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44 Research products

  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2014-2023
  • Publications
  • Research software
  • FR
  • French
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
  • Hal-Diderot

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  • Authors: Deborde, Catherine; Hounoum, Blandine, Madji; Roques, Simon; Jacob, Daniel; +3 Authors

    International audience

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  • Authors: Perthame, Laurène;

    Reducing the use of herbicide and mineral fertilizers is crucial to develop sustainable cropping systems. Such changes might result in an increased weed flora as well as intensify competition for resources, particularly nitrogen, between crops and weeds. The aim of this thesis was to analyze and model (via the mechanistic crop model FLORSYS) the key processes underlying nitrogen competition, in order to determine if changes in nitrogen fertilization techniques and cultivar choice could promote biological weed regulation.At the beginning of the thesis, the FLORSYS model (which simulates the effects of cropping systems in interaction with pedoclimate on weed dynamics) only included light competition. A first step consisted in including nitrogen competition in the model. Experiments in controlled conditions were used to establish original formalisms and parameters characterizing the diversity of crop and weed traits related to nitrogen nutrition.Then, virtual experiments (simulations) with the new FLORSYS version identified nitrogen fertilization techniques and crop traits related to nitrogen nutrition that the most influenced weed impacts on production and biodiversity for a case study (maize monoculture in Aquitaine, France).Finally, for the case study, optimization algorithms were applied to nitrogen fertilization techniques and crop traits related to nitrogen nutrition to propose innovative cropping systems promoting biological weed regulation by competition and reconciling crop productivity and biodiversity.This thesis resulted in producing new knowledge on (1) how to model plant nitrogen nutrition in heterogeneous canopies and (2) the role of nitrogen in crop-weed competition. This work suggests that including nitrogen fertilization techniques and cultivar choice among levers would be helpful to promote weed biological regulation.; Limiter l’usage des herbicides et des engrais minéraux est nécessaire pour des systèmes de culture plus durables. Ces limitations peuvent entraîner le développement d’une flore adventice résiduelle et une compétition accrue entre cultures et adventices, notamment pour l’azote. L’objectif de cette thèse était d’analyser et modéliser (au sein du modèle mécaniste FLORSYS) les processus clefs sous-jacents à la compétition pour l’azote, afin de déterminer dans quelle mesure le raisonnement de la fertilisation azotée et le choix des variétés cultivées peuvent aider à favoriser la régulation biologique des adventices.Au début de cette thèse, le modèle FLORSYS (qui simule les effets des systèmes de culture en interaction avec le pédoclimat sur la dynamique des adventices) considérait que les plantes étaient en compétition pour la lumière uniquement. Une première étape de la thèse a donc visé à compléter le modèle afin d’y intégrer la compétition pour l’azote. Des expérimentations en serre ont permis d’établir des formalismes et paramètres originaux caractérisant la diversité des traits liés à la nutrition azotée des cultures et des adventices.Ensuite, des expérimentations virtuelles (simulations) avec la nouvelle version de FLORSYS ont permis d’identifier les techniques culturales liées à la fertilisation azotée et les traits variétaux liées à la nutrition azotée, qui affectaient le plus les impacts des adventices sur la production et la biodiversité, dans un cas d’étude (monoculture de maïs en Aquitaine, France).Finalement, des algorithmes d'optimisation ont été appliqués aux techniques de fertilisation azotée et aux traits liés à la nutrition azotée de la culture pour ce cas d’étude, afin de proposer des systèmes de culture innovants favorisant la régulation biologique des adventices par compétition et conciliant production agricole et biodiversité.Cette thèse a permis des avancées notables dans (1) la modélisation individu-centrée de la nutrition azotée des plantes en couvert hétérogène et (2) la compréhension du rôle de l’azote dans la compétition culture-adventice. Ces travaux suggèrent qu’il peut être utile d’intégrer la fertilisation azotée et le choix des variétés parmi les leviers à mobiliser pour favoriser la régulation des adventices.

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    Authors: Cheriere, Timothée;

