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365 Research products

  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2014-2023
  • Publications
  • Research software
  • GB
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
  • Hal-Diderot

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marsailidh M. Twigg; Chiara F. Di Marco; Elizabeth A. McGhee; Christine F. Braban; +21 Authors

    Under the EU Air Quality Directive (AQD) 2008/50/EC member states are required to undertake routine monitoring of PM2.5 composition at background stations. The AQD states for PM2.5 speciation this should include at least: nitrate (NO3−), sulfate (SO42−), chloride (Cl−), ammonium (NH4+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Until 2017, it was the responsibility of each country to determine the methodology used to report the composition for the inorganic components of PM2.5. In August 2017 a European standard method of measurement of PM2.5 inorganic chemical components (NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) as deposited on filters (EN16913:2017) was published. From August 2019 this then became the European standard method. This filter method is labour-intensive and provides limited time resolution and is prone to losses of volatile compounds. There is therefore increasing interest in the use of alternative automated methods. For example, the UK reports hourly PM2.5 chemical composition using the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA, Metrohm, NL). This study is a pre-assessment review of available data to demonstrate if or to what extent equivalence is possible using either the MARGA or other available automatic methods, including the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research Inc. US) and the Ambient Ion Monitor (AIM, URG, US). To demonstrate equivalence three objectives were to be met. The first two objectives focused on data capture and were met by all three instruments. The third objective was to have less than a 50% expanded uncertainty compared to the reference method for each species. Analysis of this objective was carried out using existing paired datasets available from different regions around the world. It was found that the MARGA (2006–2019 model) had the potential to demonstrate equivalence for all species in the standard, though it was only through a combination of case studies that it passed uncertainty criteria. The ACSM has the potential to demonstrate equivalence for NH4+, SO42−, and in some conditions NO3−, but did not for Cl− due to its inability to quantify refractory aerosol such as sea salt. The AIM has the potential for NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl− and Mg2+. Future investigations are required to determine if the AIM could be optimised to meet the expanded uncertainty criterion for Na+, K+ and Ca2+. The recommendation is that a second stage to demonstrate equivalence is required which would include both laboratory and field studies of the three candidate methods and any other technologies identified with the potential to report the required species. The authors would like to thank the UK Environment Agency who funded this study. The measurements in this study were funded by the following bodies: - All the UK datasets were funded by UK Environment Agency under the UK Eutrophying and Acidifying Pollutant Network and the UKs Particle Numbers and Concentrations Network. The Auchencorth Moss measurements are supported by NERC UK Status, change and Projections of the Environment UK-SCaPE (NE/R016429/1). - The Revin fieldsite is coordinated by IMT Nord Europe in collaboration with the regional monitoring network (Atmo Grand-Est) and the National Reference Laboratory for Air Quality Monitoring (LCSQA) and funded by the French Ministry of Environment. ACSM measurements were supported by the Labex CaPPA project, which is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the PIA (Programme d’Investissement d’Avenir) under contract ANR-11-LABX-0005-01, and were part of the COST COLOSSAL Action CA16109. - Measurements in Barcelona Palau Reial were funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through CAIAC project (PID2019-108990RB-I00) and FEDER funds, through EQC2018-004598-P. - Measurements at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are supported by the EPA-Ireland and the Department of Environment, Climate and Communications. - The Germany Federal Environment Agency (UBA) provided the financial support of this study and the deployment of the MARGA at the research station Melpitz under contracts No: 351 01 093 and 351 01 070. - The data from Kumpula was supported by the Academy of Finland as part of the Centre of Excellence program (project no 1118615). - US EPA gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Battelle and Wood (formerly Amec, Foster Wheeler) to the Research Triangle Park study. - The data from the San Pietro Capofiume was funded by the PEGASOS EU FP7 project. Peer reviewed

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Luna M. van der Loos; Quinten Bafort; Samuel Bosch; Enric Ballesteros; +40 Authors

