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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cuevas, Carlos A.; Notario, Alberto; Adame, José Antonio; Hilboll, Andreas; +3 Authors

    We report on the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) over Spain, focusing on the densely populated cities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, Sevilla and Valencia, during 17 years, from 1996 to 2012. This data series combines observations from in-situ air quality monitoring networks and the satellite-based instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. The results in these five cities show a smooth decrease in the NO 2 concentrations of ∼2% per year in the period 1996-2008, due to the implementation of emissions control environmental legislation, and a more abrupt descend of ∼7% per year from 2008 to 2012 as a consequence of the economic recession. In the whole Spanish territory the NO 2 levels have decreased by ∼22% from 1996 to 2012. Statistical analysis of several economic indicators is used to investigate the different factors driving the NO 2 concentration trends over Spain during the last two decades. Peer Reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Scientific Reports
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: M. Carla Piazzon; Ivona Mladineo; Fernando Naya-Català; Ron P. Dirks; +5 Authors

    [Results] Using Illumina RNA sequencing and transcriptomic analysis, a total of 2581 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in infected fish when compared to uninfected controls. Gill tissues in contact with the parasite (P gills) displayed regulation of fewer genes (700) than gill portions not in contact with the parasite (NP gills) (1235), most likely due to a local silencing effect of the parasite. The systemic reaction in the spleen was much higher than that at the parasite attachment site (local) (1240), and higher than in liver (334). NP gills displayed a strong enrichment of genes mainly related to immune response and apoptosis. Processes such as apoptosis, inflammation and cell proliferation dominated gills, whereas inhibition of apoptosis, autophagy, platelet activation, signalling and aggregation, and inflammasome were observed in spleen. Proteasome markers were increased in all tissues, whereas hypoxia-related genes were down-regulated in gills and spleen. [Background] Monogenean flatworms are the main fish ectoparasites inflicting serious economic losses in aquaculture. The polyopisthocotylean Sparicotyle chrysophrii parasitizes the gills of gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata) causing anaemia, lamellae fusion and sloughing of epithelial cells, with the consequent hypoxia, emaciation, lethargy and mortality. Currently no preventive or curative measures against this disease exist and therefore information on the host-parasite interaction is crucial to find mitigation solutions for sparicotylosis. The knowledge about gene regulation in monogenean-host models mostly comes from freshwater monopysthocotyleans and almost nothing is known about polyopisthocotyleans. The current study aims to decipher the host response at local (gills) and systemic (spleen, liver) levels in farmed GSB with a mild natural S. chrysophrii infection by transcriptomic analysis. [Conclusions] Contrasting forces seem to be acting at local and systemic levels. The splenic down-regulation could be part of a hypometabolic response, to counteract the hypoxia induced by the parasite damage to the gills and to concentrate the energy on defence and repair responses. Alternatively, it can be also interpreted as the often observed action of helminths to modify host immunity in its own interest. These results provide the first toolkit for future studies towards understanding and management of this parasitosis. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Union, through the Horizon H2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 634429 (ParaFishControl). MCP was contracted under CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013. We acknowledge support of the publication fee by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI). Peer reviewed

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    BMC Genomics
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    BMC Genomics
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Genomics
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      BMC Genomics
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      BMC Genomics
      Article . 2019
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      BMC Genomics
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    Authors: Dina, Kačar; Carmen, Schleissner; Librada M, Cañedo; Pilar, Rodríguez; +3 Authors