    La diversification des systèmes de culture est un enjeu important pour améliorer leur durabilité. Cependant, l’introduction de cultures de diversification est confrontée à de nombreux freins. Le soja, une légumineuse produisant des graines riches en protéines, est une culture de diversification potentielle qui bénéficie d’un contexte favorable à son développement en France. Mais la maitrise de la croissance des adventices et la stabilisation des rendements sont des défis importants pour les producteurs. Afin de pallier ces problèmes, nous proposons d’utiliser l’association de cultures comme outils d’aide à la diversification des systèmes de culture. Pour tester la pertinence de cette stratégie, quatre services, la production de soja, celle de la culture associée, le contrôle des adventices et l’effet précédent lié à l’azote sont évalués sous l’influence de deux leviers de gestion de l’association : le choix de l’espèce associée et l’arrangement spatial des cultures. Une approche fonctionnelle est mobilisée pour identifier des traits associés à la croissance et aux fonctions des cultures. L’espèce associée a un impact sur l’ensemble des services considérés dans ce travail. Les services de production de soja et de contrôle des adventices se sont révélés être antagonistes mais cet antagonisme peut être modulé dans certaines associations grâce à l’arrangement spatial. L’approche fonctionnelle a permis d’identifier des traits liés à la dynamique de croissance des cultures et à la persistance des résidus après récolte. De plus nous montrons que la réponse des traits des espèces à la gestion des associations est faible. Enfin, l’association du soja modifie certains postes du bilan azoté ainsi que les quantités et qualités des résidus de culture. Cependant, aucune différence d’effet sur le blé suivant n’a été mesurée entre les associations et le soja pur. Diversification is necessary to improve cropping systems sustainability. However, diversification crop introduction into cropping systems is confronted to many barriers. Soybean, a leguminous crop producing protein rich grain, is a potential diversification crop which beneficiate from a favourable context for its development in France. Weed growth reduction et yield stabilisation are important issues for producers. In order to facilitate cropping system diversification, we suggest the use of intercropping to solve these problems. To test this strategy, four services: soybean grain production, associated crop grain production, weed control and nitrogen pre-crop effect are assessed under the influence of two management levers: associated crop species choice and spatial arrangement of crops. Functional approach was used to identify traits associated to crop growth and functions. Associated crop had an impact on all services considered in this work. A trade-off was identified between soybean production service and weed control service. Nonetheless this trade-off could be modulated in some intercrops through spatial arrangement. Functional approach helped identify effect traits related to the growth dynamics of the crops and to the persistence of crop residues. In addition we show that crop traits response to management was low. Finally, intercropping soybean mofifies some parts of nitrogen balance as well as the quantity and quality of crop residues. Nonetheless, no differences were measured on the following wheat between intercrops and sole cropped soybean

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    Other literature type . 2020
    Hal-Diderot
    Doctoral thesis . 2020
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 2020
      Hal-Diderot
      Doctoral thesis . 2020
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  • Authors: Vandeputte, Marc; Bugeon, Jérôme; Bestin, Anastasia; Desgranges, Alexandre; +5 Authors

    Session : Génétique et sélection; National audience

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    Authors: Lévy, Léa;

