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886 Research products, page 1 of 89

  • SDSN - Greece
  • 04 agricultural and veterinary sciences

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Amparo Picard-Sánchez; Itziar Estensoro; Raquel del Pozo; Oswaldo Palenzuela; M. C. Piazzon; Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ParaFishControl (634429)

    Enteromyxum leei is a myxozoan histozoic parasite that infects the intestine of several teleost fish species. In gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), it provokes a chronic disease, entailing anorexia, delayed growth, reduced marketability and mortality. Direct fish‐to‐fish transmission, relevant in aquaculture conditions, has been demonstrated for E. leei via effluent, cohabitation, and oral and anal routes. However, the minimum time of exposure for infection has not been established, nor the possible effect on the fish immune response. Two effluent trials were performed at different temperatures (high: average of 25.6°C; and low: constant at 18°C), different times of exposure to the effluent (1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks) and different population densities. The results showed that 1 week was enough to infect 100% of fish at high temperature and 58.3% at low temperature. High temperature not only increased the prevalence of infection in posterior intestine, but also induced a higher production of specific antibodies, limiting the progression of the infection along the intestine. Longer time of exposure to the parasite and higher fish densities facilitated E. leei infection. These results show that effective diagnosis, lowering animal density and removal of infected fish are key aspects to manage this disease in aquaculture facilities. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Commission, Horizon 2020 Framework Programme H2020, Societal Challenges under grant agreement 634429 (ParaFishControl). This publication reflects only the authors' view, and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. IE was contracted under APOSTD/2016/037 grant by the “Generalitat Valenciana,” and MCP, under Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ilaria Piccoli; Felice Sartori; Riccardo Polese; Maurizio Borin; Antonio Berti;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: EC | SOILCARE (677407)

    in particular, 13, 44, and 47% lower yields were observed for winter wheat, maize, and soybean, respectively, under organic management. The graphical evaluation of N and P use efficiency demonstrated the benefit of adopting crop rotation practices and the risk of nutrient loss when liquid organic fertiliser was applied on a long-term basis. In conclusion, LTE predictions may depend upon specific RF conditions, representing potential N and P use efficiencies that, in RF, may be reduced by crop yield-limiting factors and the specific implemented crop sequence. Agri-environmental indicators such as nutrient balance may play a key role in soil and water quality monitoring, although short-term experiments might be unable to capture the sustainability of cropping systems. Therefore, the objectives of this study are: (i) to evaluate the reliability of long-term experimental N and P balance estimates to predict real field (RF) (i.e., short-term transitory) conditions and (ii) to compare the sustainability of short- and long-term experiments. The LTE-based predictions showed that crops are generally over-fertilised in RF conditions, particularly maize. Nutrient balance predictions based on the LTE data tended to be more optimistic than those observed under RF conditions, which are often characterised by lower outputs

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    María M. González-Real; Gregorio Egea; Bernardo Martin-Gorriz; Pedro A. Nortes; Alain Baille;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | SIRRIMED (245159)

    Abstract Quantification of soil respiration (R s ) is an essential step in modelling soil carbon fluxes associated with stand structure and management. This study aims to characterise the spatial variations of R s at tree scale in adult (AO) and young (YO) drip-irrigated orange orchards, with special focus on abiotic (soil moisture, θ s ) and biotic (stand age and root traits) factors determining the variability of R s . R s , soil temperature (T s ), θ s , soil organic carbon content (OC) and root traits were sampled along three transects parallel to the drip-line. Measurements were carried out in autumn, with mean T s over the sampling area close to 18 °C. Heterotrophic respiration (R h ) was determined in undisturbed non-rooted soil, and root-derived (or rhizosphere) respiration (R r ) was estimated from the difference R s − R h . Root distribution and root density were closely correlated with θ s . Fine-root density appeared to play a major role in the control of R s , explaining a great part of the spatial variability of R s . The ratio R h /R s , estimated by means of a simple partitioning model, appeared to decrease with stand age (~ 0.68 and ~ 0.32 in YO and AO, respectively), indicating the predominance of R h in the young orchard and of R r in the old one. The study highlights that stand structure plays a determinant role in driving the spatial variability of R s and its partitioning between heterotrophic and root-derived respiration in irrigated orchards.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hilko van der Voet; Johannes W. Kruisselbrink; Waldo J. de Boer; Marco S. van Lenthe; J.J.B. van den Heuvel; Amélie Crépet; Marc C. Kennedy; Johanna Zilliacus; Anna Beronius; Cleo Tebby; +6 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Netherlands, France
    Project: EC | EuroMix (633172)

