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    Authors: Conceição, Luis E. C.; Saleh, R.; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Pinto, Wilson; +4 Authors

    The improvement of microdiets for fish larvae has been a major challenge in past years. Besides their tremendous growth rates, fish larvae have an immature digestive system at early developmental stages and a progressive metamorphic process that suggests special nutritional requirements. It is therefore essential to provide fish larvae with easy and/or quickly metabolizable protein sources. While fish meal is well recognized as the reference protein source for juvenile and adult fish, its proteins maybe too complex for easy digestion in fish larvae. Moreover, there is a trend for replacement of fish meal by plant protein-rich ingredients, but these may be deficient in some micronutrients present in marine ingredients or contain anti-nutritional factors. Therefore this study aimed to study the effect of three protein sources: fish meal, squid meal and a mixture of vegetable protein concentrates, on gilthead seabream larvae performance and digestive function. 166 165 2

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Cuevas, Carlos A.; Notario, Alberto; Adame, José Antonio; Hilboll, Andreas; +3 Authors

    We report on the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) over Spain, focusing on the densely populated cities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, Sevilla and Valencia, during 17 years, from 1996 to 2012. This data series combines observations from in-situ air quality monitoring networks and the satellite-based instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. The results in these five cities show a smooth decrease in the NO 2 concentrations of ∼2% per year in the period 1996-2008, due to the implementation of emissions control environmental legislation, and a more abrupt descend of ∼7% per year from 2008 to 2012 as a consequence of the economic recession. In the whole Spanish territory the NO 2 levels have decreased by ∼22% from 1996 to 2012. Statistical analysis of several economic indicators is used to investigate the different factors driving the NO 2 concentration trends over Spain during the last two decades. Peer Reviewed

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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pedro, Mónica; Gouveia, Cristina; Oliveira, João;

    The TRUST Decision Theater Software is an immersive environment designed for collaboration among multiple decision-makers/stakeholders. It addresses the technological barriers often created by specialized tools in industry decision-makers, at the various levels. Improved human engagement is leveraged by Interface and usability concerns which improve decision-making and collect participant input and collaboration. This environment will act as front-end for information and models developed in TRUST, bridging the gap between the information produced across the TRUST portfolio and the common manager and decision-maker. This report intends to briefly summarize the proof of concept key features and to present implementation details. It starts by presenting the application goals and the interface philosophy. It goes on describing implementation details, which includes a general application flow chart and data model. It concludes with a brief analysis of the potential of this application.

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    Other literature type . 2015
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    Authors: Figás-Moreno, María Del Rosario; Prohens Tomás, Jaime; Díez Niclós, Mª José Teresa De Jesús; Soler Aleixandre, Salvador;

    Authors are grateful to European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme for funding under grant agreements 634561 (Traditional tomato varieties and cultural practices: a case for agricultural diversification with impact on food security and health of European population; TRADITOM), 677379 (Linking genetic resources, genomes and phenotypes of Solanaceous crops; G2P-SOL), 774244 (Breeding for resilient, efficient and sustainable organic vegetable production; BRESOV), and 774271 (Networking, partnerships and tools to enhance in situ conservation of European plant genetic resources; Farmers' Pride).

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    Authors: Castro Carranza, Carlos de; Capellán Pérez, Iñigo;

    Whether renewable energy sources (RES) will provide sufficient energy surplus to entirely power complex modern societies is under discussion. We contribute to this debate by estimating the current global average energy return on energy invested (EROI) for the five RES technologies with the highest potential of electricity generation from the comprehensive and internally consistent estimations of their material requirements at three distinct energy system boundaries: standard farm-gate (EROIst), final at consumer point-of-use (EROIfinal), and extended (including indirect investments, EROIext). EROIst levels found fall within the respective literature ranges. Expanding the boundaries closer to the system level, we find that only large hydroelectricity would currently have a high EROIext ~ 6.5:1, while the rest of variable RES would be below 3:1: onshore wind (2.9:1), offshore wind (2.3:1), solar Photovoltaic (PV) (1.8:1), and solar Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) (<1:1). These results indicate that, very likely, the global average EROIext levels of variable RES are currently below those of fossil fuel-fired electricity. It remains unknown if technological improvements will be able to compensate for factors, which will become increasingly important as the variable RES scale-up. Hence, without dynamically accounting for the evolution of the EROI of the system, the viability of sustainable energy systems cannot be ensured, especially for modern societies pursuing continuous economic growth LOCOMOTION project, funded by the EuropeanUnion’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programmeunder grant agreement no. 821105 MEDEAS project, funded by the European Union’s Horizon2020 research and innovation programme under grant agree-ment no. 691287 Producción Científica

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    Energies
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    Energies
    Article . 2020
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      Energies
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      Energies
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: M. Zaniolo; M. Giuliani; A. F. Castelletti; A. F. Castelletti; +1 Authors