    The complete genome of the strain Labrenzia sp. PHM005, a free-living producer of a pederin analog 18-O-demethyl pederin, hereinafter labrenzin, has been sequenced. This strain contains two replicons comprising a circular chromosome of 6,167,349 bp and a circular plasmid (named p1BIR) of 19,450 bp. A putative gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of labrenzin (lab cluster) has been identified showing that it encodes a trans-AT mixed type PKS/NRPS biosynthetic pathway that is responsible for the synthesis of pederin and possibly an onnamide analog. The putative boundaries of the lab gene cluster were determined by genetic comparisons with other related strains, suggesting that the cluster consists of a 79-kb region comprising 3 genes encoding multidomain hybrid polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) proteins (PKS4, PKS/NRPS13, and PKS/NRPS15), and 16 auxiliary enzymes. Transcriptomic analyses suggest that all the genes of the cluster are expressed in our culture conditions (i.e., in minimal medium in the absence of any specific inducer) at detectable levels. We have developed genetic tools to facilitate the manipulation of this strain and the functional characterization of the cluster genes. We have created a site-directed mutant unable to produce pederin, demonstrating experimentally for the first time the role of the cluster in the synthesis of pederin. This work paves the way to unravel the clues of the biosynthesis of pederin family compounds and opens the door to modify and overproduce these anticancer drugs for industrial and pharmaceutical purposes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Jaume, Pérez-Sánchez; Genciana, Terova; Paula, Simó-Mirabet; Simona, Rimoldi; +4 Authors

    The skin mucus of gilthead sea bream was mapped by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. More than 2,000 proteins were identified with a protein score filter of 30. The identified proteins were represented in 418 canonical pathways of the Ingenuity Pathway software. After filtering by canonical pathway overlapping, the retained proteins were clustered in three groups. The mitochondrial cluster contained 59 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The second cluster contained 79 proteins related to antigen presentation and protein ubiquitination pathways. The third cluster contained 257 proteins where proteins related to protein synthesis, cellular assembly, and epithelial integrity were over-represented. The latter group also included acute phase response signaling. In parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methodology identified six proteins spots of different protein abundance when comparing unstressed fish with chronically stressed fish in an experimental model that mimicked daily farming activities. The major changes were associated with a higher abundance of cytokeratin 8 in the skin mucus proteome of stressed fish, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, the increased abundance of markers of skin epithelial turnover results in a promising indicator of chronic stress in fish.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Ana, Popovic; Tran, Hai; Anatoly, Tchigvintsev; Mahbod, Hajighasemi; +17 Authors

    AbstractMetagenomics has made accessible an enormous reserve of global biochemical diversity. To tap into this vast resource of novel enzymes, we have screened over one million clones from metagenome DNA libraries derived from sixteen different environments for carboxylesterase activity and identified 714 positive hits. We have validated the esterase activity of 80 selected genes, which belong to 17 different protein families including unknown and cyclase-like proteins. Three metagenomic enzymes exhibited lipase activity, and seven proteins showed polyester depolymerization activity against polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Detailed biochemical characterization of four new enzymes revealed their substrate preference, whereas their catalytic residues were identified using site-directed mutagenesis. The crystal structure of the metal-ion dependent esterase MGS0169 from the amidohydrolase superfamily revealed a novel active site with a bound unknown ligand. Thus, activity-centered metagenomics has revealed diverse enzymes and novel families of microbial carboxylesterases, whose activity could not have been predicted using bioinformatics tools.

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    Scientific Reports
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2017
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      Scientific Reports
      Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2017
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      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Wendy M. Rauw; Wendy M. Rauw; Anna K. Johnson; Luis Gomez-Raya; +2 Authors

    Coping styles in response to stressors have been described both in humans and in other animal species. Because coping styles are directly related to individual fitness they are part of the life history strategy. Behavioral styles trade off with other life-history traits through the acquisition and allocation of resources. Domestication and subsequent artificial selection for production traits specifically focused on selection of individuals with energy sparing mechanisms for non-production traits. Domestication resulted in animals with low levels of aggression and activity, and a low hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. In the present work, we propose that, vice versa, selection for improved production efficiency may to some extent continue to favor docile domesticated phenotypes. It is hypothesized that both domestication and selection for improved production efficiency may result in the selection of reactive style animals. Both domesticated and reactive style animals are characterized by low levels of aggression and activity, and increased serotonin neurotransmitter levels. However, whereas domestication quite consistently results in a decrease in the functional state of the HPA axis, the reactive coping style is often found to be dominated by a high HPA response. This may suggest that fearfulness and coping behavior are two independent underlying dimensions to the coping response. Although it is generally proposed that animal welfare improves with selection for calmer animals that are less fearful and reactive to novelty, animals bred to be less sensitive with fewer desires may be undesirable from an ethical point of view. © 2017 Rauw, Johnson, Gomez-Raya and Dekkers.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    Frontiers in Genetics
    Article
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    Frontiers in Genetics
    Article . 2017
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      Frontiers in Genetics
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      Frontiers in Genetics
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    Authors: Bollinger, Alexander; Thies, Stephan; Knieps-Grünhagen, Esther; Gertzen, Christoph; +6 Authors

