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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Conceição, Luis E. C.; Saleh, R.; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Pinto, Wilson; +4 Authors

    The improvement of microdiets for fish larvae has been a major challenge in past years. Besides their tremendous growth rates, fish larvae have an immature digestive system at early developmental stages and a progressive metamorphic process that suggests special nutritional requirements. It is therefore essential to provide fish larvae with easy and/or quickly metabolizable protein sources. While fish meal is well recognized as the reference protein source for juvenile and adult fish, its proteins maybe too complex for easy digestion in fish larvae. Moreover, there is a trend for replacement of fish meal by plant protein-rich ingredients, but these may be deficient in some micronutrients present in marine ingredients or contain anti-nutritional factors. Therefore this study aimed to study the effect of three protein sources: fish meal, squid meal and a mixture of vegetable protein concentrates, on gilthead seabream larvae performance and digestive function. 166 165 2

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    Authors: Cuevas, Carlos A.; Notario, Alberto; Adame, José Antonio; Hilboll, Andreas; +3 Authors

    We report on the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) over Spain, focusing on the densely populated cities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, Sevilla and Valencia, during 17 years, from 1996 to 2012. This data series combines observations from in-situ air quality monitoring networks and the satellite-based instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. The results in these five cities show a smooth decrease in the NO 2 concentrations of ∼2% per year in the period 1996-2008, due to the implementation of emissions control environmental legislation, and a more abrupt descend of ∼7% per year from 2008 to 2012 as a consequence of the economic recession. In the whole Spanish territory the NO 2 levels have decreased by ∼22% from 1996 to 2012. Statistical analysis of several economic indicators is used to investigate the different factors driving the NO 2 concentration trends over Spain during the last two decades. Peer Reviewed

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    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Severin D. H. Irl; Andreas H. Schweiger; Félix M. Medina; José María Fernández-Palacios; +5 Authors

    [Main conclusion] Both AE and SIE rarity on La Palma show a clear spatial pattern, with hotspots of endemic rarity found at high elevations and in rare climates, presumably owing to geographical and climatic constraints and possibly anthropogenic pressure (e.g., land use, introduced herbivores, fire). Areas of high rarity estimates coincide with the distribution and extent of PAs on La Palma, especially since the recent addition of the Natura 2000 sites. The hypervolume approach is a promising tool to estimate species range sizes, and can be applied on all scales where point/plot data are available. [Methods] We recorded all present endemic vascular plant species in 1,212 plots covering the entire island. We calculated endemic rarity (corrected range-rarity richness for endemics) using a rarity estimation approach based on kernel density estimations (hypervolume approach). We performed a sensitivity analysis based on multiple linear regressions and relative importance estimations of environmental drivers to estimate the performance of the hypervolume-based rarity estimation compared to standard methods (occurrence frequency, convex hulls, alpha hulls). [Aim] Rarity—an important measure for conservation biogeography—can vary over many orders of magnitude. However, it is unclear which regional-scale abiotic conditions drive processes affecting rarity of endemic species on islands. To support conservation efforts, we (1) assess the main abiotic drivers of endemic rarity, (2) determine how well existing protected areas (PAs) coincide with hotspots of endemic rarity and (3) introduce and evaluate a new hypervolume-based rarity estimator. [Results] Climate variables (mean annual temperature, climatic rarity, precipitation variability) best explained archipelago endemic (AE) and single-island endemic (SIE) rarity. Existing PAs covered the majority of AE and SIE rarity, especially national and natural parks as well as the Natura 2000 sites. In our study system, hypervolumes performed better than standard measures of range size. This work contributed to and was partially supported by the European H2020 Project 641762 ECOPOTENTIAL: Improving future ecosystem benefits through Earth Observations. [Location] La Palma (Canary Islands). © 2017 The Authors. Peer Reviewed

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    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Diversity and Distri...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: M. Carla Piazzon; Ivona Mladineo; Fernando Naya-Català; Ron P. Dirks; +5 Authors