    International audience; A model and data toolbox is presented to assess risks from combined exposure to multiple chemicals using probabilistic methods. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) toolbox, also known as the EuroMix toolbox, has more than 40 modules addressing all areas of risk assessment, and includes a data repository with data collected in the EuroMix project. This paper gives an introduction to the toolbox and illustrates its use with examples from the EuroMix project. The toolbox can be used for hazard identification, hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. Examples for hazard identification are selection of substances relevant for a specific adverse outcome based on adverse outcome pathways and QSAR models. Examples for hazard characterisation are calculation of benchmark doses and relative potency factors with uncertainty from dose response data, and use of kinetic models to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. Examples for exposure assessment are assessing cumulative exposure at external or internal level, where the latter option is needed when dietary and non-dietary routes have to be aggregated. Finally, risk characterisation is illustrated by calculation and display of the margin of exposure for single substances and for the cumulation, including uncertainties derived from exposure and hazard characterisation estimates.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Julie Ingram; Jane Mills;
    Project: EC | RECARE (603498), EC | SOILCARE (677407), EC | SMARTSOIL (289694)

    This assessment examines the extent to which advisory services are able to address practitioners (primarily farmers) current and emerging knowledge needs about sustainable soil management (SSM) in Europe. The assessment is structured around the following components: the context of advice (policy, market, socio economic conditions, privatisation of advisory systems); the challenges that SSM presents for advice; the current and emerging practitioner knowledge needs and the existing structure and function of advisory services for SSM. The analysis reveals fragmented policy and advisory services, paralleled by the multi-scale character of SSM and a diverse audience for advice. The challenges and opportunities this complex arena presents are analysed and suggestions made for achieving more effective advisory services for SSM, together with examples of existing approaches.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Sandrine Skiba-Cassy; Inge Geurden; Stéphane Panserat; Iban Seiliez;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ARRAINA (288925)

    International audience; Supplementation of fish diets with crystalline methionine is needed to overcome the low methionine content of plant based diet and to ensure good growth performances of the farmed fish. The study aimed to investigate the consequences of methionine imbalance on the expression of genes related to hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout. For this purpose, juvenile trout were fed during 6 weeks diets containing either deficient, adequate or excess levels ofmethionine. The results indicate that the methionine deficiency increased the expression of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) target genes asparagine synthetase (ASNS), system A amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) and cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1) as a result of the activation of the GCN2/ eIF2α pathway. In contrast, dietary methionine supplied in excess produced broader changes on hepatic gene expression by increasing the levels of transcripts related to fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthesis, FAS) and oxidation (hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, HOAD), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6-phosphatase 2, G6Pase2 and phosphoénolpyruvate carboxykinase, PEPCK) and amino acid catabolism (glutamate dehydrogenase 1 and 2, GDH1 and 2).Methionine excess also led to a post-prandial down-regulation of G6Pase2 and PEPCK gene expression not occurring in fish fed the methionine deficient or adequate diet. This study shows that a dietary methionine imbalance in juvenile trout strongly affects hepatic gene expression and that the response highly depends on the nature of the imbalance: deficiency or excess. Statement of relevance: Precise amino acid supplementation of fish diet.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marcela Porto Costa; David R. Chadwick; Sophie Saget; Robert M. Rees; Michael Williams; David Styles;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    Abstract Purpose There is an imperative to accurately assess the environmental sustainability of crop system interventions in the context of food security and climate change. Previous studies have indicated that the incorporation of legumes into cereal rotations could reduce overall environmental burdens from cropping systems. However, most life cycle assessment (LCA) studies focus on individual crops and miss environmental consequences of inter-annual crop sequence and nutrient cycling effects. This review investigates state-of-the-art representation of inter-crop rotation effects within legume LCA studies. Methods A literature review was undertaken, starting with a search for all peer-reviewed articles with combinations of ‘LCA’, ‘legumes’ and ‘rotations’ or synonyms thereof. In total, 3180 articles were obtained. Articles were screened for compliance with all of the following requirements: (i) reporting results based on LCA or life cycle inventory methodology; (ii) inclusion of (a) legume(s); (iii) the legume(s) is/are analysed within the context of a wider cropping system (i.e. rotation or intercropping). Seventy articles satisfying these requirements were analysed. Results and discussion We identified three broad approaches to legume LCA. Most studies involved simple attributional LCA disregarding important interactions across years and crops in rotations. N-fertilizer reduction through legume residue N carryover is either disregarded or the benefit is attributed to the following crop in such studies, whilst N leaching burdens from residues are usually attributed to the legume crop. Some studies applied robust allocation approaches and/or complex functional units to enable analysis of entire rotation sequences, accounting for nutrient cycling and break crop effects. Finally, a few studies applied consequential LCA to identify downstream substitution effects, though these studies did not simultaneously account for agronomic effects of rotational sequence changes. Conclusions We recommend that LCA studies for legume cropping systems should (i) evaluate entire rotations; (ii) represent nitrogen and ideally carbon cycling; (iii) for attributional studies, define at least two functional units, where one should encompass the multifunctional outputs of an entire rotation and the other should enable product footprints to be calculated; (iv) for CLCA studies, account for both agronomic changes in rotations and markets effects; (v) include impact categories that reflect hotspots for agricultural production.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Larsen, Cathrine Agnete; Barsøe, Sofie; Allal, François; Vergnet, Alain; Vandeputte, Marc; Olesen, Niels,; Schmidt, Jacob,; Larsen, Cathrine,; +2 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, France, Denmark, France
    Project: EC | AQUAEXCEL2020 (652831), EC | AQUAEXCEL (262336)