    The electrical signature of volcanoes is affected by several characteristics of rocks: volume and salinity of pore fluid, abundance of conductive minerals, rock temperature and presence of molten crust (magma). Electromagnetic soundings are widely used to image the underground structure of volcanoes and look for high-temperature geothermal resources. However, the relative contribution of the above-mentioned elements to the measured resistivity is often an unsolved question when interpreting resistivity inversions. This thesis aims at improving the interpretation of electrical resistivity structures at active volcanoes, in order to develop innovative tools for the assessment of high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Focus is on conductive minerals, which can either be solid ionic conductors (clay minerals, in particular smectite) or electronic semi-conductors (pyrite and iron-oxides). Also investigated are the effects of porosity, salinity, temperature and melting. Iron-oxides are mostly formed during the primary crystallization of magma, while smectite and pyrite are formed upon hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks, thereby witnessing hydrothermal convections. Krafla volcano, Iceland, is used as a laboratory area, where extensive literature, borehole data, core samples, surface soundings and infrastructures are available. The contribution of smectite to the electrical conductivity of volcanic samples saturated with pore water at different salinity is first investigated in the laboratory (room temperature) by electrical impedance spectroscopy, also called complex resistivity. Non-linear variations of the conductivity at 1 kHz with salinity are observed and interfoliar conduction is suggested as an important mechanism by which smectite conducts electrical current. The influence of pyrite and iron-oxides on the charge-storage (capacitive) properties of the rock is then analyzed, using the frequency-dependent phase-angle of the impedance. Maximum phase-angle (MPA) higher than 20 mrad can be attributed to pyrite if the rock is conductive and to iron-oxides if the rock is resistive. Moreover, the MPA increases by about 22 mrad for each additional volumetric per cent of pyrite or iron-oxide. These laboratory frequency-domain findings are partly upscaled to interpret field time-domain complex resistivity tomography at Krafla: smectite, pyrite and iron-oxides can be identified down to about 200 m with the measurements carried out. The in-situ temperature, higher than in laboratory conditions, appears to significantly increase the conductivity associated to smectite. In general, time-domain complex resistivity measurements are recommended as a complementary method to electromagnetic soundings for geothermal exploration. Rafeiginleikar bergs, bæði eðlisviðnám og fasvik, á eldfjallasvæðum eru m.a. háðir póruhluta (holrýmd) bergs, styrk uppleystra jóna í póruvökvanum (seltu), magni rafleiðandi steinda í berginu, hita þess og hvort það er bráðið eða storkið. Rafsegulmælingar eru notaðar til þess að skoða innri gerð eldfjalla og kanna háhitasvæði með því að búa til viðnámslíkön af þeim. Túlkun þeirra er oft flókin og vandasamt er að greina á milli fyrrnefndra þátta sem hafa áhrif á eðlisviðnám og fasa. Þessari ritgerð er ætlað að auka skilning á eðlisviðnámi jarðlaga í virkum eldstöðvum í því skyni að þróa þá tækni sem notuð er til þess að meta stærð og eiginleika háhitasvæða. Ritgerðin fjallar einkum um rafleiðandi steindir, sem eru annað hvort málmleiðarar (leirsteindir, einkum smektít) eða hálfleiðarar (pýrít og járnoxíð). Einnig eru rannsökuð áhrif póruhluta, styrks jóna í póruvökva, hita og bráðnunar bergs. Járnoxíð eru að mestu frumsteindir, þ.e.a.s. þau kristallast þegar bergkvikan kólnar. Smektít og pýrít myndast hins vegar sem útfellingar eða við ummyndun og bera vitni um hringrás jarðhitavökva. Notuð eru gögn frá eldstöðvakerfi Kröflu en þar eru til miklar heimildir eins og borholugögn, borkjarnar og yfirborðsmælingar og góð aðstaða til rannsókna. Áhrif smektíts í bergi á eðlisviðnám bergsýna voru mæld við stofuhita í tilraunastofu. Pórur þeirra voru mettaðar vökva með breytilegum styrk jóna og áhrifin könnuð með litrófsmælingu á eðlisviðnámi og fasa (tvinntöluviðnám). Niðurstöður sýna ólínulegar breytingar í viðnámi við 1 kHz tíðni sem fall af seltu vökvans. Sú tilgáta er sett fram að leiðni milli atómlaga í kristöllum, interfoliar conduction, eigi mikilvægan þátt í rafleiðni smektíts. Áhrif pýríts- og járnoxíðsteinda á rafrýmd bergs var könnuð með því að skoða hvernig fasahorn tvinntöluviðnáms er háð tíðni. Ef hámark fasahornsins (MPA) er stærra en 20 mrad stafar það af tilvist pýríts ef bergið er velleiðandi en járnoxíða ef bergið er torleiðandi. Þá eykst MPA um 22 mrad við hverja prósentu-aukningu í rúmmáli pýrits- eða járnoxíðsteinda. Þessar niðurstöður úr tilraunastofumælingum á tíðniháðu tvinntöluviðnámi voru nýttar til þess að túlka yfirborðsmælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi á Kröflusvæðinu. Tvinntöluviðnámslíkan frá Kröflusvæðinu sýnir að greina má tilvist smektíts, pýríts og járnoxíðs niður á um 200 m dýpi í mælingunum sem gerðar voru. Hiti jarðlaga, sem er hærri en í tilraunastofumælingum, virðist hækka verulega leiðni bergs sem inniheldur smektít. Lagt er til að mælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi verði notaðar til viðbótar við hefðbundnar rafleiðnimælingar við jarðhitarannsóknir vegna þeirra viðbótarupplýsinga sem fást með slíkum mælingum. Paris Sciences et Lettres; IMAGE FP7 European Project (grant agreement 608553); GEMex H2020 European Project (grant agreement 727550). Final thesis

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    Opin visindi
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
    Data sources: Opin visindi
    Hal-Diderot
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      Opin visindi
      Doctoral thesis . 2019
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      Hal-Diderot
      Doctoral thesis . 2019
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Enjalbert, Jerome; Litrico, Isabelle; Fournier, Elisabeth; Médiène, Safia; +13 Authors

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019.article issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/CIAg-Environnement/Biodiversite-et-agricultures; To reduce the negative impacts of agricultural systems, the agro-ecological transition first calls for the use of greater cultivated biodiversity. Such diversification can be implemented at the field scale, mixing different species, or different varieties of the same species. We discuss the advantages of this intra-field diversification by developing 5 examples: (1) varietal mixtures of wheat in France, (2) rice populations in YuanYang, (3) oilseed rape associated with service plants, (4) mixtures of forage species and (5) cereal and legume intercrops for grain production. We discuss the benefits conferred by this diversification on: (i) optimization and stabilization of production, (ii) interactions with cultural practices, (iii) breeding activity, and (iv) the impact of these stands and practices on associated wild biodiversity.; Pour réduire les impacts négatifs des systèmes agricoles, la transition agroécologique appelle en premier lieu à l’utilisation d’une plus grande biodiversité cultivée. Une telle diversification peut être conduite à l'échelle de la parcelle, en associant différentes espèces, ou différentes variétés d'une même espèce. Nous abordons les avantages de cette diversification intra-parcellaire, en développant 5 exemples : (1) les mélanges variétaux de blé en France, (2) les populations de riz au YuanYang, (3) le colza associé à des plantes de services, (4) les mélanges d’espèces fourragères et (5) les associations céréales-légumineuses à graines. Nous discutons des avantages conférés par cette diversification sur : (i) l’optimisation et la stabilisation des productions, (ii) les interactions avec les pratiques culturales, (iii) la sélection variétale, et (iv) l’impact de ces peuplements et pratiques sur la biodiversité sauvage associée.