    [Results] Using Illumina RNA sequencing and transcriptomic analysis, a total of 2581 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in infected fish when compared to uninfected controls. Gill tissues in contact with the parasite (P gills) displayed regulation of fewer genes (700) than gill portions not in contact with the parasite (NP gills) (1235), most likely due to a local silencing effect of the parasite. The systemic reaction in the spleen was much higher than that at the parasite attachment site (local) (1240), and higher than in liver (334). NP gills displayed a strong enrichment of genes mainly related to immune response and apoptosis. Processes such as apoptosis, inflammation and cell proliferation dominated gills, whereas inhibition of apoptosis, autophagy, platelet activation, signalling and aggregation, and inflammasome were observed in spleen. Proteasome markers were increased in all tissues, whereas hypoxia-related genes were down-regulated in gills and spleen. [Background] Monogenean flatworms are the main fish ectoparasites inflicting serious economic losses in aquaculture. The polyopisthocotylean Sparicotyle chrysophrii parasitizes the gills of gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata) causing anaemia, lamellae fusion and sloughing of epithelial cells, with the consequent hypoxia, emaciation, lethargy and mortality. Currently no preventive or curative measures against this disease exist and therefore information on the host-parasite interaction is crucial to find mitigation solutions for sparicotylosis. The knowledge about gene regulation in monogenean-host models mostly comes from freshwater monopysthocotyleans and almost nothing is known about polyopisthocotyleans. The current study aims to decipher the host response at local (gills) and systemic (spleen, liver) levels in farmed GSB with a mild natural S. chrysophrii infection by transcriptomic analysis. [Conclusions] Contrasting forces seem to be acting at local and systemic levels. The splenic down-regulation could be part of a hypometabolic response, to counteract the hypoxia induced by the parasite damage to the gills and to concentrate the energy on defence and repair responses. Alternatively, it can be also interpreted as the often observed action of helminths to modify host immunity in its own interest. These results provide the first toolkit for future studies towards understanding and management of this parasitosis. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Union, through the Horizon H2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 634429 (ParaFishControl). MCP was contracted under CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013. We acknowledge support of the publication fee by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI). Peer reviewed

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Genomics
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      BMC Genomics
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    Authors: Picard‐Sánchez, Amparo; Estensoro, Itziar; Del Pozo, Raquel; Palenzuela, Oswaldo R.; +2 Authors

    Enteromyxum leei is a myxozoan histozoic parasite that infects the intestine of several teleost fish species. In gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), it provokes a chronic disease, entailing anorexia, delayed growth, reduced marketability and mortality. Direct fish‐to‐fish transmission, relevant in aquaculture conditions, has been demonstrated for E. leei via effluent, cohabitation, and oral and anal routes. However, the minimum time of exposure for infection has not been established, nor the possible effect on the fish immune response. Two effluent trials were performed at different temperatures (high: average of 25.6°C; and low: constant at 18°C), different times of exposure to the effluent (1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks) and different population densities. The results showed that 1 week was enough to infect 100% of fish at high temperature and 58.3% at low temperature. High temperature not only increased the prevalence of infection in posterior intestine, but also induced a higher production of specific antibodies, limiting the progression of the infection along the intestine. Longer time of exposure to the parasite and higher fish densities facilitated E. leei infection. These results show that effective diagnosis, lowering animal density and removal of infected fish are key aspects to manage this disease in aquaculture facilities. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Commission, Horizon 2020 Framework Programme H2020, Societal Challenges under grant agreement 634429 (ParaFishControl). This publication reflects only the authors' view, and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. IE was contracted under APOSTD/2016/037 grant by the “Generalitat Valenciana,” and MCP, under Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013. Peer reviewed

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    Journal of Fish Diseases
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Fish Diseases
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    Authors: Chust, Guillem; Borja, Angel; Caballero, Ainhoa; Irigoien, Xabier; +7 Authors

    The impacts of global climate change on the Basque coast and the pelagic systems within the southeastern Bay of Biscay are reviewed. Climate projections under greenhouse gas emission scenarios indicate that this area will experience changes in climate throughout the 21st century, including warming of surface air (especially heat wave episodes), intensification of extreme daily rainfall (10%), warming of the upper 100 m of the ocean layer (1.5 to 2.05°C), and sea level rise (SLR; 29 to 49 cm). Observations made in the bay throughout the 20th century for air temperature and mean sea level are in agreement with these projections. Trends in ocean-climatic historical observations within the area, including sea temperature, precipitation, upwelling/downwelling, turbulence and wave climate, are also reviewed. The main impacts on the coast are expected to be from SLR, especially in low-lying areas (mostly urbanised) within estuaries. Sandy beaches are also expected to undergo significant mean shoreline retreats of between 25 and 40% of their width. As the sea level rises, the natural migration of saltmarshes and intertidal seagrasses landward will be constrained, in most cases, by existing anthropogenic fixed boundaries. Empirical relationships between the distribution and dynamics of the long-term biological measures (plankton, primary production, benthos, and fisheries) on the one hand, and ocean-climatic variability on the other, indicate that pelagic and coastal water ecosystems will be affected by ocean warming, increased stratification, shifts in anomaly patterns and streamflow regimes. The largest uncertainties are associated with the lack of down-scaled projections within the bay on ocean circulation, ocean-meteorological indices, wave climate and ocean acidification. Este estudio ha sido financiado por el Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Planificación Territorial, Agricultura y Pesca del Gobierno Vasco (Proyectos K-Egokitzen y EKLIMA21 , del Programa Etortek); así como por el Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino del Gobierno de España (Proyecto Ref.: 0.39/ SGTB/ 2007/4.1), y el Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación(Proyecto Ref.: CGL2008-03321). 27 páginas, 13 figuras, 3 tablas. Artículo Open Access. Peer reviewed