    International audience; Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN, also called viral encephalo- and retinopathy (VER)), is a widespread disease of marine aquaculture caused by betanodavirus (or nervous necrosis virus - NNV), a segmented positive sense RNA virus, member of the nodaviridae family. VNN affects predominantly marine fish and cause significant losses to the Mediterranean fish farming industry, including the production of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Of the four circulating genotypes of betanodavirus, red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) and the reassortant geno-type red-spotted grouper/striped jack NNV (RG/SJNNV) are most prevalent in the Mediterranean. Inheritable resistance against VNN has been detected in sea bass, and selective breeding could be a mean to limit this untreatable disease. In the current study, we compare resistance to disease among three populations from the Atlantic Ocean (AT), Eastern Mediterranean (EM) and Western Mediterranean (WM), by challenge trials using both a highly pathogenic isolate of RGNNV and a lower pathogenic reassortant isolate of RG/SJNNV. The sur-vival of the three populations were modelled with a logistic regression, and the odds ratio (OR) of surviving was calculated. The challenge with RG/SJNNV reduced the odds of surviving three-fold (OR =0.29 [0.07-0.87]), whereas the challenge with RGNNV reduced the odds of surviving 100-fold (OR =0.01 [0.00-0.03]). Overall, the EM population had 3.32 (1.92–5.86) times higher odds of surviving the challenge than the AT and WM stocks. All survivors were harboring viral RNA in the brain, as demonstrated by RT-qPCR. However, viral RNA levels were in average lower in survivors from the EM population in both challenges, though only significantly lower in the challenge with RG/SJNNV (p <0.01). The survival results combined with the RT-qPCR results indicate that the EM sea bass population has a natural resistance to disease caused by RGNNV, possibly asso-ciated with limited viral entry into and/or replication in the brain

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anastasios Gatsios; Georgia Ntatsi; Luisella Celi; Daniel Said-Pullicino; Anastasia P. Tampakaki; Ioannis Giannakou; Dimitrios Savvas;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | TomRes (727929)