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    Agritrop
    Article . 2019
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    ProdInra
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Article . 2019
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      ProdInra
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Gohier, Romane; Donner, Mechthild; de Vries, Hugo;

    National audience

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    ProdInra
    Research . 2019
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  • Authors: Verret, Valentin; Pelzer, Elise; Bedoussac, Laurent; Jeuffroy, Marie-Helene;

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus de la seconde édition des Rencontres Francophones sur les Légumineuses (RFL2) qui s’est tenu à Toulouse (France) les 17 et 18 octobre 2018.; Crop mixtures take advantages of biological regulation processes and natural resources and enablereducing the use of inputs while improving cropping system performance. Crop mixtures are interestinginnovations to address agriculture challenges, but are still rarely grown, especially in conventionalsystems. The aim of this study was to collect empirical knowledge from farmers growing crop mixturesin order to help other farmers to implement this practice by adapting it to their own context. Interviewswere conducted in the Pays de Loire and Occitanie French regions with 47 farmers who practice annualcrop mixtures. Our aim was to characterize (1) the objectives targeted by farmers, (2) the cropmanagement implemented to achieve these objectives, and (3) the satisfaction criteria used by thesefarmers. The analysis revealed seven types of crop mixtures practiced by the farmers surveyed, with alarge diversity of species being observed in each type. For a given crop mixture, the crop managementplans vary greatly from one farm to another. Their analysis highlights the coherence between technicalchoices, the targeted objectives and the farm context. Based on the results of these surveys, variousresources have been developed to be disseminated and to be used to help farmers to design cropmixtures that meet their own objectives and context.; Les associations d’espèces valorisent efficacement les processus de régulations biologiques et lesressources naturelles, et permettent de réduire l’utilisation des intrants, tout en améliorant lesperformances des systèmes de culture. Elles constituent ainsi des innovations intéressantes pourrelever les défis de l’agriculture, mais sont aujourd’hui peu cultivées, en particulier dans les systèmesconventionnels. Cette étude visait à recueillir des connaissances empiriques auprès d’agriculteurscultivant des associations d’espèces afin d’aider d’autres agriculteurs à mettre en oeuvre cette pratiqueen l’adaptant à leur propre contexte. Des entretiens ont été conduits auprès de 47 agriculteurs desrégions Pays de Loire et Occitanie pratiquant des associations d’espèces annuelles, dans le but decaractériser : (1) les objectifs visés par les agriculteurs, (2) les éléments techniques mis en oeuvre pouratteindre ces objectifs, et (3) les critères de satisfaction utilisés par ces agriculteurs. L’analyse faitressortir sept types d’associations d’espèces pratiquées par les agriculteurs enquêtés avec danschaque type une grande diversité d’espèces observée. Pour une association d’espèces, les itinérairestechniques varient fortement d’une ferme à l’autre mais leur analyse fait ressortir la cohérence entre leschoix techniques, les objectifs visés et le contexte de la ferme. Sur la base des résultats de cesenquêtes, différentes ressources ont été construites pour être diffusées afin de servir de support pouraider les agriculteurs à concevoir des associations répondant à leurs objectifs et contexte propres.

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  • Authors: Dupin, Romain;

    Dynamic Line Rating is the modification of the maximal current capacity of an overhead electrical line, depending on weather characteristics. Such modifications allow important decreases of congestion phenomena, around 99% of the time.Similarly to renewable generation, it is possible to forecast the modified constraints, accordingly to some historic observations, weather predictions and artificial intelligence methods.In this document, the development of short-term probabilistic DLR forecast models. A focus is especially made on methods providing forecasts having a very low probability of being overestimated. This is made through the development and the comparison of several forecast methods, and some improvements such as the remodelling of very low quantile forecasts with tail density modelling.Following that, a reflection is proposed on the use of such forecasts in practice, first with some simplified test cases, then with electrical grid simulations. These approaches allow us developing new strategies for the use of the DLR forecasts, maximizing the social welfare while keeping risks associated with forecasts errors at low levels.Finally, an evaluation of the forecast models function of their economic value is made with the electrical grids models, and the value of the proposed modifications of the forecast models is then demonstrated.; Le Dynamic Line Rating est la modification dynamique des contraintes de courant sur une ligne électrique aérienne, en accord avec la météorologie. De telles modifications permettent alors d’avoir des réductions des phénomènes de congestion près de 99% du temps.De manière similaire aux énergies renouvelables, il est possible de générer des prévisions de ces contraintes modifiées, en accord avec des observations historiques, des prévisions météorologiques et des méthodes d’intelligence artificielle.Dans cette thèse, nous proposons le développement de modèles de prévision probabilistes à court terme du DLR. Nous nous concentrons plus particulièrement sur des méthodes fournissant des prévisions ayant de très faibles probabilités d’être surestimées. Cela passe par le développement et la comparaison de plusieurs méthodes de prévision, ainsi que des améliorations comme des modifications de prévisions à très bas quantile à l’aide de remodélisations des queues de distribution.Par la suite, une réflexion est faite sur l’utilisation en pratique de ces prévisions, d’abord par des cas d’étude simplifié, puis à l’aide de simulations de réseaux électrique. Ces approches nous permettent de développer de nouvelles stratégies d’utilisation des prévisions DLR, optimisant le bien-être social tout en maintenant les risques associés aux erreurs de prévision à un niveau faible.Finalement, nous évaluons les modèles de prévisions développés en fonction de leurs performances économiques à l’aide des modèles de réseaux électriques, et nous démontrons la valeur des améliorations des modèles de prévision que nous proposons.