    Socio-economic costs of drought are progressively increasing worldwide due to undergoing alterations of hydro-meteorological regimes induced by climate change. Although drought management is largely studied in the literature, traditional drought indexes often fail at detecting critical events in highly regulated systems, where natural water availability is conditioned by the operation of water infrastructures such as dams, diversions, and pumping wells. Here, ad hoc index formulations are usually adopted based on empirical combinations of several, supposed-to-be significant, hydro-meteorological variables. These customized formulations, however, while effective in the design basin, can hardly be generalized and transferred to different contexts. In this study, we contribute FRIDA (FRamework for Index-based Drought Analysis), a novel framework for the automatic design of basin-customized drought indexes. In contrast to ad hoc empirical approaches, FRIDA is fully automated, generalizable, and portable across different basins. FRIDA builds an index representing a surrogate of the drought conditions of the basin, computed by combining all the relevant available information about the water circulating in the system identified by means of a feature extraction algorithm. We used the Wrapper for Quasi-Equally Informative Subset Selection (W-QEISS), which features a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to find Pareto-efficient subsets of variables by maximizing the wrapper accuracy, minimizing the number of selected variables, and optimizing relevance and redundancy of the subset. The preferred variable subset is selected among the efficient solutions and used to formulate the final index according to alternative model structures. We apply FRIDA to the case study of the Jucar river basin (Spain), a drought-prone and highly regulated Mediterranean water resource system, where an advanced drought management plan relying on the formulation of an ad hoc "state index" is used for triggering drought management measures. The state index was constructed empirically with a trial-and-error process begun in the 1980s and finalized in 2007, guided by the experts from the Confederación Hidrográfica del Júcar (CHJ). Our results show that the automated variable selection outcomes align with CHJ's 25-year-long empirical refinement. In addition, the resultant FRIDA index outperforms the official State Index in terms of accuracy in reproducing the target variable and cardinality of the selected inputs set. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 22 (4) ISSN:1027-5606 ISSN:1607-7938

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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2018
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2...
    Preprint . 2017
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2018
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2...
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Koundouri, Phoebe; Kougea, Eva; Stithoua, M.; Ala-ahob, P.; +6 Authors

    This article presents an application of the choice experiment method in order to provide estimates of economic values generated by water quantity improvements in the environment. More importantly, this is the first choice experiment study valuing scientific information and in particular scientific information on climate change. The case study of interest is Rokua in Northern Finland, a groundwater dependent ecosystem very sensitive to climate change and natural variability. The study deals with the uncertainty about the actual dynamics of the system and the effect of future climate change by exploring whether the public values sustained provision of resources for scientific research to better understand long-term environmental changes in Rokua. Data are analysed using a nested multinomial logit and an error component model. Evidence from this study suggests that individuals are willing to pay in order to assure scientific research so as to better understand long-term environmental changes. As a result, policy should consider investing in and supporting related research. Other aspects of water management policy valued by the public are water quantity, recreation, and total land income. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the European Union via the 7th Framework Program GENESIS: Groundwater and dependent ecosystems: New Scientific basis on climate change and land-use impact for the update of the EU Groundwater Directive; WP-6 Groundwater systems management: scenarios, risk assessment, cost-efficient measures and legal aspects. We finally thank two anonymous referees for constructive and insightful comments

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    Authors: Carlos Mario Gómez Gómez; C. D. Pérez-Blanco;

    Greening the economy is mostly about improving water governance and not only about putting the existing resource saving technical alternatives into practice. Focusing on the second and forgetting the first risks finishing with a highly efficient use of water services at the level of each individual user but with an unsustainable amount of water use for the entire economy. This might be happening already in many places with the modernization of irrigated agriculture, the world’s largest water user and the one offering the most promising water saving opportunities. In spite of high expectations, modern irrigation techniques seem not to be contributing to reduce water scarcity and increase drought resiliency. In fact, according to the little evidence available, in some areas they are resulting in higher water use. Building on basic economic principles this study aims to show the conditions under which this apparently paradoxical outcome, known as the Jevons’ Paradox, might appear. This basic model is expected to serve as guidance for assessing the actual outcomes of increasing irrigation efficiency and to discuss the changes in water governance that would be required for this to make a real contribution to sustainable water management.

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    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anthropometric and demographic data via measurements performed face-to-face in a validation study (VS). Participants (n = 140) from seven European countries, participating in the Food4Me intervention study which aimed to test the efficacy of personalised nutrition approaches delivered via the internet, were invited to take part in the VS. Participants visited a research centre in each country within 2 weeks of providing SR data via the internet. Participants received detailed instructions on how to perform each measurement. Individual’s identity was checked visually and by repeated collection and analysis of buccal cell DNA for 33 genetic variants. Validation of identity using genomic information showed perfect concordance between SR and VS. Similar results were found for demographic data (age and sex verification). We observed strong intra-class correlation coefficients between SR and VS for anthropometric data (height 0.990, weight 0.994 and BMI 0.983). However, internet-based SR weight was under-reported (Δ −0.70 kg [−3.6 to 2.1], p < 0.0001) and, therefore, BMI was lower for SR data (Δ −0.29 kg m−2 [−1.5 to 1.0], p < 0.0001). BMI classification was correct in 93 % of cases. We demonstrate the utility of genotype information for detection of possible identity fraud in e-health studies and confirm the reliability of internet-based, SR anthropometric and demographic data collected in the Food4Me study. Trial registration: NCT01530139 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01530139© 2015, European Union.