    In the present study, in addition to farmyard manure (FYM), cowpea was applied as green manure and faba bean as an intercrop in an organic greenhouse tomato crop, aiming to increase the levels of soil N. Three experiments (E1, E2, E3) were carried out, in which legumes were either noninoculated or inoculated with rhizobia alone or together with plant growth, promoting rhizobacteria. Inoculation of legumes with rhizobia considerably increased N2 fixation in E1 but had no impact on N2 fixation in E2 and E3. In E1, the application of cowpea decreased yield because it imposed a stronger nematode infection as the cowpea plants acted as a good host for Meloidogyne. However, in E2 and E3 the nematode infection was successfully controlled and the legumes significantly increased the tomato yield when inoculated in E2, irrespective of legume inoculation in E3. The total N concentration in the tomato plant tissues was significantly increased by legume application in E2 and E3, but not in E1. These results show that legumes applied as green manure can successfully complement N supply via FYM in organic greenhouse tomato, while legume inoculation with rhizobia can increase the amounts of nitrogen provided to the crop via green manure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shuangwei Li; Jochem B. Evers; Wopke van der Werf; Ruili Wang; Zhaoli Xu; Yan Guo; Baoguo Li; Yuntao Ma;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | ReMIX (727217)

    Maize/soybean strip intercropping is a commonly used system throughout China with high crop yields at reduced nutrient input compared to sole maize. Maize is the taller crop, and due to its dominance in light capture over soybean in the intercrop, maize is expected to outperform maize in sole cropping. Conversely, soybean is the subordinate crop and intercropped soybean plants are expected to perform worse than sole soybean. Crop plants show plastic responses in plant architecture to their growing conditions to forage for light and avoid shading. There is little knowledge on plant architectural responses to growing conditions in simultaneous (non-relay) intercropping and their relationship to species yields. A two-year field experiment with two simultaneous maize/soybean intercropping systems with narrow and wide strips was conducted to characterise architectural traits of maize and soybean plants grown as intercrop and sole crops. Intercropped maize plants, especially those in border rows, had substantially greater leaf area, biomass and yield than maize plants in sole crops. Intercropped soybean plants, especially those in border rows, had lower leaf area, biomass and yield than sole soybean plants. Overall intercrop performance was similar to that of sole crops, with the land equivalent ratio (LER) being only slightly greater than one (1.03–1.08). Soybean displayed typical shade avoidance responses in the intercrop, such as greater internode elongation and changes in specific leaf area, but these responses could not overcome the consequences of the competition with the taller maize plants. Therefore, in contrast to relay intercrop systems, in the studied simultaneous maize/soybean system, plastic responses did not contribute to practically relevant increases in resource capture and yield at whole system (i.e., intercrop) level.

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Include:
The following results are related to SDSN - Greece. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
886 Research products, page 1 of 89
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Amparo Picard-Sánchez; Itziar Estensoro; Raquel del Pozo; Oswaldo Palenzuela; M. C. Piazzon; Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ParaFishControl (634429)

    Enteromyxum leei is a myxozoan histozoic parasite that infects the intestine of several teleost fish species. In gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), it provokes a chronic disease, entailing anorexia, delayed growth, reduced marketability and mortality. Direct fish‐to‐fish transmission, relevant in aquaculture conditions, has been demonstrated for E. leei via effluent, cohabitation, and oral and anal routes. However, the minimum time of exposure for infection has not been established, nor the possible effect on the fish immune response. Two effluent trials were performed at different temperatures (high: average of 25.6°C; and low: constant at 18°C), different times of exposure to the effluent (1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks) and different population densities. The results showed that 1 week was enough to infect 100% of fish at high temperature and 58.3% at low temperature. High temperature not only increased the prevalence of infection in posterior intestine, but also induced a higher production of specific antibodies, limiting the progression of the infection along the intestine. Longer time of exposure to the parasite and higher fish densities facilitated E. leei infection. These results show that effective diagnosis, lowering animal density and removal of infected fish are key aspects to manage this disease in aquaculture facilities. This work has been carried out with financial support from the European Commission, Horizon 2020 Framework Programme H2020, Societal Challenges under grant agreement 634429 (ParaFishControl). This publication reflects only the authors' view, and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. IE was contracted under APOSTD/2016/037 grant by the “Generalitat Valenciana,” and MCP, under Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC PIE project no. 201740E013. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ilaria Piccoli; Felice Sartori; Riccardo Polese; Maurizio Borin; Antonio Berti;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: EC | SOILCARE (677407)