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    Authors: Lefebvre, Alain; Poisson-caillault, Emilie; Grassi, Kelly;

    Installée dans la rade de Boulogne-sur-Mer et inaugurée le 25 novembre 2004, la station MAREL Carnot mesure, toutes les 20 minutes, la salinité, la température de l’eau et de l’air, la fluorescence, la turbidité, la concentration en oxygène dissous, le pourcentage de saturation en oxygène, le P.A.R., l’humidité relative, la direction et la vitesse du vent, la hauteur d’eau et, toutes les 12 heures, la concentration en nitrate, en phosphate et en silicium. Ce rapport vise à présenter les principaux éléments utiles à l’utilisateur des données afin de pouvoir adapter son étude en fonction de la disponibilité des données, de leur qualité et, bien entendu, de son objectif. Les résultats des paramètres fluorescence, turbidité, concentration en oxygène, température de l’eau sont présentés de manière plus détaillée afin de mettre en évidence les cycles saisonniers caractéristiques, la variabilité inter-annuelle et les éventuelles tendances.

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  • Authors: Deborde, Catherine; Hounoum, Blandine, Madji; Roques, Simon; Jacob, Daniel; +3 Authors

    International audience

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  • Authors: Perthame, Laurène;

    Reducing the use of herbicide and mineral fertilizers is crucial to develop sustainable cropping systems. Such changes might result in an increased weed flora as well as intensify competition for resources, particularly nitrogen, between crops and weeds. The aim of this thesis was to analyze and model (via the mechanistic crop model FLORSYS) the key processes underlying nitrogen competition, in order to determine if changes in nitrogen fertilization techniques and cultivar choice could promote biological weed regulation.At the beginning of the thesis, the FLORSYS model (which simulates the effects of cropping systems in interaction with pedoclimate on weed dynamics) only included light competition. A first step consisted in including nitrogen competition in the model. Experiments in controlled conditions were used to establish original formalisms and parameters characterizing the diversity of crop and weed traits related to nitrogen nutrition.Then, virtual experiments (simulations) with the new FLORSYS version identified nitrogen fertilization techniques and crop traits related to nitrogen nutrition that the most influenced weed impacts on production and biodiversity for a case study (maize monoculture in Aquitaine, France).Finally, for the case study, optimization algorithms were applied to nitrogen fertilization techniques and crop traits related to nitrogen nutrition to propose innovative cropping systems promoting biological weed regulation by competition and reconciling crop productivity and biodiversity.This thesis resulted in producing new knowledge on (1) how to model plant nitrogen nutrition in heterogeneous canopies and (2) the role of nitrogen in crop-weed competition. This work suggests that including nitrogen fertilization techniques and cultivar choice among levers would be helpful to promote weed biological regulation.; Limiter l’usage des herbicides et des engrais minéraux est nécessaire pour des systèmes de culture plus durables. Ces limitations peuvent entraîner le développement d’une flore adventice résiduelle et une compétition accrue entre cultures et adventices, notamment pour l’azote. L’objectif de cette thèse était d’analyser et modéliser (au sein du modèle mécaniste FLORSYS) les processus clefs sous-jacents à la compétition pour l’azote, afin de déterminer dans quelle mesure le raisonnement de la fertilisation azotée et le choix des variétés cultivées peuvent aider à favoriser la régulation biologique des adventices.Au début de cette thèse, le modèle FLORSYS (qui simule les effets des systèmes de culture en interaction avec le pédoclimat sur la dynamique des adventices) considérait que les plantes étaient en compétition pour la lumière uniquement. Une première étape de la thèse a donc visé à compléter le modèle afin d’y intégrer la compétition pour l’azote. Des expérimentations en serre ont permis d’établir des formalismes et paramètres originaux caractérisant la diversité des traits liés à la nutrition azotée des cultures et des adventices.Ensuite, des expérimentations virtuelles (simulations) avec la nouvelle version de FLORSYS ont permis d’identifier les techniques culturales liées à la fertilisation azotée et les traits variétaux liées à la nutrition azotée, qui affectaient le plus les impacts des adventices sur la production et la biodiversité, dans un cas d’étude (monoculture de maïs en Aquitaine, France).Finalement, des algorithmes d'optimisation ont été appliqués aux techniques de fertilisation azotée et aux traits liés à la nutrition azotée de la culture pour ce cas d’étude, afin de proposer des systèmes de culture innovants favorisant la régulation biologique des adventices par compétition et conciliant production agricole et biodiversité.Cette thèse a permis des avancées notables dans (1) la modélisation individu-centrée de la nutrition azotée des plantes en couvert hétérogène et (2) la compréhension du rôle de l’azote dans la compétition culture-adventice. Ces travaux suggèrent qu’il peut être utile d’intégrer la fertilisation azotée et le choix des variétés parmi les leviers à mobiliser pour favoriser la régulation des adventices.

