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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Agier, Lydiane; Basagaña, Xavier; Maitre, Lea; Granum, Berit; +26 Authors

    BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children.METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother-child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6-12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures.FINDINGS: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5-9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions.INTERPRETATION: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease.FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL-Inserm; Hal-Dide...arrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    Repositori Obert UdL
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL-Inserm; Hal-Dide...arrow_drop_down
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      Repositori Obert UdL
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Marco Morabito; Alessandro Messeri; Pascal Noti; Ana Casanueva; +8 Authors

    platform (https://heatshield.zonalab.it/) operating for Europe and developed within the framework of the HEAT-SHIELD project. This system is based on probabilistic medium-range forecasts calibrated on approximately 1800 meteorological stations in Europe and provides the ensemble forecast of the daily maximum heat stress. The platform provides a non-customized output represented by a map showing the weekly maximum probability of exceeding a specific heat stress condition, for each of the four upcoming weeks. Customized output allows the forecast of the personalized local heat-stress-risk based on workers&rsquo physical, clothing and behavioral characteristics and the work environment (outdoors in the sun or shade), also taking into account heat acclimatization. Personal daily heat stress risk levels and behavioral suggestions (hydration and work breaks recommended) to be taken into consideration in the short term (5 days) are provided together with long-term heat risk forecasts (up to 46 days), all which are useful for planning work activities. The HEAT-SHIELD platform provides adaptation strategies for &ldquo health warning systems focus on warning vulnerable groups in order to reduce mortality. However, human health and performance are affected at much lower environmental heat strain levels than those directly associated with higher mortality. Moreover, workers are at elevated health risks when exposed to prolonged heat. This study describes the multilingual &ldquo HEAT-SHIELD occupational warning system&rdquo the impact of global warming. Existing heat&ndash managing&rdquo

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    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2019
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    UCrea
    Other literature type . 2019
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      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2019
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      Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Gerard van der Schrier;
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    Authors: Sophie Saget; Marcela Porto Costa; Eleonora Barilli; Marta W. Vasconcelos; +3 Authors

    The modern food system is characterised by 1) unsustainable agricultural practices, heavily dependent on agrochemical inputs and leaking large amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) whilst degrading soils, and 2) the consumption of energy-rich but nutrient-poor foods, contributing to non-communicable diseases related to malnutrition. Substituting cereals with low-input, protein- and fibre-rich legumes in the production of mainstream foods offers a promising solution to both issues. Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum ) is a legumi- nous crop that can be grown with little or no synthetic N fertiliser. We performed life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare the environmental footprint of pasta made from chickpeas with conventional pasta made from durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) from cradle to fork. Two functional units were used, an 80g serving of pasta, and a Nutrient Density Unit (NDU). Environmental burdens per serving were smaller for chickpea pasta across at least 10 of the 16 impact categories evaluated. Global warming, resource use minerals and metals, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and terrestrial eutrophication burdens were smaller than those of durum wheat pasta by up to 45%, 55%, 50%, 86%, and 76%, respec- tively. Cooked chickpea pasta contains 1.5 more protein, 3.2 times more fibre and 8 times more essential fatty acids than cooked durum wheat pasta per kcal energy content. Thus, the environmental advantage of chickpea pasta extended to 15 of the 16 impact categories when footprints were compared per unit of nutrition. Global warming, resource use and eutrophication burdens per NDU were 79–95% smaller for chickpea pasta than for durum wheat pasta. The one major trade-off was land use, where chickpea pasta had a burden 200% higher per serving, or 17% higher per NDU, than wheat pasta. We conclude that there is high potential to simultaneously improve the environmental sustainability and nutritional quality of food chains through simple substitution of cereals with legumes in staple foods such as pasta. Breeding and agronomic management improvements for legumes could reduce the yield gap with cereals, miti- gating the land use penalty. Meanwhile, the higher protein content of chickpea pasta could contribute towards wider environmental benefits via animal protein substitution in diets, and merits further investi- gation. Consumers who look for the traditional taste and texture of wheat pasta can achieve these aspects by cooking the chickpea pasta al dente and combining it with a typical pasta sauce, which will hide its subtle nutty taste.