    in particular, 13, 44, and 47% lower yields were observed for winter wheat, maize, and soybean, respectively, under organic management. The graphical evaluation of N and P use efficiency demonstrated the benefit of adopting crop rotation practices and the risk of nutrient loss when liquid organic fertiliser was applied on a long-term basis. In conclusion, LTE predictions may depend upon specific RF conditions, representing potential N and P use efficiencies that, in RF, may be reduced by crop yield-limiting factors and the specific implemented crop sequence. Agri-environmental indicators such as nutrient balance may play a key role in soil and water quality monitoring, although short-term experiments might be unable to capture the sustainability of cropping systems. Therefore, the objectives of this study are: (i) to evaluate the reliability of long-term experimental N and P balance estimates to predict real field (RF) (i.e., short-term transitory) conditions and (ii) to compare the sustainability of short- and long-term experiments. The LTE-based predictions showed that crops are generally over-fertilised in RF conditions, particularly maize. Nutrient balance predictions based on the LTE data tended to be more optimistic than those observed under RF conditions, which are often characterised by lower outputs

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    María M. González-Real; Gregorio Egea; Bernardo Martin-Gorriz; Pedro A. Nortes; Alain Baille;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | SIRRIMED (245159)

    Abstract Quantification of soil respiration (R s ) is an essential step in modelling soil carbon fluxes associated with stand structure and management. This study aims to characterise the spatial variations of R s at tree scale in adult (AO) and young (YO) drip-irrigated orange orchards, with special focus on abiotic (soil moisture, θ s ) and biotic (stand age and root traits) factors determining the variability of R s . R s , soil temperature (T s ), θ s , soil organic carbon content (OC) and root traits were sampled along three transects parallel to the drip-line. Measurements were carried out in autumn, with mean T s over the sampling area close to 18 °C. Heterotrophic respiration (R h ) was determined in undisturbed non-rooted soil, and root-derived (or rhizosphere) respiration (R r ) was estimated from the difference R s − R h . Root distribution and root density were closely correlated with θ s . Fine-root density appeared to play a major role in the control of R s , explaining a great part of the spatial variability of R s . The ratio R h /R s , estimated by means of a simple partitioning model, appeared to decrease with stand age (~ 0.68 and ~ 0.32 in YO and AO, respectively), indicating the predominance of R h in the young orchard and of R r in the old one. The study highlights that stand structure plays a determinant role in driving the spatial variability of R s and its partitioning between heterotrophic and root-derived respiration in irrigated orchards.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hilko van der Voet; Johannes W. Kruisselbrink; Waldo J. de Boer; Marco S. van Lenthe; J.J.B. van den Heuvel; Amélie Crépet; Marc C. Kennedy; Johanna Zilliacus; Anna Beronius; Cleo Tebby; +6 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Netherlands, France
    Project: EC | EuroMix (633172)

    International audience; A model and data toolbox is presented to assess risks from combined exposure to multiple chemicals using probabilistic methods. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) toolbox, also known as the EuroMix toolbox, has more than 40 modules addressing all areas of risk assessment, and includes a data repository with data collected in the EuroMix project. This paper gives an introduction to the toolbox and illustrates its use with examples from the EuroMix project. The toolbox can be used for hazard identification, hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. Examples for hazard identification are selection of substances relevant for a specific adverse outcome based on adverse outcome pathways and QSAR models. Examples for hazard characterisation are calculation of benchmark doses and relative potency factors with uncertainty from dose response data, and use of kinetic models to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. Examples for exposure assessment are assessing cumulative exposure at external or internal level, where the latter option is needed when dietary and non-dietary routes have to be aggregated. Finally, risk characterisation is illustrated by calculation and display of the margin of exposure for single substances and for the cumulation, including uncertainties derived from exposure and hazard characterisation estimates.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Julie Ingram; Jane Mills;
    Project: EC | RECARE (603498), EC | SOILCARE (677407), EC | SMARTSOIL (289694)

    This assessment examines the extent to which advisory services are able to address practitioners (primarily farmers) current and emerging knowledge needs about sustainable soil management (SSM) in Europe. The assessment is structured around the following components: the context of advice (policy, market, socio economic conditions, privatisation of advisory systems); the challenges that SSM presents for advice; the current and emerging practitioner knowledge needs and the existing structure and function of advisory services for SSM. The analysis reveals fragmented policy and advisory services, paralleled by the multi-scale character of SSM and a diverse audience for advice. The challenges and opportunities this complex arena presents are analysed and suggestions made for achieving more effective advisory services for SSM, together with examples of existing approaches.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Sandrine Skiba-Cassy; Inge Geurden; Stéphane Panserat; Iban Seiliez;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ARRAINA (288925)