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    Authors: Cheriere, Timothée;

    La diversification des systèmes de culture est un enjeu important pour améliorer leur durabilité. Cependant, l’introduction de cultures de diversification est confrontée à de nombreux freins. Le soja, une légumineuse produisant des graines riches en protéines, est une culture de diversification potentielle qui bénéficie d’un contexte favorable à son développement en France. Mais la maitrise de la croissance des adventices et la stabilisation des rendements sont des défis importants pour les producteurs. Afin de pallier ces problèmes, nous proposons d’utiliser l’association de cultures comme outils d’aide à la diversification des systèmes de culture. Pour tester la pertinence de cette stratégie, quatre services, la production de soja, celle de la culture associée, le contrôle des adventices et l’effet précédent lié à l’azote sont évalués sous l’influence de deux leviers de gestion de l’association : le choix de l’espèce associée et l’arrangement spatial des cultures. Une approche fonctionnelle est mobilisée pour identifier des traits associés à la croissance et aux fonctions des cultures. L’espèce associée a un impact sur l’ensemble des services considérés dans ce travail. Les services de production de soja et de contrôle des adventices se sont révélés être antagonistes mais cet antagonisme peut être modulé dans certaines associations grâce à l’arrangement spatial. L’approche fonctionnelle a permis d’identifier des traits liés à la dynamique de croissance des cultures et à la persistance des résidus après récolte. De plus nous montrons que la réponse des traits des espèces à la gestion des associations est faible. Enfin, l’association du soja modifie certains postes du bilan azoté ainsi que les quantités et qualités des résidus de culture. Cependant, aucune différence d’effet sur le blé suivant n’a été mesurée entre les associations et le soja pur. Diversification is necessary to improve cropping systems sustainability. However, diversification crop introduction into cropping systems is confronted to many barriers. Soybean, a leguminous crop producing protein rich grain, is a potential diversification crop which beneficiate from a favourable context for its development in France. Weed growth reduction et yield stabilisation are important issues for producers. In order to facilitate cropping system diversification, we suggest the use of intercropping to solve these problems. To test this strategy, four services: soybean grain production, associated crop grain production, weed control and nitrogen pre-crop effect are assessed under the influence of two management levers: associated crop species choice and spatial arrangement of crops. Functional approach was used to identify traits associated to crop growth and functions. Associated crop had an impact on all services considered in this work. A trade-off was identified between soybean production service and weed control service. Nonetheless this trade-off could be modulated in some intercrops through spatial arrangement. Functional approach helped identify effect traits related to the growth dynamics of the crops and to the persistence of crop residues. In addition we show that crop traits response to management was low. Finally, intercropping soybean mofifies some parts of nitrogen balance as well as the quantity and quality of crop residues. Nonetheless, no differences were measured on the following wheat between intercrops and sole cropped soybean

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    Other literature type . 2020
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    Doctoral thesis . 2020
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  • Authors: Vandeputte, Marc; Bugeon, Jérôme; Bestin, Anastasia; Desgranges, Alexandre; +5 Authors

    Session : Génétique et sélection; National audience

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    Authors: Lévy, Léa;