    Effective monitoring of non-indigenous seaweeds and combatting their effects relies on a solid confirmation of the non-indigenous status of the respective species. We critically analysed the status of presumed non-indigenous seaweed species reported from the Mediterranean Sea, the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Macaronesia, resulting in a list of 140 species whose non-indigenous nature is undisputed. For an additional 87 species it is unclear if they are native or non-indigenous (cryptogenic species) or their identity requires confirmation (data deficient species). We discuss the factors underlying both taxonomic and biogeographic uncertainties and outline recommendations to reduce uncertainty about the non-indigenous status of seaweeds. Our dataset consisted of over 19,000 distribution records, half of which can be attributed to only five species (Sargassum muticum, Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Asparagopsis armata, Caulerpa cylindracea and Colpomenia peregrina), while 56 species (40%) are recorded no more than once or twice. In addition, our analyses revealed considerable variation in the diversity of non-indigenous species between the geographic regions. The Eastern Mediterranean Sea is home to the largest fraction of non-indigenous seaweed species, the majority of which have a Red Sea or Indo-Pacific origin and have entered the Mediterranean Sea mostly via the Suez Canal. Non-indigenous seaweeds with native ranges situated in the Northwest Pacific make up a large fraction of the total in the Western Mediterranean Sea, Lusitania and Northern Europe, followed by non-indigenous species with a presumed Australasian origin. Uncertainty remains, however, regarding the native range of a substantial fraction of non-indigenous seaweeds in the study area. In so far as analyses of first detections can serve as a proxy for the introduction rate of non-indigenous seaweeds, these do not reveal a decrease in the introduction rate, indicating that the current measures and policies are insufficient to battle the introduction and spread of non-indigenous species in the study area. European Marine Biological Resource Centre Belgium [GOH3817N]; European Marine Biological Resource Centre Belgium [I001621N]; Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek [3F020119]; POR PUGLIA FESR-FSE 2014/2020 [Asse VI, Action 6.5]; RESTORESEAS [EU-BiodivERsA BiodivRestore-253]; Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution – Montpellier [ISEM 2023-173]; Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan [Mission 4, Component 2, ‘From research to business’: 1. NBFC, Investment 1.4, Project CN00000033]; IDEALG [ANR-10-BTBR-04; Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution – Montpellier Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution – Montpellier [ISEM 2023-173]. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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    European Journal of Phycology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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      European Journal of Phycology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Smith, Peter; Le Devendec, Laëtitia; Jouy, Eric; Larvor, Emeline; +26 Authors

    This work aims to generate the data needed to set epidemiological cut-off values for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc-diffusion zone measurements of Vibrio anguillarum. A total of 261 unique isolates were tested, applying standard methods specifying incubation at 28°C for 24-28 h. Aggregated MIC distributions for a total of 247 isolates were determined in 9 laboratories for 11 agents. Data aggregations of the disc zone for the 10 agents analysed contained between 157 and 218 observations made by 4 to 7 laboratories. Acceptable ranges for quality control (QC) reference strains were available for 7 agents and the related multi-laboratory aggregated data were censored, excluding the data of a laboratory that failed to meet QC requirements. Statistical methods were applied to calculate epidemiological cut-off values. Cut-off values for MIC data were calculated for florfenicol (≤1 µg ml-1), gentamicin (≤4 µg ml-1), oxytetracycline (≤0.25 µg ml-1) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (≤0.125/2.38 µg ml-1). The cut-off values for disc zone data were calculated for enrofloxacin (≥29 mm), florfenicol (≥27 mm), gentamicin (≥19 mm), oxolinic acid (≥24 mm), oxytetracycline (≥24 mm) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (≥26 mm). MIC and disc-diffusion zone data for the other agents where not supported by QC, thus yielding only provisional cut-off values (meropenem, ceftazidime). Regardless of whether QC is available, some of the aggregated MIC distributions (enrofloxacin, oxolinic acid), disc zone (sulfamethoxazole), and MIC and disc-diffusion distributions (ampicillin, chloramphenicol) did not meet the statistical requirements. The data produced will be submitted to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute for their consideration in setting international consensus epidemiological cut-off values.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Online Research Data...arrow_drop_down
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    Research@WUR
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Research@WUR
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    Brage IMR
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: Brage IMR
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Research@WUR
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Research@WUR
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      Brage IMR
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: Brage IMR
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      Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: La Cono, Violetta; Messina, Enzo; Reva, Oleg; Smedile, Francesco; +14 Authors