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    Climate Research
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2011
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2011
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    Authors: Koenig; S. & Solé; M.;

    Biomarker assays are widely used as proxies for contaminant-induced effects in aquatic organisms. However, in many cases, their intrinsic natural variability due to exogenous and endogenous factors makes the interpretation of biomarker data difficult. In the present study, we investigated the natural fluctuations of six hepatic biomarkers, namely ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in fish and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) in crustacea, catalase (CAT), carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in two deep-sea fish species, namely Alepocephalus rostratus and Lepidion lepidion and the decapod crustacean Aristeus antennatus. The NW Mediterranean deep-sea environment is characterized by very stable temperature and salinity conditions, allowing the exclusion of these two factors as potential sources of interference with biomarker activities. Biomarker results exhibited a clear influence of reproductive processes on enzyme activities, in particular in A. rostratus, which presented a pronounced seasonal pattern linked to variations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI). In addition, other factors such as food availability may also have influenced the observed variability, in particular in specimens of L. lepidion, which did not exhibit variations in reproductive activity throughout the sampling period. Depth-related variability did not exhibit a clear trend and fluctuations across sampling depths were not attributable to any specific factor. Body size had also a significant influence on some biomarkers, although allometric scaling of certain enzyme activities appears to be species-specific. The present work has thus shown that despite the lack of fluctuations of abiotic parameters such as temperature and salinity, biomarker activities in deep-sea organisms still exhibit significant variability, mainly as a result of reproductive processes and food availability The present study was funded by the Spanish Science and Technology Ministry projects PROMETEO (CTM2007-66316-C02-02/MAR), BIOFUN (CTM2007-28739-E/MAR) and the HERMIONE project (EC-FP7 contract number 226354). Samuel Koenig holds a PhD grant (AFR 08/067) from the Fonds National de la Recherche (FNR), Luxembourg 10 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables Peer reviewed

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    Marine Environmental Research
    Other literature type . Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Marine Environmental Research
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    Authors: Jana Verdura; Alba Vergés; Jorge Santamaría; Sònia de Caralt; +2 Authors

    Macroalgal forests have gone missing from most temperate rocky shores during the last decades, triggering an important biodiversity loss. Cystoseira species are some of the main marine habitat-forming species on shallow water Mediterranean rocky bottoms and follow the same tendency, mainly related to habitat destruction and pollution. However, here we suggest that anormal positive thermal events may contribute to this widespread Cystoseira decline. Monitoring thorough natural populations showed a drastic decline on a natural and relict C. crinita population in terms of density and structure coinciding with anormal high temperatures experienced during a summer period. Additionally, we experimentally test in the laboratory the cause-effect of those temperatures and UV radiation conditions experienced in the field on C. crinita populations. Although, C. crinita is able to resist high temperature picks, usually reached in Mediterranean summers, exceptional and maintained periods as those experienced during extreme events (28ºC) lead to the death of all individuals, compromising the viability and conservation of these forest-forming populations. We show how climate change may seriously compromise algal populations and synergically act with historical drivers of macroalgal decline (pollution, habitat destruction and herbivorism). Financial support from EU2020 (R+I) under grant agreement No 689518 (MERCES), MINECO (CGL2016-76341-R) and from University of Girona under congress assistance fellowship program for PhD and master students.