    The electrical signature of volcanoes is affected by several characteristics of rocks: volume and salinity of pore fluid, abundance of conductive minerals, rock temperature and presence of molten crust (magma). Electromagnetic soundings are widely used to image the underground structure of volcanoes and look for high-temperature geothermal resources. However, the relative contribution of the above-mentioned elements to the measured resistivity is often an unsolved question when interpreting resistivity inversions. This thesis aims at improving the interpretation of electrical resistivity structures at active volcanoes, in order to develop innovative tools for the assessment of high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Focus is on conductive minerals, which can either be solid ionic conductors (clay minerals, in particular smectite) or electronic semi-conductors (pyrite and iron-oxides). Also investigated are the effects of porosity, salinity, temperature and melting. Iron-oxides are mostly formed during the primary crystallization of magma, while smectite and pyrite are formed upon hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks, thereby witnessing hydrothermal convections. Krafla volcano, Iceland, is used as a laboratory area, where extensive literature, borehole data, core samples, surface soundings and infrastructures are available. The contribution of smectite to the electrical conductivity of volcanic samples saturated with pore water at different salinity is first investigated in the laboratory (room temperature) by electrical impedance spectroscopy, also called complex resistivity. Non-linear variations of the conductivity at 1 kHz with salinity are observed and interfoliar conduction is suggested as an important mechanism by which smectite conducts electrical current. The influence of pyrite and iron-oxides on the charge-storage (capacitive) properties of the rock is then analyzed, using the frequency-dependent phase-angle of the impedance. Maximum phase-angle (MPA) higher than 20 mrad can be attributed to pyrite if the rock is conductive and to iron-oxides if the rock is resistive. Moreover, the MPA increases by about 22 mrad for each additional volumetric per cent of pyrite or iron-oxide. These laboratory frequency-domain findings are partly upscaled to interpret field time-domain complex resistivity tomography at Krafla: smectite, pyrite and iron-oxides can be identified down to about 200 m with the measurements carried out. The in-situ temperature, higher than in laboratory conditions, appears to significantly increase the conductivity associated to smectite. In general, time-domain complex resistivity measurements are recommended as a complementary method to electromagnetic soundings for geothermal exploration. Rafeiginleikar bergs, bæði eðlisviðnám og fasvik, á eldfjallasvæðum eru m.a. háðir póruhluta (holrýmd) bergs, styrk uppleystra jóna í póruvökvanum (seltu), magni rafleiðandi steinda í berginu, hita þess og hvort það er bráðið eða storkið. Rafsegulmælingar eru notaðar til þess að skoða innri gerð eldfjalla og kanna háhitasvæði með því að búa til viðnámslíkön af þeim. Túlkun þeirra er oft flókin og vandasamt er að greina á milli fyrrnefndra þátta sem hafa áhrif á eðlisviðnám og fasa. Þessari ritgerð er ætlað að auka skilning á eðlisviðnámi jarðlaga í virkum eldstöðvum í því skyni að þróa þá tækni sem notuð er til þess að meta stærð og eiginleika háhitasvæða. Ritgerðin fjallar einkum um rafleiðandi steindir, sem eru annað hvort málmleiðarar (leirsteindir, einkum smektít) eða hálfleiðarar (pýrít og járnoxíð). Einnig eru rannsökuð áhrif póruhluta, styrks jóna í póruvökva, hita og bráðnunar bergs. Járnoxíð eru að mestu frumsteindir, þ.e.a.s. þau kristallast þegar bergkvikan kólnar. Smektít og pýrít myndast hins vegar sem útfellingar eða við ummyndun og bera vitni um hringrás jarðhitavökva. Notuð eru gögn frá eldstöðvakerfi Kröflu en þar eru til miklar heimildir eins og borholugögn, borkjarnar og yfirborðsmælingar og góð aðstaða til rannsókna. Áhrif smektíts í bergi á eðlisviðnám bergsýna voru mæld við stofuhita í tilraunastofu. Pórur þeirra voru mettaðar vökva með breytilegum styrk jóna og áhrifin könnuð með litrófsmælingu á eðlisviðnámi og fasa (tvinntöluviðnám). Niðurstöður sýna ólínulegar breytingar í viðnámi við 1 kHz tíðni sem fall af seltu vökvans. Sú tilgáta er sett fram að leiðni milli atómlaga í kristöllum, interfoliar conduction, eigi mikilvægan þátt í rafleiðni smektíts. Áhrif pýríts- og járnoxíðsteinda á rafrýmd bergs var könnuð með því að skoða hvernig fasahorn tvinntöluviðnáms er háð tíðni. Ef hámark fasahornsins (MPA) er stærra en 20 mrad stafar það af tilvist pýríts ef bergið er velleiðandi en járnoxíða ef bergið er torleiðandi. Þá eykst MPA um 22 mrad við hverja prósentu-aukningu í rúmmáli pýrits- eða járnoxíðsteinda. Þessar niðurstöður úr tilraunastofumælingum á tíðniháðu tvinntöluviðnámi voru nýttar til þess að túlka yfirborðsmælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi á Kröflusvæðinu. Tvinntöluviðnámslíkan frá Kröflusvæðinu sýnir að greina má tilvist smektíts, pýríts og járnoxíðs niður á um 200 m dýpi í mælingunum sem gerðar voru. Hiti jarðlaga, sem er hærri en í tilraunastofumælingum, virðist hækka verulega leiðni bergs sem inniheldur smektít. Lagt er til að mælingar á tvinntöluviðnámi verði notaðar til viðbótar við hefðbundnar rafleiðnimælingar við jarðhitarannsóknir vegna þeirra viðbótarupplýsinga sem fást með slíkum mælingum. Paris Sciences et Lettres; IMAGE FP7 European Project (grant agreement 608553); GEMex H2020 European Project (grant agreement 727550). Final thesis

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    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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    Hal-Diderot
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      Doctoral thesis . 2019
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      Doctoral thesis . 2019
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Enjalbert, Jerome; Litrico, Isabelle; Fournier, Elisabeth; Médiène, Safia; +13 Authors