    AbstractClimate change, desertification, salinisation of soils and the changing hydrology of the Earth are creating or modifying microbial habitats at all scales including the oceans, saline groundwaters and brine lakes. In environments that are saline or hypersaline, the biodegradation of recalcitrant plant and animal polysaccharides can be inhibited by salt‐induced microbial stress and/or by limitation of the metabolic capabilities of halophilic microbes. We recently demonstrated that the chitinolytic haloarchaeon Halomicrobium can serve as the host for an ectosymbiont, nanohaloarchaeon ‘Candidatus Nanohalobium constans’. Here, we consider whether nanohaloarchaea can benefit from the haloarchaea‐mediated degradation of xylan, a major hemicellulose component of wood. Using samples of natural evaporitic brines and anthropogenic solar salterns, we describe genome‐inferred trophic relations in two extremely halophilic xylan‐degrading three‐member consortia. We succeeded in genome assembly and closure for all members of both xylan‐degrading cultures and elucidated the respective food chains within these consortia. We provide evidence that ectosymbiontic nanohaloarchaea is an active ecophysiological component of extremely halophilic xylan‐degrading communities (although by proxy) in hypersaline environments. In each consortium, nanohaloarchaea occur as ectosymbionts of Haloferax, which in turn act as scavenger of oligosaccharides produced by xylan‐hydrolysing Halorhabdus. We further obtained and characterised the nanohaloarchaea–host associations using microscopy, multi‐omics and cultivation approaches. The current study also doubled culturable nanohaloarchaeal symbionts and demonstrated that these enigmatic nano‐sized archaea can be readily isolated in binary co‐cultures using an appropriate enrichment strategy. We discuss the implications of xylan degradation by halophiles in biotechnology and for the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals.

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    Microbial Biotechnology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: ZENODO
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      Microbial Biotechnology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    Authors: Brooker, Rob, W; Hawes, Cathy; Iannetta, Pietro, P M; Karley, Alison, J; +1 Authors

    AbstractEcological intensification (EI) is the enhancement of ecosystem services to complement or substitute for the role of anthropogenic inputs in maintaining or increasing yields. EI has potential to increase farming’s environmental sustainability, e.g. reducing environmentally harmful management activities while sustaining yields. EI is based upon ecological processes which in turn are influenced by biodiversity. We review how biodiversity, particularly vascular plant diversity, can regulate ecosystem processes relevant to EI at multiple spatial scales. At an individual plant genotype level, complementarity in functional traits has a direct impact on productivity. At in-field, population level, mixtures of crop types confer resilience to minimize the risk of pest and disease incidence and spread. Scaling up to the field level, a diversity of non-crop plants (i.e. weeds) provides resources necessary for in-field functional processes, both below ground (carbon inputs, decomposition) and above ground (resource continuity for pollinators and natural enemies). At the landscape scale, mosaics of semi-natural and managed vegetation provide buffers against extreme events through flood and drought risk mitigation, climate amelioration and pest population regulation. Overall this emphasizes the importance of heterogeneity across scales in maintaining ecosystem functions in farmland. Major research challenges highlighted by our review include the need: to better integrate plant functional diversity (from traits to habitat scales) into cropping system design; to quantify the (likely interactive) contribution of plant diversity for effective EI relative to other management options; and to optimize through targeted management the system function benefits of biodiversity for resilient, efficient and productive agroecosystems.