    International audience; Supplementation of fish diets with crystalline methionine is needed to overcome the low methionine content of plant based diet and to ensure good growth performances of the farmed fish. The study aimed to investigate the consequences of methionine imbalance on the expression of genes related to hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout. For this purpose, juvenile trout were fed during 6 weeks diets containing either deficient, adequate or excess levels ofmethionine. The results indicate that the methionine deficiency increased the expression of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) target genes asparagine synthetase (ASNS), system A amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) and cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1) as a result of the activation of the GCN2/ eIF2α pathway. In contrast, dietary methionine supplied in excess produced broader changes on hepatic gene expression by increasing the levels of transcripts related to fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthesis, FAS) and oxidation (hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, HOAD), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6-phosphatase 2, G6Pase2 and phosphoénolpyruvate carboxykinase, PEPCK) and amino acid catabolism (glutamate dehydrogenase 1 and 2, GDH1 and 2).Methionine excess also led to a post-prandial down-regulation of G6Pase2 and PEPCK gene expression not occurring in fish fed the methionine deficient or adequate diet. This study shows that a dietary methionine imbalance in juvenile trout strongly affects hepatic gene expression and that the response highly depends on the nature of the imbalance: deficiency or excess. Statement of relevance: Precise amino acid supplementation of fish diet.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marcela Porto Costa; David R. Chadwick; Sophie Saget; Robert M. Rees; Michael Williams; David Styles;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    Abstract Purpose There is an imperative to accurately assess the environmental sustainability of crop system interventions in the context of food security and climate change. Previous studies have indicated that the incorporation of legumes into cereal rotations could reduce overall environmental burdens from cropping systems. However, most life cycle assessment (LCA) studies focus on individual crops and miss environmental consequences of inter-annual crop sequence and nutrient cycling effects. This review investigates state-of-the-art representation of inter-crop rotation effects within legume LCA studies. Methods A literature review was undertaken, starting with a search for all peer-reviewed articles with combinations of ‘LCA’, ‘legumes’ and ‘rotations’ or synonyms thereof. In total, 3180 articles were obtained. Articles were screened for compliance with all of the following requirements: (i) reporting results based on LCA or life cycle inventory methodology; (ii) inclusion of (a) legume(s); (iii) the legume(s) is/are analysed within the context of a wider cropping system (i.e. rotation or intercropping). Seventy articles satisfying these requirements were analysed. Results and discussion We identified three broad approaches to legume LCA. Most studies involved simple attributional LCA disregarding important interactions across years and crops in rotations. N-fertilizer reduction through legume residue N carryover is either disregarded or the benefit is attributed to the following crop in such studies, whilst N leaching burdens from residues are usually attributed to the legume crop. Some studies applied robust allocation approaches and/or complex functional units to enable analysis of entire rotation sequences, accounting for nutrient cycling and break crop effects. Finally, a few studies applied consequential LCA to identify downstream substitution effects, though these studies did not simultaneously account for agronomic effects of rotational sequence changes. Conclusions We recommend that LCA studies for legume cropping systems should (i) evaluate entire rotations; (ii) represent nitrogen and ideally carbon cycling; (iii) for attributional studies, define at least two functional units, where one should encompass the multifunctional outputs of an entire rotation and the other should enable product footprints to be calculated; (iv) for CLCA studies, account for both agronomic changes in rotations and markets effects; (v) include impact categories that reflect hotspots for agricultural production.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Larsen, Cathrine Agnete; Barsøe, Sofie; Allal, François; Vergnet, Alain; Vandeputte, Marc; Olesen, Niels,; Schmidt, Jacob,; Larsen, Cathrine,; +2 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, France, Denmark, France
    Project: EC | AQUAEXCEL2020 (652831), EC | AQUAEXCEL (262336)