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    Sustainable Production and Consumption
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
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      Sustainable Production and Consumption
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Rok Novak; Ioannis Petridis; David Kocman; Johanna Amalia Robinson; +17 Authors

    Use of a multi-sensor approach can provide citizens with holistic insights into the air quality of their immediate surroundings and their personal exposure to urban stressors. Our work, as part of the ICARUS H2020 project, which included over 600 participants from seven European cities, discusses the data fusion and harmonization of a diverse set of multi-sensor data streams to provide a comprehensive and understandable report for participants. Harmonizing the data streams identified issues with the sensor devices and protocols, such as non-uniform timestamps, data gaps, difficult data retrieval from commercial devices, and coarse activity data logging. Our process of data fusion and harmonization allowed us to automate visualizations and reports, and consequently provide each participant with a detailed individualized report. Results showed that a key solution was to streamline the code and speed up the process, which necessitated certain compromises in visualizing the data. A thought-out process of data fusion and harmonization of a diverse set of multi-sensor data streams considerably improved the quality and quantity of distilled data that a research participant received. Though automation considerably accelerated the production of the reports, manual and structured double checks are strongly recommended. This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme for Research, Technological Development, and Demonstration, under grant agreement No. 690105 (Integrated Climate forcing and Air Pollution Reduction in Urban Systems (ICARUS)). This work reflects only the authors’ views, and the European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains. Funding was received from the Young Researchers Program and the P1-0143 program “Cycling of substances in the environment, mass balances, modelling of environmental processes and risk assessment“, both funded by the Slovenian Research Agency. The authors thank RECETOX Research Infrastructure (No. LM2018121) and ACTRIS-CZ Research Infrastructure (No. LM2018122) financed by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and the Operational Programme Research, Development and Innovation (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001315 and CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001761), as well as the CETOCOEN Excellence Project, supported by the Teaming Action of the EU Horizon 2020 programme (857560) and the Operational Programme Research, Development and Innovation (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/17_043/0009632). Sí

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    REPISALUD
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    Authors: M. Carla Piazzon; Ivona Mladineo; Fernando Naya-Català; Ron P. Dirks; +5 Authors

    [Results] Using Illumina RNA sequencing and transcriptomic analysis, a total of 2581 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in infected fish when compared to uninfected controls. Gill tissues in contact with the parasite (P gills) displayed regulation of fewer genes (700) than gill portions not in contact with the parasite (NP gills) (1235), most likely due to a local silencing effect of the parasite. The systemic reaction in the spleen was much higher than that at the parasite attachment site (local) (1240), and higher than in liver (334). NP gills displayed a strong enrichment of genes mainly related to immune response and apoptosis. Processes such as apoptosis, inflammation and cell proliferation dominated gills, whereas inhibition of apoptosis, autophagy, platelet activation, signalling and aggregation, and inflammasome were observed in spleen. Proteasome markers were increased in all tissues, whereas hypoxia-related genes were down-regulated in gills and spleen. [Background] Monogenean flatworms are the main fish ectoparasites inflicting serious economic losses in aquaculture. The polyopisthocotylean Sparicotyle chrysophrii parasitizes the gills of gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata) causing anaemia, lamellae fusion and sloughing of epithelial cells, with the consequent hypoxia, emaciation, lethargy and mortality. Currently no preventive or curative measures against this disease exist and therefore information on the host-parasite interaction is crucial to find mitigation solutions for sparicotylosis. The knowledge about gene regulation in monogenean-host models mostly comes from freshwater monopysthocotyleans and almost nothing is known about polyopisthocotyleans. The current study aims to decipher the host response at local (gills) and systemic (spleen, liver) levels in farmed GSB with a mild natural S. chrysophrii infection by transcriptomic analysis. [Conclusions] Contrasting forces seem to be acting at local and systemic levels. The splenic down-regulation could be part of a hypometabolic response, to counteract the hypoxia induced by the parasite damage to the gills and to concentrate the energy on defence and repair responses. Alternatively, it can be also interpreted as the often observed action of helminths to modify host immunity in its own interest. These results provide the first toolkit for future studies towards understanding and management of this parasitosis. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Union, through the Horizon H2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 634429 (ParaFishControl). MCP was contracted under CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013. We acknowledge support of the publication fee by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI). Peer reviewed

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    BMC Genomics
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    BMC Genomics
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    Authors: Férriz Núñez, Macarena;