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    Journal of Plant Ecology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Journal of Plant Ecology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
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    Authors: Xavier Faïn; David M. Etheridge; Kévin Fourteau; Patricia Martinerie; +15 Authors

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a naturally occurring atmospheric trace gas, a regulated pollutant, and one of the main components determining the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Evaluating climate–chemistry models under different conditions than today and constraining past CO sources requires a reliable record of atmospheric CO mixing ratios ([CO]) that includes data since preindustrial times. Here, we report the first continuous record of atmospheric [CO] for Southern Hemisphere (SH) high latitudes over the past 3 millennia. Our continuous record is a composite of three high-resolution Antarctic ice core gas records and firn air measurements from seven Antarctic locations. The ice core gas [CO] records were measured by continuous flow analysis (CFA), using an optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (OF-CEAS), achieving excellent external precision (2.8–8.8 ppb; 2σ) and consistently low blanks (ranging from 4.1±1.2 to 7.4±1.4 ppb), thus enabling paleo-atmospheric interpretations. Six new firn air [CO] Antarctic datasets collected between 1993 and 2016 CE at the DE08-2, DSSW19K, DSSW20K, South Pole, Aurora Basin North (ABN), and Lock-In sites (and one previously published firn CO dataset at Berkner) were used to reconstruct the atmospheric history of CO from ∼1897 CE, using inverse modeling that incorporates the influence of gas transport in firn. Excellent consistency was observed between the youngest ice core gas [CO] and the [CO] from the base of the firn and between the recent firn [CO] and atmospheric [CO] measurements at Mawson station (eastern Antarctica), yielding a consistent and contiguous record of CO across these different archives. Our Antarctic [CO] record is relatively stable from −835 to 1500 CE, with mixing ratios within a 30–45 ppb range (2σ). There is a ∼5 ppb decrease in [CO] to a minimum at around 1700 CE during the Little Ice Age. CO mixing ratios then increase over time to reach a maximum of ∼54 ppb by ∼1985 CE. Most of the industrial period [CO] growth occurred between about 1940 to 1985 CE, after which there was an overall [CO] decrease, as observed in Greenland firn air and later at atmospheric monitoring sites and attributed partly to reduced CO emissions from combustion sources. Our Antarctic ice core gas CO observations differ from previously published records in two key aspects. First, our mixing ratios are significantly lower than reported previously, suggesting that previous studies underestimated blank contributions. Second, our new CO record does not show a maximum in the late 1800s. The absence of a [CO] peak around the turn of the century argues against there being a peak in Southern Hemisphere biomass burning at this time, which is in agreement with (i) other paleofire proxies such as ethane or acetylene and (ii) conclusions reached by paleofire modeling. The combined ice core and firn air [CO] history, spanning −835 to 1992 CE, extended to the present by the Mawson atmospheric record, provides a useful benchmark for future atmospheric chemistry modeling studies.

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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2023
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-202...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2023
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Other literature type . 2023
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-202...
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Other literature type . 2023
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    Authors: Noriko Kojimahara; Yong-Han Lee; Ae-Kyoung Lee; Sanghyuk Bae; +7 Authors

    Background: This study aimed to examine the association between risk of brain tumors and radiofrequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones among young people in Korea and Japan.Methods: This case-control study of brain tumors in young people was conducted in Korea and Japan under the framework of the international MOBI-Kids study. We included 118 patients diagnosed with brain tumors between 2011 and 2015 and 236 matched appendicitis controls aged 10–24 years. Information on mobile phone use was collected through face-to-face interviews. A detailed RF exposure algorithm, based on the MOBI-Kids algorithm and modified to account for the specificities of Japanese and Korean phones and networks, was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for total cumulative specific energy using conditional logistic regression.Results: The adjusted ORs in the highest tertile of cumulative call time at 1 year before the reference date were 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-3.60) for all brain tumors and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.16-3.03) for gliomas, with no indication of a trend with exposure. The ORs for glioma specifically, were below 1 in the lowest exposure category.Conclusions: This study provided no evidence of a causal association between mobile phone use and risk of brain tumors as a whole or glioma specifically. Further research will be required to evaluate the impact of newer technologies of communication in the future.