    Biodegradation of synthetic polymers, in particular polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is of great importance, since environmental pollution with PET and other plastics has become a severe global problem. Here, we report on the polyester degrading ability of a novel carboxylic ester hydrolase identified in the genome of the marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Pseudomonas aestusnigri VGXO14$^T$. The enzyme, designated PE-H, belongs to the type IIa family of PET hydrolytic enzymes as indicated by amino acid sequence homology. It was produced in Escherichia coli, purified and its crystal structure was solved at 1.09 Å resolution representing the first structure of a type IIa PET hydrolytic enzyme. The structure shows a typical α/β-hydrolase fold and high structural homology to known polyester hydrolases. PET hydrolysis was detected at 30°C with amorphous PET film (PETa), but not with PET film from a commercial PET bottle (PETb). A rational mutagenesis study to improve the PET degrading potential of PE-H yielded variant PE-H (Y250S) which showed improved activity, ultimately also allowing the hydrolysis of PETb. The crystal structure of this variant solved at 1.35 Å resolution allowed to rationalize the improvement of enzymatic activity. A PET oligomer binding model was proposed by molecular docking computations. Our results indicate a significant potential of the marine bacterium P. aestusnigri for PET degradation. Frontiers in microbiology 11, 114 (2020). doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.00114 Published by Frontiers Media, Lausanne

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: María Miguel-Berges; Alba Santaliestra-Pasias; Theodora Mouratidou; Pilar De Miguel-Etayo; +8 Authors

    Lifestyle behavioral habits such as excess screen time (ST), a lack of physical activity (PA), and high energy-dense food consumption are associated with an increased risk of children being overweight or obese. This study aimed to (1) track longitudinal adherence to PA and ST recommendations at baseline (T0) and follow-up (T1) and (2) assess the association between changes in adherence to PA and ST recommendations and food and beverage consumption at follow-up. The present study included 2321 preschool children (3.5 to 6) participating in the multicenter ToyBox-study. A lineal mixed effects model was used to examine the association between different types of food and beverages and their relationship with changes in adherence to PA and ST recommendations. Approximately half of the children (50.4%) did not meet the PA and ST recommendations at both baseline and follow-up. However, only 0.6% of the sample met both PA and ST recommendations. Preschool children who met both recommendations consumed fewer fizzy drinks, juices, sweets, desserts, and salty snacks and consumed more water, fruits and vegetables, and dairy products than did those not meeting both recommendations. In conclusion, the proportion of European preschool children adhering to both PA and ST recommendations was very low and was associated with a low consumption of energy-dense foods.

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    Nutrients
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Nutrients
    Article . 2019
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      Nutrients
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla; Ruben Gil-Solsona; Itziar Estensoro; M. Carla Piazzon; +7 Authors