    El aumento de la concentración de CO2 atmosférico [CO2] como consecuencia de las emisiones antropogénicas lleva asociado un aumento en la temperatura media del planeta. La cuenca mediterránea es particularmente sensible a perturbaciones más intensas debido a una mayor aridez y al legado de usos de suelo que ha modificado notablemente los paisajes actuales. En este contexto de cambio global, estudiamos el decaimiento y las dinámicas de regeneración de tres especies de coníferas mediterráneas con diferente tolerancia a la sequía Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Capítulo 2). Comparamos los patrones de crecimiento y la respuesta al clima de individuos con diferente estado de salud: sanos (las tres especies), en decaimiento (sólo P. pinaster) y muertos (P. pinaster y P. pinea). La actual especie dominante, P. pinaster, muestra claros signos de decaimiento -definido por alta defoliación e infección de muérdago- y mortalidad, con escasa regeneración, siendo reemplazada por regeneración de otras especies más tolerantes a la sequía como Quercus ilex, P. pinea y J, oxycedrus. Desde los años 80, los eventos de sequía han sido más frecuentes y severos en la zona, habiendo incitado el decaimiento en P. pinaster pero no en las otras especies acompañantes. Los individuos no-sanos de P. pinaster mostraron una reducción en el crecimiento desde 1995, mientras que en los individuos muertos de P. pinea este declive comenzó en 2005. La supervivencia de P. pinaster en la zona estaba relacionada con una mayor sensibilidad a la precipitación de primavera y a sitios con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que la supervivencia de P. pinea estaba principalmente relacionada con un mayor diámetro del árbol. En el Capítulo 3, seleccionamos 5 árboles de cada estado de salud y especie y estudiamos la anatomía del xilema y la discriminación isotópica de carbono (13C) en anillos de crecimiento. Las dos especies de pinos mostraron traqueidas más grandes y una mayor plasticidad del xilema en respuesta a la variabilidad climática que J. oxycedrus. Los caracteres anatómicos se diferenciaron entre estados de salud en P. pinaster y P. pinea. Los individuos sanos tenían mayor área de lumen en la madera temprana y paredes celulares más gruesas en la madera tardía que los individuos no-sanos, junto con mayor plasticidad en el xilema frente al clima, lo que les permitió ajustar sus caracteres anatómicos para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema durante eventos de sequía. La habilidad de mantener un xilema competitivo y plástico es crucial para conseguir ratios productivos en escenarios de cambio climático. Nuestro estudio reveló que los pinos muertos y en decaimiento tenían valores similares de 13C que los árboles sanos, lo que sugiere que los pinos no-sanos ejercen un menor control estomático que debería maximizar la tasa fotosintética y aumentar el transporte de agua hacia la copa para compensar por la pérdida excesiva de agua. Los resultados de los Capítulos 2 y 3 sugieren que a pesar del decaimiento general observado en P. pinaster en el área, los individuos sanos de esta especie pueden sobrevivir en áreas con mayor disponibilidad de agua, mientras que en el resto del paisaje serán eventualmente sustituidos por especies más tolerantes a la sequía como P. pinea y J. oxycedrus. Además, los patrones de regeneración en la zona revelaron que tanto el estrés hídrico como el legado de usos de suelo limitan el establecimiento de regenerado de P. pinaster en comparación con la más abundante regeneración que presentan P. pinea, J, oxycedrus y Q. ilex. Debido a que los cambios de distribución de las especies están determinados en última instancia por el regenerado, comprender el efecto combinado de altas concentraciones de [CO2] y el estrés hídrico es fundamental para pronosticar futuros cambios en el paisaje e identificar qué especies prevalecerán en estos nuevos escenarios. Por ello en el Capítulo 4, analizamos cómo el enriquecimiento con [CO2] puede mitigar los efectos negativos del estrés hídrico en plántulas de dos especies de pino mediterráneas P. pinaster y P. pinea. En cámaras de crecimiento, testamos los efectos de dos concentraciones de [CO2]: a[CO2] (380 ppm) y e[CO2] (800 ppm) y dos regímenes de riego. En condiciones de e[CO2], ambas especies aumentaron la biomasa total, WUE (el uso en la eficiencia del agua a nivel de toda la planta) y WUEi (uso en la eficiencia del agua intrínseco) en comparación con valores medidos en condiciones de a[CO2]. El aumento de WUEi bajo condiciones de alto [CO2] se debió a una reducción en la conductancia estomática y a un aumento de la tasa fotosintética. Sin embargo, encontramos diferencias en los ajustes funcionales al e[CO2] y estrés hídrico en las dos especies. P. pinea mostró una mayor tasa fotosintética y menores potenciales hídricos al amanecer (amanecer) y al mediodía (mediodía,) mostrando que esta especie tiene un comportamiento más anisohídrico que P. pinaster, el cual mantuvo una estrategia más isohídrica y de mayor ahorro de agua mediante un mayor control estomático, invirtiendo más en el desarrollo de la raíz que P. pinea. Además, en el Capítulo 5 estudiamos los ajustes en la anatomía del xilema y en el sistema hidráulico de las plántulas en estas condiciones de e[CO2] alto y estrés hídrico. El estrés hídrico indujo una menor producción de acículas en P. pinaster para minimizar la pérdida de agua. Por otro lado P. pinea mostró una mayor plasticidad en el xilema mediante la reducción del tamaño del lumen para aumentar la seguridad en el xilema ante estrés hídrico. Aunque ambas estrategias pueden ser efectivas a la hora de minimizar transpiración y mantener la seguridad en el xilema, reducir el área foliar puede comprometer la tasa fotosintética a largo plazo, perjudicando la habilidad del individuo para competir. Por el contrario, una mayor plasticidad en el xilema en P. pinea permitiría a los árboles adaptar su crecimiento y estructura a las condiciones ambientales y optimizar el uso de recursos disponibles manteniendo una mayor área foliar activa (es decir, el aparato fotosintético). Altas concentraciones de [CO2] redujeron la conductancia específica de la hoja en ambas especies de pino, probablemente mediante menor conductancia estomática. El aumento en el número de traqueidas en el xilema P. pinea le permite construir un xilema más seguro a la vez que compensa un menor tamaño de traqueidas bajo estrés hídrico. Por tanto, nuestros resultados sugieren que un aumento de [CO2] beneficiará de forma diferente a las dos especies estudiadas, aun asumiendo que ambas pertenecen al mismo grupo funcional. El enriquecimiento en [CO2] beneficiará más a P. pinea que a P. pinaster bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, debido a que P. pinea puede mantener la conductividad hidráulica con un xilema más resistente a la