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    Authors: Severin D. H. Irl; Andreas H. Schweiger; Félix M. Medina; José María Fernández-Palacios; +5 Authors

    [Main conclusion] Both AE and SIE rarity on La Palma show a clear spatial pattern, with hotspots of endemic rarity found at high elevations and in rare climates, presumably owing to geographical and climatic constraints and possibly anthropogenic pressure (e.g., land use, introduced herbivores, fire). Areas of high rarity estimates coincide with the distribution and extent of PAs on La Palma, especially since the recent addition of the Natura 2000 sites. The hypervolume approach is a promising tool to estimate species range sizes, and can be applied on all scales where point/plot data are available. [Methods] We recorded all present endemic vascular plant species in 1,212 plots covering the entire island. We calculated endemic rarity (corrected range-rarity richness for endemics) using a rarity estimation approach based on kernel density estimations (hypervolume approach). We performed a sensitivity analysis based on multiple linear regressions and relative importance estimations of environmental drivers to estimate the performance of the hypervolume-based rarity estimation compared to standard methods (occurrence frequency, convex hulls, alpha hulls). [Aim] Rarity—an important measure for conservation biogeography—can vary over many orders of magnitude. However, it is unclear which regional-scale abiotic conditions drive processes affecting rarity of endemic species on islands. To support conservation efforts, we (1) assess the main abiotic drivers of endemic rarity, (2) determine how well existing protected areas (PAs) coincide with hotspots of endemic rarity and (3) introduce and evaluate a new hypervolume-based rarity estimator. [Results] Climate variables (mean annual temperature, climatic rarity, precipitation variability) best explained archipelago endemic (AE) and single-island endemic (SIE) rarity. Existing PAs covered the majority of AE and SIE rarity, especially national and natural parks as well as the Natura 2000 sites. In our study system, hypervolumes performed better than standard measures of range size. This work contributed to and was partially supported by the European H2020 Project 641762 ECOPOTENTIAL: Improving future ecosystem benefits through Earth Observations. [Location] La Palma (Canary Islands). © 2017 The Authors. Peer Reviewed

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    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Conceição, Luis E. C.; Saleh, R.; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Pinto, Wilson; +4 Authors

    The improvement of microdiets for fish larvae has been a major challenge in past years. Besides their tremendous growth rates, fish larvae have an immature digestive system at early developmental stages and a progressive metamorphic process that suggests special nutritional requirements. It is therefore essential to provide fish larvae with easy and/or quickly metabolizable protein sources. While fish meal is well recognized as the reference protein source for juvenile and adult fish, its proteins maybe too complex for easy digestion in fish larvae. Moreover, there is a trend for replacement of fish meal by plant protein-rich ingredients, but these may be deficient in some micronutrients present in marine ingredients or contain anti-nutritional factors. Therefore this study aimed to study the effect of three protein sources: fish meal, squid meal and a mixture of vegetable protein concentrates, on gilthead seabream larvae performance and digestive function. 166 165 2

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Cuevas, Carlos A.; Notario, Alberto; Adame, José Antonio; Hilboll, Andreas; +3 Authors

    We report on the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) over Spain, focusing on the densely populated cities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, Sevilla and Valencia, during 17 years, from 1996 to 2012. This data series combines observations from in-situ air quality monitoring networks and the satellite-based instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. The results in these five cities show a smooth decrease in the NO 2 concentrations of ∼2% per year in the period 1996-2008, due to the implementation of emissions control environmental legislation, and a more abrupt descend of ∼7% per year from 2008 to 2012 as a consequence of the economic recession. In the whole Spanish territory the NO 2 levels have decreased by ∼22% from 1996 to 2012. Statistical analysis of several economic indicators is used to investigate the different factors driving the NO 2 concentration trends over Spain during the last two decades. Peer Reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Scientific Reports
    Article
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    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      Scientific Reports
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pedro, Mónica; Gouveia, Cristina; Oliveira, João;

    The TRUST Decision Theater Software is an immersive environment designed for collaboration among multiple decision-makers/stakeholders. It addresses the technological barriers often created by specialized tools in industry decision-makers, at the various levels. Improved human engagement is leveraged by Interface and usability concerns which improve decision-making and collect participant input and collaboration. This environment will act as front-end for information and models developed in TRUST, bridging the gap between the information produced across the TRUST portfolio and the common manager and decision-maker. This report intends to briefly summarize the proof of concept key features and to present implementation details. It starts by presenting the application goals and the interface philosophy. It goes on describing implementation details, which includes a general application flow chart and data model. It concludes with a brief analysis of the potential of this application.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ RiuNetarrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ RiuNetarrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . 2015
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