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    Journal of Epidemiology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Journal of Epidemiology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: William F. Swanson; Chris D. Holmes; William R. Simpson; Kaitlyn Confer; +8 Authors

    Abstract. Reactive halogens play a prominent role in the atmospheric chemistry of the Arctic during springtime. Field measurements and modeling studies suggest that halogens are emitted into the atmosphere from snowpack and reactions on wind-blown snow-sourced aerosols. The relative importance of snowpack and blowing snow sources is still debated, both at local scales and regionally throughout the Arctic. To understand the implications of these halogen sources on a pan-Arctic scale, we simulate Arctic reactive bromine chemistry in the atmospheric chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Two mechanisms are included: (1) a blowing snow sea salt aerosol formation mechanism and (2) a snowpack mechanism assuming uniform molecular bromine production from all snow surfaces. We compare simulations including neither mechanism, each mechanism individually, and both mechanisms to examine conditions where one process may dominate or the mechanisms may interact. We compare the models using these mechanisms to observations of bromine monoxide (BrO) derived from multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments on O-Buoy platforms on the sea ice and at a coastal site in Utqiaġvik, Alaska, during spring 2015. Model estimations of hourly and monthly average BrO are improved by assuming a constant yield of 0.1 % molecular bromine from all snowpack surfaces on ozone deposition. The blowing snow aerosol mechanism increases modeled BrO by providing more bromide-rich aerosol surface area for reactive bromine recycling. The snowpack mechanism led to increased model BrO across the Arctic Ocean with maximum production in coastal regions, whereas the blowing snow aerosol mechanism increases BrO in specific areas due to high surface wind speeds. Our uniform snowpack source has a greater impact on BrO mixing ratios than the blowing snow source. Model results best replicate several features of BrO observations during spring 2015 when using both mechanisms in conjunction, adding evidence that these mechanisms are both active during the Arctic spring. Extending our transport model throughout the entire year leads to predictions of enhanced fall BrO that are not supported by observations.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Scotti, Ivan; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Oddou‐Muratorio, Sylvie; Scotti‐Saintagne, Caroline; +13 Authors

    Microgeographical adaptation occurs when the effects of directional selection persist despite gene flow. Traits and genetic loci under selection can then show adaptive divergence, against the backdrop of little differentiation at other traits or loci. How common such events are and how strong the selection is that underlies them remain open questions. Here, we discovered and analysed microgeographical patterns of genomic divergence in four European and Mediterranean conifers with widely differing life-history traits and ecological requirements (Abies alba MIll., Cedrus atlantica [Endl.] Manetti, Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus pinaster Aiton) by screening pairs from geographically close forest stands sampled along steep ecological gradients. We inferred patterns of genomic divergence by applying a combination of divergence outlier detection methods, demographic modelling, Approximate Bayesian Computation inferences and genomic annotation to genomic data. Surprisingly for such small geographical scales, we showed that selection is strong in all species but generally affects different loci in each. A clear signature of selection was systematically detected on a fraction of the genome, of the order of 0.1%-1% of the loci depending on the species. The novel modelling method we designed for estimating selection coefficients showed that the microgeographical selection coefficient scaled by population size (Ns) was 2-30. Our results convincingly suggest that selection maintains within-population diversity at microgeographical scales in spatially heterogeneous environments. Such genetic diversity is likely to be a major reservoir of adaptive potential, helping populations to adapt under fluctuating environmental conditions. Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Grant/ Award Number: FLAG project (ANR-12- ADAP-0007-01); European Commission, Grant/Award Number: TOPWOOD project (MSCA-RISE-2014-645654- TOPWOOD) and grant agreement No. 676876 (GenTree); Ministère de l'Écologie, du Développement Durable et de l'Énergie, Grant/Award Number: GRAAL project (10-MCGOT-GICC-8-CVS-139) Peer reviewed 19 Pág.

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    Molecular Ecology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      Molecular Ecology
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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    Authors: Raphael Seguin; David Mouillot; Joshua E. Cinner; Rick D. Stuart Smith; +5 Authors

    AbstractTropical reefs and the fish relying on them are under increasing pressure. Shallow-reef fish provide important ecological information in addition to sustaining fisheries, tourism and more. Although empirical metrics of fish biomass are widely used in fisheries management, metrics of biomass production—how much new biomass is produced over time—are rarely estimated even though such production informs potential fisheries yields. Here we estimate fish standing biomass (B), biomass production (P, the rate of biomass accumulation) and biomass turnover (P/B ratio, the rate of biomass replacement) for 1,979 tropical reef sites spanning 39 tropical countries. On the basis of fish standing biomass and biomass turnover, we propose a conceptual framework that splits reefs into three classes to visualize ecological and socio-economic risk and help guide spatial management interventions (for example, marine protected areas) to optimize returns on conservation efforts. At large scales, high turnover was associated with high human pressure and low primary productivity, whereas high biomass was associated with low human pressure and high primary productivity. Going beyond standing fish biomass to consider dynamic ecological processes can better guide regional coral reef conservation and sustainable fisheries management.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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    Nature Sustainability
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Nature Sustainability
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marsailidh M. Twigg; Chiara F. Di Marco; Elizabeth A. McGhee; Christine F. Braban; +21 Authors