cavitación. Si extrapolamos nuestros resultados a condiciones naturales y en particular a los escenarios climáticos esperados en el futuro, podemos concluir que la mayor tolerancia a la sequía expresada por P. pinea hará que esta especie prevalezca frente a P. pinaster en ambientes futuros con mayor aridez y mayor concentración de [CO2]. ----------ABSTRACT---------- Rising CO2 atmospheric concentration ([CO2]) as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions is driving an increase in the average temperature of the planet. The Mediterranean basin is particularly sensitive to more intense disturbances due to aridification and land-use legacies that have strongly shaped the current landscapes in the Region. In this context of global change, we studied the decline and regeneration dynamics of three co-occurring Mediterranean coniferous species of different drought tolerance: Pinus pinaster < Pinus pinea < Juniperus oxycedrus (Chapter 2). We compared the growth patterns and climatic response of trees with different health status: healthy (for the three species), declining (only P. pinaster) and dead (P. pinaster and P. pinea). The currently dominant species, P. pinaster, shows extensive signs of decline -assessed by high canopy defoliation and mistletoe infection- and mortality. In addition, the species presents scarce regeneration, whereas it is being replaced by Quercus ilex, P. pinea and J. oxycedrus, with more abundant regeneration and abundance in juvenile stages. Since the 1980s, more frequent and severe drought events have occurred, inciting tree growth decline in dead and non-healthy pine trees, but with differences between species. Non-healthy individuals of P. pinaster exhibited negative growth trends since 1995. In dead P. pinea trees, the growth decline started later since 2005. P. pinaster survival in the study area was linked to a higher sensitivity to spring precipitation and was concentrated in sites with higher moisture availability, while P. pinea survival was higher in trees with larger diameters. In Chapter 3, we selected 5 individuals from each status and species and studied the xylem anatomical traits and carbon isotopic discrimination (13C) in annual tree-rings. Pine trees exhibited larger tracheids and higher xylem plasticity to climate variability than J. oxycedrus. Xylem traits differed between different health status in Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea. Healthy pine trees had bigger lumen sizes in the earlywood and thicker cell walls in the latewood than non-healthy trees, along with expressing a higher xylem plasticity to climate. This xylem plasticity allowed P. pinea to adjust their xylem characteristics to increase cell safety during drought events. The ability to maintain a competitive yet plastic xylem structure is crucial to sustain productivity rates under more xeric, climate change scenarios. Our study revealed that non-healthy pines (i.e. declining and dead pine trees) and healthy trees exhibited similar 13C, which suggests that non-healthy pine trees had low stomatal control to maximize photosynthesis and increase water transport to the crown to compensate for the excessive water loss. Results from Chapters 2 and 3 suggest that despite the general species decline (i.e. high mortality, canopy defoliation, mistletoe infection) observed in P. pinaster in the area, healthy individuals of this species are performing well in sites with higher moisture availability, while in soils with less moisture availability in the area it can be eventually replaced by more drought-tolerant P. pinea, J. oxycedrus and Q. ilex. Regeneration patterns in the area revealed that water stress along with land-use legacies are limiting P. pinaster establishment in comparison to more abundant regeneration of these three more drought-tolerant co-occurring taxa. Since species distribution shift is ultimately driven by regeneration success, understanding the combined effect of enriched [CO2] and water stress on seedlings is crucial to forecast future changes in the landscape and identify which species will prevail in these new scenarios. Therefore, in Chapter 4, we characterized how elevated [CO2] can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on seedlings of the two Mediterranean pine species P. pinaster and P. pinea. In growth chambers, we tested the effects of two [CO2] treatments: a[CO2] (380 ppm) and e[CO2] (800 ppm) and two water regimes. Under e[CO2], both species increased total biomass, WUE (whole-plant water use efficiency) and WUEi (intrinsic water use efficiency) in comparison to measured values in a[CO2]. Increases in WUEi under high [CO2] were both due to reduced stomatal conductance and increased photosynthetic rates. However, we also found differences in the functional adjustment to elevated [CO2] and water stress of the two species. P. pinea exhibited higher photosynthetic rates and lower water potential, both predawn and midday, suggesting that this species follows a more anisohydric behaviour than P. pinaster, which in contrast maintained a more isohydric, water-saving strategy and invested more in root development than P. pinea. In addition, in Chapter 5 we studied the xylem anatomical adjustments and hydraulic performance of seedlings under e[CO2] and water stress. Water shortage induced a reduction in P. pinaster leaf production to minimise water loss, while P. pinea exhibited a higher xylem plasticity, particularly by reducing lumen size to increase xylem safety. Although both strategies can be effective in minimising transpiration and maintaining xylem safety, reducing leaf area may compromise photosynthetic rates in the long-term, worsening plant ability to compete. In contrast, higher xylem plasticity in P. pinea would allow trees to adapt growth and structure to environmental conditions and to optimise the use of available resources by keeping a greater active leaf area (i.e., photosynthetic apparatus) under water stress. Elevated [CO2] reduced leaf specific conductivity in both pine species, which was probably linked to lower stomatal conductance. The increased in the number of tracheids in P. pinea xylem allowed it to develop a safer xylem that compensated for smaller tracheids under water stress. Thus, our results suggest that rising [CO2] will differently benefit the two studied species, even if they are assumed to belong to the same functional type. [CO2] enrichment will benefit more P. pinea under water stress than P. pinaster, since P. pinea can maintain hydraulic conductivity with a greater xylem resistance to cavitation. If our results hold for natural conditions, we can conclude that due to the higher drought tolerance expressed by P. pinea in comparison to P. pinaster, the former species will prevail under future more xeric and enriched [CO2] environments, particularly where these two species form mixed stands today.

