-fertiliser, either for forage as animal feed, or as green pods for human consumption (“edamame”), and potentially, even as dry grain. The potential for survival of the Bradyrhizobium inoculant strains in soils was also demonstrated through the detection of the inoculant strain B. diazoefficiens SEMIA 5080 at relatively high populations (104 g-1 dry soil) using a qRT-PCR method with SNB-specific nodZ primers. Microbiome data obtained from soil using 16S rRNA primers demonstrated that the diversity of bacteria belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium increased in soybean-cropped soils compared to bulk soil regardless of inoculation status. The economic and practical implications of residual inoculum, as well as those arising from introducing a non-native plant and alien bacteria into Scottish soils in terms of their impact on the native soil microbiota are discussed.

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    Frontiers in Agronomy
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: Ciência-UCP
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    Frontiers in Agronomy
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Frontiers in Agronomy
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: Ciência-UCP
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      Frontiers in Agronomy
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Miguel‐Berges, María L.; Mouratidou, Theodora; Santaliestra‐Pasias, Alba; Androutsos, Odysseas; +9 Authors

    SummaryBackgroundLifestyle behaviours related to diet and physical activity are associated with increased risk of obesity and evidence suggests that associations might be stronger when a synergetic effect is examined.ObjectiveTo examine the cross‐sectional and longitudinal associations between diet, screen time (ST) and step recommendations and risk of overweight and obesity in European preschoolers participating in the ToyBox‐study.MethodsIn this cluster‐randomized clinical trial, 718 children (51.4% boys) from six European countries participated. Parents filled out questionnaires with information on socio‐demographic status, step recommendations and ST.ResultsLongitudinal results indicate that participants having a low Diet Quality Index (DQI), not meeting ST and step recommendations at T0 and T1 had higher odds of having overweight/obesity at T1 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.116; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.104–2.562) than those children having a high DQI and meeting ST and step recommendations at T0 and T1. Similarly, participants having a high DQI, but not meeting ST and step recommendations at T0 and T1 had increased odds of having overweight/obesity (OR = 2.515; 95% CI = 1.171–3.021).ConclusionsThe proportion of participants having a low DQI, not adhering to both step and ST recommendations was very high, and it was associated with a higher probability of having overweight and obesity.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Pediatric Obesity
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Pediatric Obesity
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paullada Salmerón, José Antonio; Loentgen, Guillaume H.; Fuentès, M.; Besseau, L.; +3 Authors

    Neurosteroids are involved in the regulation of multiple behavioral and physiological processes and metabolic activities in the vertebrate brain. However, central mechanisms of how neurosteroid synthesis is regulated is far to be understood. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that negatively regulates gonadotropin secretion but also inhibits sexual and aggressive behaviors in birds and mammals by modulating aromatase enzyme and neuroestrogen synthesis. In a previous study performed in male sea bass, we reported that Gnih inhibited the reproductive axis by acting at the three levels of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. Moreover, the presence of Gnih cells and fibers in the telencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon suggests a role of Gnih in regulating other important brain functions in sea bass, including behavior. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of the intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of sbGnih-2 on the brain and pituitary expression of the main neurosteroids-synthesizing enzymes (stAR, cyp17, 3β-hsd, 17β-hsd, cyp19b, cyp7b), as well as on estrogen and androgen receptors (erα, erβ1, erβ2, ar). A combination of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization was also used to identify putative interaction of Gnih- and aromatase-positive cells. We also performed a mirror test study as a proxy to measure aggression levels and agonistic behavior after icv injection of sbGnih-2. Central administration of sbGnih-2 at different doses reduced the transcript levels of 3β-hsd and 17β-hsd, and increased the expression of cyp19b (brain aromatase) in the sea bass brain. Neuroanatomical results suggest that paracrine and neuroendocrine actions could mediate Gnih effects on aromatase expression. Central administration of sbGnih-2 also decreased the pituitary expression of 17β-hsd and estrogen receptors (erβ2). The mirror test analysis showed that sbGnih-2 affected the agonistic/aggressive behavior of sea bass as revealed by the decreased interaction with the mirror, lower time spent in the mirror zone, increased latency to establish contact with the mirror and higher mean distance to the mirror zone. In contrast, locomotor activity parameters measured were not affected by sbGnih-2 injection. Taken together, our results showed for the first time in fish that Gnih inhibits social-aggressive behavior and affects the gene expression of neurosteroid-synthesizing enzymes giving rise to neuroandrogens and neuroestrogens in the sea bass brain. Funded by grants from PAIDI2020-Junta de Andalucía (Grant no P18-RT-5152) and FEDER-UCA (Grant no 18‐107538) to JAM-C, and a grant from the European Union (FP7-INFRASTRUCTURES-2010-1, Grant no 262280. Ref. OOB–EMBRC-FR–AAP2018–no 2200) to GL, LB and JAM-C.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Marine Science
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Frontiers in Marine Science
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: María P. VELASCO-AMO; Antonio VICENT; Pablo J. ZARCO-TEJADA; Juan A. NAVAS-CORTÉS; +1 Authors

    Xylella fastidiosa is a major transboundary plant pest, causing severe socioeconomic impacts. Development of preventive strategies and methods for surveillance, early detection, monitoring, and accurate diagnosis of X. fastidiosa and its vectors, are keys to preventing the effects of this plant pathogen, and assist timely eradication or optimisation of containment measures. This review focuses on approaches for early detection of X. fastidiosa in the Mediterranean Basin, including development of climatic suitability risk maps to determine areas of potential establishment, and epidemiological models to assist in outbreak management through optimized surveillance and targeted responses. The usefulness of airborne hyperspectral and thermal images from remote sensing to discriminate X. fastidiosa infections from