    Under the EU Air Quality Directive (AQD) 2008/50/EC member states are required to undertake routine monitoring of PM2.5 composition at background stations. The AQD states for PM2.5 speciation this should include at least: nitrate (NO3−), sulfate (SO42−), chloride (Cl−), ammonium (NH4+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Until 2017, it was the responsibility of each country to determine the methodology used to report the composition for the inorganic components of PM2.5. In August 2017 a European standard method of measurement of PM2.5 inorganic chemical components (NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) as deposited on filters (EN16913:2017) was published. From August 2019 this then became the European standard method. This filter method is labour-intensive and provides limited time resolution and is prone to losses of volatile compounds. There is therefore increasing interest in the use of alternative automated methods. For example, the UK reports hourly PM2.5 chemical composition using the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA, Metrohm, NL). This study is a pre-assessment review of available data to demonstrate if or to what extent equivalence is possible using either the MARGA or other available automatic methods, including the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research Inc. US) and the Ambient Ion Monitor (AIM, URG, US). To demonstrate equivalence three objectives were to be met. The first two objectives focused on data capture and were met by all three instruments. The third objective was to have less than a 50% expanded uncertainty compared to the reference method for each species. Analysis of this objective was carried out using existing paired datasets available from different regions around the world. It was found that the MARGA (2006–2019 model) had the potential to demonstrate equivalence for all species in the standard, though it was only through a combination of case studies that it passed uncertainty criteria. The ACSM has the potential to demonstrate equivalence for NH4+, SO42−, and in some conditions NO3−, but did not for Cl− due to its inability to quantify refractory aerosol such as sea salt. The AIM has the potential for NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl− and Mg2+. Future investigations are required to determine if the AIM could be optimised to meet the expanded uncertainty criterion for Na+, K+ and Ca2+. The recommendation is that a second stage to demonstrate equivalence is required which would include both laboratory and field studies of the three candidate methods and any other technologies identified with the potential to report the required species. The authors would like to thank the UK Environment Agency who funded this study. The measurements in this study were funded by the following bodies: - All the UK datasets were funded by UK Environment Agency under the UK Eutrophying and Acidifying Pollutant Network and the UKs Particle Numbers and Concentrations Network. The Auchencorth Moss measurements are supported by NERC UK Status, change and Projections of the Environment UK-SCaPE (NE/R016429/1). - The Revin fieldsite is coordinated by IMT Nord Europe in collaboration with the regional monitoring network (Atmo Grand-Est) and the National Reference Laboratory for Air Quality Monitoring (LCSQA) and funded by the French Ministry of Environment. ACSM measurements were supported by the Labex CaPPA project, which is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the PIA (Programme d’Investissement d’Avenir) under contract ANR-11-LABX-0005-01, and were part of the COST COLOSSAL Action CA16109. - Measurements in Barcelona Palau Reial were funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through CAIAC project (PID2019-108990RB-I00) and FEDER funds, through EQC2018-004598-P. - Measurements at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are supported by the EPA-Ireland and the Department of Environment, Climate and Communications. - The Germany Federal Environment Agency (UBA) provided the financial support of this study and the deployment of the MARGA at the research station Melpitz under contracts No: 351 01 093 and 351 01 070. - The data from Kumpula was supported by the Academy of Finland as part of the Centre of Excellence program (project no 1118615). - US EPA gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Battelle and Wood (formerly Amec, Foster Wheeler) to the Research Triangle Park study. - The data from the San Pietro Capofiume was funded by the PEGASOS EU FP7 project. Peer reviewed

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