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    https://doi.org/10.20868/upm.t...
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      https://doi.org/10.20868/upm.t...
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    Authors: Picard‐Sánchez, Amparo; Estensoro, Itziar; Del Pozo, Raquel; Palenzuela, Oswaldo R.; +2 Authors

    Enteromyxum leei is a myxozoan histozoic parasite that infects the intestine of several teleost fish species. In gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), it provokes a chronic disease, entailing anorexia, delayed growth, reduced marketability and mortality. Direct fish‐to‐fish transmission, relevant in aquaculture conditions, has been demonstrated for E. leei via effluent, cohabitation, and oral and anal routes. However, the minimum time of exposure for infection has not been established, nor the possible effect on the fish immune response. Two effluent trials were performed at different temperatures (high: average of 25.6°C; and low: constant at 18°C), different times of exposure to the effluent (1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks) and different population densities. The results showed that 1 week was enough to infect 100% of fish at high temperature and 58.3% at low temperature. High temperature not only increased the prevalence of infection in posterior intestine, but also induced a higher production of specific antibodies, limiting the progression of the infection along the intestine. Longer time of exposure to the parasite and higher fish densities facilitated E. leei infection. These results show that effective diagnosis, lowering animal density and removal of infected fish are key aspects to manage this disease in aquaculture facilities. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Commission, Horizon 2020 Framework Programme H2020, Societal Challenges under grant agreement 634429 (ParaFishControl). This publication reflects only the authors' view, and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. IE was contracted under APOSTD/2016/037 grant by the “Generalitat Valenciana,” and MCP, under Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013. Peer reviewed