    International audience; Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN, also called viral encephalo- and retinopathy (VER)), is a widespread disease of marine aquaculture caused by betanodavirus (or nervous necrosis virus - NNV), a segmented positive sense RNA virus, member of the nodaviridae family. VNN affects predominantly marine fish and cause significant losses to the Mediterranean fish farming industry, including the production of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Of the four circulating genotypes of betanodavirus, red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) and the reassortant geno-type red-spotted grouper/striped jack NNV (RG/SJNNV) are most prevalent in the Mediterranean. Inheritable resistance against VNN has been detected in sea bass, and selective breeding could be a mean to limit this untreatable disease. In the current study, we compare resistance to disease among three populations from the Atlantic Ocean (AT), Eastern Mediterranean (EM) and Western Mediterranean (WM), by challenge trials using both a highly pathogenic isolate of RGNNV and a lower pathogenic reassortant isolate of RG/SJNNV. The sur-vival of the three populations were modelled with a logistic regression, and the odds ratio (OR) of surviving was calculated. The challenge with RG/SJNNV reduced the odds of surviving three-fold (OR =0.29 [0.07-0.87]), whereas the challenge with RGNNV reduced the odds of surviving 100-fold (OR =0.01 [0.00-0.03]). Overall, the EM population had 3.32 (1.92–5.86) times higher odds of surviving the challenge than the AT and WM stocks. All survivors were harboring viral RNA in the brain, as demonstrated by RT-qPCR. However, viral RNA levels were in average lower in survivors from the EM population in both challenges, though only significantly lower in the challenge with RG/SJNNV (p <0.01). The survival results combined with the RT-qPCR results indicate that the EM sea bass population has a natural resistance to disease caused by RGNNV, possibly asso-ciated with limited viral entry into and/or replication in the brain

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anastasios Gatsios; Georgia Ntatsi; Luisella Celi; Daniel Said-Pullicino; Anastasia P. Tampakaki; Ioannis Giannakou; Dimitrios Savvas;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | TomRes (727929)

    In the present study, in addition to farmyard manure (FYM), cowpea was applied as green manure and faba bean as an intercrop in an organic greenhouse tomato crop, aiming to increase the levels of soil N. Three experiments (E1, E2, E3) were carried out, in which legumes were either noninoculated or inoculated with rhizobia alone or together with plant growth, promoting rhizobacteria. Inoculation of legumes with rhizobia considerably increased N2 fixation in E1 but had no impact on N2 fixation in E2 and E3. In E1, the application of cowpea decreased yield because it imposed a stronger nematode infection as the cowpea plants acted as a good host for Meloidogyne. However, in E2 and E3 the nematode infection was successfully controlled and the legumes significantly increased the tomato yield when inoculated in E2, irrespective of legume inoculation in E3. The total N concentration in the tomato plant tissues was significantly increased by legume application in E2 and E3, but not in E1. These results show that legumes applied as green manure can successfully complement N supply via FYM in organic greenhouse tomato, while legume inoculation with rhizobia can increase the amounts of nitrogen provided to the crop via green manure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shuangwei Li; Jochem B. Evers; Wopke van der Werf; Ruili Wang; Zhaoli Xu; Yan Guo; Baoguo Li; Yuntao Ma;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | ReMIX (727217)

    Maize/soybean strip intercropping is a commonly used system throughout China with high crop yields at reduced nutrient input compared to sole maize. Maize is the taller crop, and due to its dominance in light capture over soybean in the intercrop, maize is expected to outperform maize in sole cropping. Conversely, soybean is the subordinate crop and intercropped soybean plants are expected to perform worse than sole soybean. Crop plants show plastic responses in plant architecture to their growing conditions to forage for light and avoid shading. There is little knowledge on plant architectural responses to growing conditions in simultaneous (non-relay) intercropping and their relationship to species yields. A two-year field experiment with two simultaneous maize/soybean intercropping systems with narrow and wide strips was conducted to characterise architectural traits of maize and soybean plants grown as intercrop and sole crops. Intercropped maize plants, especially those in border rows, had substantially greater leaf area, biomass and yield than maize plants in sole crops. Intercropped soybean plants, especially those in border rows, had lower leaf area, biomass and yield than sole soybean plants. Overall intercrop performance was similar to that of sole crops, with the land equivalent ratio (LER) being only slightly greater than one (1.03–1.08). Soybean displayed typical shade avoidance responses in the intercrop, such as greater internode elongation and changes in specific leaf area, but these responses could not overcome the consequences of the competition with the taller maize plants. Therefore, in contrast to relay intercrop systems, in the studied simultaneous maize/soybean system, plastic responses did not contribute to practically relevant increases in resource capture and yield at whole system (i.e., intercrop) level.