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    Preprint . 2018
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    Authors: Liu, Jie; Bergua, José Francisco; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Orozco, Jahir; +4 Authors

    Chemical pollution is widely spread in environment nowadays. Particularly, the uncontrolled use of pesticides in agriculture leads to high-levels of these chemical compounds in water resources. INTCATCH H2020 European project aims to monitor and manage water quality in EU countries through the use of biosensors. In this context, a biosensor for pesticides monitoring has been developed using the luminiscent bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri in combination with a nanopaper-based platform. A. fischeri had previously been used in the ready-to-use kit Microtox ® since 1978 as a bioindicator of toxicity of water samples. However, this methodology requires high-trained personal and expensive laboratory equipment. The use of nanopaper offers several advantages such as biocompatibility, low cost and simple procedure, increasing the sensitivity of the biosensor at the same time. To study its applicability three common-used pesticides were chosen as model analytes: diuron, tributyltin (TBT) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Results obtained so far as well as some future plans in applying such nanopaper platform combined with mobile phone for simple in-field pesticides monitoring will be presented. Resumen del póster presentado al VIII International Congress on Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, celebrado en Barcelona (España) del 3 al 5 de julio de 2017. INTCATCH H2020 European project. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Laurene Pecuchet; Martin Lindegren; Manuel Hidalgo; Marina Delgado; +6 Authors

    Aim The life history of a species is determined by trade-offs between growth, survival and reproduction to maximize fitness in a given environment. Following a theoretical model, we investigate whether the composition of marine fish communities can be understood in terms of a set of life-history strategies and whether the prevalence of the strategies follows specific spatial patterns that can be related to the environment. Location European seas. Time period 1980-2014. Major taxa studied Fish. Methods An extensive set of scientific bottom trawl surveys was collected to obtain the species composition of fish communities across European seas. We complemented these data with species-specific information regarding six life-history traits, reflecting reproductive, growth and feeding modes. We then calculated the optimal number of strategies needed to summarize the information contained in the traits by using archetypal analysis. The proportion of each obtained strategy in the communities and their spatial patterns were explained as a function of the environment and their temporal changes were investigated. Results The species could be decomposed into a continuum of three life-history strategies—opportunistic, periodic and equilibrium—resulting from trade-offs between traits. The marked spatial patterns of these strategies could be explained by depth, temperature and its seasonality, chlorophyll and fishing effort. In recent years, opportunistic and equilibrium strategies significantly increased, probably due to an increase in temperature and decrease in fishing effort. Main conclusions Our empirical analysis supports a theoretical framework outlining three life-history strategies of fish. The strategies vary predictably in space and time in response to the environment. This highlights the underlying process whereby fitness is optimized through trade-offs between growth, feeding and reproduction under different environmental conditions. Due to their response to the environment, life-history strategies provide a suitable tool for monitoring and understanding community changes in response to natural and anthropogenic stressors, including fishing and climate change. SI

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    Global Ecology and Biogeography
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Global Ecology and Biogeography
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    Authors: Conceição, Luis E. C.; Saleh, R.; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Pinto, Wilson; +4 Authors

    The improvement of microdiets for fish larvae has been a major challenge in past years. Besides their tremendous growth rates, fish larvae have an immature digestive system at early developmental stages and a progressive metamorphic process that suggests special nutritional requirements. It is therefore essential to provide fish larvae with easy and/or quickly metabolizable protein sources. While fish meal is well recognized as the reference protein source for juvenile and adult fish, its proteins maybe too complex for easy digestion in fish larvae. Moreover, there is a trend for replacement of fish meal by plant protein-rich ingredients, but these may be deficient in some micronutrients present in marine ingredients or contain anti-nutritional factors. Therefore this study aimed to study the effect of three protein sources: fish meal, squid meal and a mixture of vegetable protein concentrates, on gilthead seabream larvae performance and digestive function. 166 165 2

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    Authors: Cuevas, Carlos A.; Notario, Alberto; Adame, José Antonio; Hilboll, Andreas; +3 Authors

    We report on the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) over Spain, focusing on the densely populated cities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, Sevilla and Valencia, during 17 years, from 1996 to 2012. This data series combines observations from in-situ air quality monitoring networks and the satellite-based instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. The results in these five cities show a smooth decrease in the NO 2 concentrations of ∼2% per year in the period 1996-2008, due to the implementation of emissions control environmental legislation, and a more abrupt descend of ∼7% per year from 2008 to 2012 as a consequence of the economic recession. In the whole Spanish territory the NO 2 levels have decreased by ∼22% from 1996 to 2012. Statistical analysis of several economic indicators is used to investigate the different factors driving the NO 2 concentration trends over Spain during the last two decades. Peer Reviewed

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    Scientific Reports
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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