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    Journal of Fish Diseases
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      Journal of Fish Diseases
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    Authors: Fuertes, Elaine; MacIntyre, Elaina; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; +30 Authors

    Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohort studies (Ntotal = 15,980): BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), INMA (Spain), MAAS (United Kingdom) and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Annual average exposure to copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc, each respectively derived from particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5), were estimated using standardized land use regression models and assigned to birth addresses. Cohort-specific associations between these exposures and parental reports of physician-diagnosed pneumonia between birth and two years were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for host and environmental covariates and total PM10 or PM2.5 mass. Combined estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. There was substantial within and between-cohort variability in element concentrations. In the adjusted meta-analysis, pneumonia was weakly associated with zinc derived from PM10 (OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.18) per 20 ng/m3 increase). No other associations with the other elements were consistently observed. The independent effect of particulate matter mass remained after adjustment for element concentrations. In conclusion, associations between particulate matter mass exposure and pneumonia were not explained by the elements we investigated. Zinc from PM10 was the only element which appeared independently associated with a higher risk of early-life pneumonia. As zinc is primarily attributable to non-tailpipe traffic emissions, these results may suggest a potential adverse effect of non-tailpipe emissions on health. This research received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2011): ESCAPE (grant agreement number: 211250) and TRANSPHORM (ENV.2009.1.2.2.1). The Swedish Research Council FORMAS, the Stockholm County Council, the Swedish Foundation for Health Care Sciences and Allergy Research, and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency supported BAMSE. The Italian Ministry of Health (ex art.12 D.Lgs 502/92, 2001) supported GASPII. The GINIplus study was supported for the first three years by grants of the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology (grant no. 01 EE 9401-4). The LISAplus study was supported by grants 01 EG 9732 and 01 EG 9705/2 from the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology, by the Federal Ministry for Environment (IUF, FKZ 20462296) and by the Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich Center of Health. The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, The Netherlands Asthma Fund, The Netherlands Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing, and the Environment and The Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport supported PIAMA. An Asthma UK Grant 04/014, the Moulton Charitable Trust, the James Trust and Microsoft Research supported MAAS. Grants from the Spanish Ministry of Health-Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176, CB06/02/0041, FISPI041436, FIS-PI081151, FIS-PI042018, FIS-PI09/02311, FIS-PI06/0867, FIS-PS09/00090, FIS-FEDER 03/1615, 04/1509, 04/1112, 04/1931, 05/1079, 05/1052, 06/1213, 07/0314, and 09/02647), Generalitat de Catalunya-CIRIT 1999SGR 00241, Conselleria de Sanitat Generalitat Valenciana, Universidad de Oviedo, Obra social Cajastur, Department of Health of the Basque Government (2005111093 and 2009111069), Provincial Government of Gipuzkoa (DFG06/004 and DFG08/001) and Fundación Roger Torné supported INMA.

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    Authors: Corchero Rodríguez, Aitor;

    To date, Semantic Sensor Web research and development has focused on establishing common techniques and practices that homogenize how to discover sensors, collect their data, integrate them, extract information from them, etc. However, as these issues are overcame and huge data bases of sensor data begin to emerge, the focus should change to improve the data management and the information overload, discarding the non-relevant information from the relevant one, and on the other hand, allow easy and intuitive navigation through it. The objective is to move up the wisdom hierarchy and empower users so they can start discovering new relevant knowledge and making decisions based on that. Therefore, the present research depicts the development of an early-prototyped architecture that emphases the usage of streaming semantic technology to collect, process and converting sensor information in data events that,with the application of semantic reasoning, the systems will automatically and autonomously understand sensor information and also will be able to detect simple situation awareness. Finally, the work performed under this research is partially founded by “FP7 EU WatERP” project (GA318603).

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    Repositori Obert UdL
    Master thesis . 2014
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Repositori Obert UdLarrow_drop_down
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      Repositori Obert UdL
      Master thesis . 2014
      License: CC BY NC ND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Agier, Lydiane; Basagaña, Xavier; Maitre, Lea; Granum, Berit; +26 Authors

    BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children.METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother-child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6-12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures.FINDINGS: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5-9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions.INTERPRETATION: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease.FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project).

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    HAL-Inserm; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: ACU Research Bank
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Repositori Obert UdL
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/