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019.article issus du colloque « Biodiversité et durabilité des agricultures » qui s’est tenu à Paris le 11 avril 2019https://www6.inra.fr/ciag/CIAg-Environnement/Biodiversite-et-agricultures; To reduce the negative impacts of agricultural systems, the agro-ecological transition first calls for the use of greater cultivated biodiversity. Such diversification can be implemented at the field scale, mixing different species, or different varieties of the same species. We discuss the advantages of this intra-field diversification by developing 5 examples: (1) varietal mixtures of wheat in France, (2) rice populations in YuanYang, (3) oilseed rape associated with service plants, (4) mixtures of forage species and (5) cereal and legume intercrops for grain production. We discuss the benefits conferred by this diversification on: (i) optimization and stabilization of production, (ii) interactions with cultural practices, (iii) breeding activity, and (iv) the impact of these stands and practices on associated wild biodiversity.; Pour réduire les impacts négatifs des systèmes agricoles, la transition agroécologique appelle en premier lieu à l’utilisation d’une plus grande biodiversité cultivée. Une telle diversification peut être conduite à l'échelle de la parcelle, en associant différentes espèces, ou différentes variétés d'une même espèce. Nous abordons les avantages de cette diversification intra-parcellaire, en développant 5 exemples : (1) les mélanges variétaux de blé en France, (2) les populations de riz au YuanYang, (3) le colza associé à des plantes de services, (4) les mélanges d’espèces fourragères et (5) les associations céréales-légumineuses à graines. Nous discutons des avantages conférés par cette diversification sur : (i) l’optimisation et la stabilisation des productions, (ii) les interactions avec les pratiques culturales, (iii) la sélection variétale, et (iv) l’impact de ces peuplements et pratiques sur la biodiversité sauvage associée.

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    Agritrop
    Article . 2019
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    ProdInra
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      ProdInra
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Gohier, Romane; Donner, Mechthild; de Vries, Hugo;

    National audience

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    ProdInra
    Research . 2019
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  • Authors: Verret, Valentin; Pelzer, Elise; Bedoussac, Laurent; Jeuffroy, Marie-Helene;

    Ce numéro est constitué d’articles issus de la seconde édition des Rencontres Francophones sur les Légumineuses (RFL2) qui s’est tenu à Toulouse (France) les 17 et 18 octobre 2018.; Crop mixtures take advantages of biological regulation processes and natural resources and enablereducing the use of inputs while improving cropping system performance. Crop mixtures are interestinginnovations to address agriculture challenges, but are still rarely grown, especially in conventionalsystems. The aim of this study was to collect empirical knowledge from farmers growing crop mixturesin order to help other farmers to implement this practice by adapting it to their own context. Interviewswere conducted in the Pays de Loire and Occitanie French regions with 47 farmers who practice annualcrop mixtures. Our aim was to characterize (1) the objectives targeted by farmers, (2) the cropmanagement implemented to achieve these objectives, and (3) the satisfaction criteria used by thesefarmers. The analysis revealed seven types of crop mixtures practiced by the farmers surveyed, with alarge diversity of species being observed in each type. For a given crop mixture, the crop managementplans vary greatly from one farm to another. Their analysis highlights the coherence between technicalchoices, the targeted objectives and the farm context. Based on the results of these surveys, variousresources have been developed to be disseminated and to be used to help farmers to design cropmixtures that meet their own objectives and context.; Les associations d’espèces valorisent efficacement les processus de régulations biologiques et lesressources naturelles, et permettent de réduire l’utilisation des intrants, tout en améliorant lesperformances des systèmes de culture. Elles constituent ainsi des innovations intéressantes pourrelever les défis de l’agriculture, mais sont aujourd’hui peu cultivées, en particulier dans les systèmesconventionnels. Cette étude visait à recueillir des connaissances empiriques auprès d’agriculteurscultivant des associations d’espèces afin d’aider d’autres agriculteurs à mettre en oeuvre cette pratiqueen l’adaptant à leur propre contexte. Des entretiens ont été conduits auprès de 47 agriculteurs desrégions Pays de Loire et Occitanie pratiquant des associations d’espèces annuelles, dans le but decaractériser : (1) les objectifs visés par les agriculteurs, (2) les éléments techniques mis en oeuvre pouratteindre ces objectifs, et (3) les critères de satisfaction utilisés par ces agriculteurs. L’analyse faitressortir sept types d’associations d’espèces pratiquées par les agriculteurs enquêtés avec danschaque type une grande diversité d’espèces observée. Pour une association d’espèces, les itinérairestechniques varient fortement d’une ferme à l’autre mais leur analyse fait ressortir la cohérence entre leschoix techniques, les objectifs visés et le contexte de la ferme. Sur la base des résultats de cesenquêtes, différentes ressources ont été construites pour être diffusées afin de servir de support pouraider les agriculteurs à concevoir des associations répondant à leurs objectifs et contexte propres.

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