    [Results]: The immunodetection of Tjp1 and Cldn3 was significantly lower in the intestine of parasitized fish, while no strong differences were found in E-cadherin. Parasitized fish showed a significant increase in paracellular uptake measured by FITC-dextran detection in serum. Electrophysiology showed a decrease in transepithelial resistance in infected animals, which showed a diarrheic profile. Serum metabolomics revealed 3702 ions, from which the differential expression of 20 identified compounds significantly separated control from infected groups in multivariate analyses. Of these compounds, serum inosine (decreased) and creatine (increased) were identified as relevant and validated with commercial kits. [Methods]: This study aimed to outline the gut failure in this fish-parasite model using a multifaceted approach and to find and validate non-lethal serum markers of gut barrier dysfunction. Intestinal integrity was studied in parasitized and non-parasitized fish by immunohistochemistry with specific markers for cellular adhesion (E-cadherin) and tight junctions (Tjp1 and Cldn3) and by functional studies of permeability (oral administration of FITC-dextran) and electrophysiology (Ussing chambers). Serum samples from parasitized and non-parasitized fish were analyzed using non-targeted metabolomics and some significantly altered metabolites were selected to be validated using commercial kits. [Background]:In the animal production sector, enteritis is responsible for serious economic losses, and intestinal parasitism is a major stress factor leading to malnutrition and lowered performance and animal production efficiency. The effect of enteric parasites on the gut function of teleost fish, which represent the most ancient bony vertebrates, is far from being understood. The intestinal myxozoan parasite Enteromyxum leei dwells between gut epithelial cells and causes severe enteritis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), anorexia, cachexia, growth impairment, reduced marketability and increased mortality. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Union under grant projects ParaFishControl (H2020-634429) to ASB and Aquaexcel2020 (652831, TNA AE10004-INTEBREAM) to JF and JPS, and from the Spanish MINECO under AGL2013-48560-R project to ASB and JPS. APS was contracted under the ParaFishControl project, MCP under CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013 and IE under APOSTD/2016/037 grant by the “Generalitat Valenciana”. Centre for Marine Sciences (CCMAR) is supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) through project UID/Multi 04326/2019. [Conclusions]: The results demonstrate the disruption of tight junctions and the loss of gut barrier function, a metabolomic profile of absorption dysfunction and anorexia, which further outline the pathophysiological effects of E. leei. © The Author(s). Peer reviewed

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    Parasites & Vectors
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Genciana Terova; Lidia Robaina; Marisol Izquierdo; AnnaGiulia Cattaneo; +3 Authors

    The expression and regulation of intestinal oligopeptide transporter (PepT)-1 when vegetable sources are used as a\nsubstitute for fish meal in the diet of marine fish has not yet been explored. In the present study, as part of our\nongoing work on elucidating PepT1 gene expression in relation to different dietary treatments, we have now\nisolated and deposited in Genbank database (accession no. GU733710) a cDNA sequence representing the PepT1\nin the sea bream (Sparus aurata). The ?de novo? prediction of the three-dimensional structure of PepT1 protein is\npresented.\nWe also analyzed diet-induced changes in the expression of PepT1 mRNA via real-time RT-PCR using the standard\ncurve method. Sea bream were fed for 140 days with one of the following four diet formulations (43% protein/21%\nlipid): a control fast growth-promoting diet (C), and three diets with the same formulation but in which 15% of the\nfish meal was substituted by protein concentrates either from lupine (LPC), chick pea (CPC), or green pea (PPC). Fish\nfed PPC had significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of PepT1 transcripts in the proximal intestine than the controls,\nwhereas PepT1 transcript levels in fish fed LPC or CPC were not significantly different from the controls. Although\ngrowth was similar between fish fed with different diets during the first 72 days of feeding, growth of the fish fed\nwith PPC was reduced during the second part of the trial and was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than fish fed LPC\nand CPC diets by the end of the experiment. Correlation between these results and fish growth performances\nhighlights that the intestinal PepT1 mRNA level may serve as a useful marker of the dietary protein quality and\nabsorption efficiency. 0,146 Q2 14 1

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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    Other literature type . Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
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      Other literature type . Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cuevas, Carlos A.; Notario, Alberto; Adame, José Antonio; Hilboll, Andreas; +3 Authors

    We report on the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) over Spain, focusing on the densely populated cities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, Sevilla and Valencia, during 17 years, from 1996 to 2012. This data series combines observations from in-situ air quality monitoring networks and the satellite-based instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. The results in these five cities show a smooth decrease in the NO 2 concentrations of ∼2% per year in the period 1996-2008, due to the implementation of emissions control environmental legislation, and a more abrupt descend of ∼7% per year from 2008 to 2012 as a consequence of the economic recession. In the whole Spanish territory the NO 2 levels have decreased by ∼22% from 1996 to 2012. Statistical analysis of several economic indicators is used to investigate the different factors driving the NO 2 concentration trends over Spain during the last two decades. Peer Reviewed

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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