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  • Publication . Other literature type . Project deliverable . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefanoni; Latterini; Attolico;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | MAGIC (727698)

    The exploitation of industrial crops for the production of ligno-cellulosic compounds and vegetable oil on marginal lands relies on efficient harvesting and logistics’ strategies. The present deliverable goes through the difficulties encountered from harvesting to dispatchment of indrustrial crops highlighting prons and cons of the currently available technologies to improve the whole value chain in the following categories: lignocellulosic crops (fiber, herbaceous perennial and Short-Medium Rotation Coppice (SRC-MRC)) and oil crops. The two sections are indipendently investigated focusing on harvesting and densifiction of the biomass to reduce cost and increase profitability. The information provided within the present document was gathered from experimental data collected on fields, from literature review and background knowledge gained from collaboration in previous research projects. Regarding fiber crop (in particular hemp) it is possible to say that there are several solutions available to harvest this species, which should be properly selected according to the crop features and to the aim of the cultivation, i.e. fiber and seed-fiber. Focusing on lignocellulosic crops, the present deliverable focused mainly on miscanthus, describing the possible alternative solutions which are generally based on cutting the plants and densify them through chipping and/or baling. Harvesting systems for SRC and MRC have been instead experiencing a substantial change in the last years, shifting from dedicated systems for biomass harvesting and densification to semi or fully mechanized harvesting approaches, derived from forestry sector, in order to produce fiber wood from the main stem and biomass from branches and tops. Finally, concerning oil crops, it is possible to say that, among the investigated ones, camelina and castor can efficiently be harvested with conventional combine harvesters equipped with cereal and sunflower header respectively. Castor bean harvesting is instead still a great challenge, indeed the present deliverable highlights how a sunflower header is a better option than a cereal one, but however many concerns are still present regarding seed loss and quality of the collected product.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dergan, Tanja; Ivanovska, Aneta; Kocjančič, Tina; Iannetta, Pietro; Debeljak, Marko;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Slovenia
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    Assessing the sustainability of agri-food chains is challenging for several reasons. It should account for the impacts on environmental, social, and economic wellbeing simultaneously, considering both the individual links in the chain and the chain as a whole. The primary aim of this study is to assess the conditions for meeting the sustainability criteria of a legume-based agri-food chain in Slovenia. Therefore, a quantitative sustainability assessment methodology was developed, using a multi-stakeholder approach, which upgraded the traditional SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. Our approach, called ‘Multi-SWOT’, aggregates the SWOT table inputs identified by stakeholders into factors, themes and focus areas, according to their importance for the agri-food chain, for each sustainability pillar, and links in the chain. By accounting for the relative number of incentives (beneficial factors) and barriers (constraint factors) we identified those factors that enhance the sustainability of the Slovenian legume-based agri-food chain and the factors jeopardising it. The incorporation of multi-stakeholder perspectives presents an innovative approach that adds value to a standard SWOT analysis. The study serves as a guide to help decision-makers better understand the multidimensionality of sustainability and identify effective activities to support and strengthen the current legume agri-food chain in Slovenia.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Xavier Martínez; Jordi Pons-Prats; Francesc Turon; Martí Coma; Lucía Gratiela Barbu; Gabriel Bugeda;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ECO-COMPASS (690638)

    The use of composite materials has grown exponentially in transport structures due to their weight reduction advantages, added to their capability to adapt the material properties and internal micro-structure to the requirements of the application. This flexibility allows the design of highly efficient composite structures that can reduce the environmental impact of transport, especially if the used composites are bio-based. In order to design highly efficient structures, the numerical models and tools used to predict the structural and material performance are of great importance. In the present paper, the authors propose a multi-objective, multi-scale optimization procedure aimed to obtain the best possible structure and material design for a given application. The procedure developed is applied to an aircraft secondary structure, an overhead locker, made with a sandwich laminate in which both, the skins and the core, are bio-materials. The structural multiscale numerical model has been coupled with a Genetic Algorithm to perform the optimization of the structure design. Two optimization cases are presented. The first one consists of a single-objective optimization problem of the fibre alignment to improve the structural stiffness of the structure. The second optimization shows the advantages of using a multi-objective and multi-scale optimization approach. In this last case, the first objective function corresponds to the shelf stiffness, and the second objective function consists of minimizing the number of fibres placed in one of the woven directions, looking for a reduction in the material cost and weight. The obtained results with both optimization cases have proved the capability of the software developed to obtain an optimal design of composite structures, and the need to consider both, the macro-structural and the micro-structural configuration of the composite, in order to obtain the best possible solution. The presented approach allows to perform the optimisation of both the macro-structural and the micro-structural configurations. This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 690638, from the Special Research Plan on Civil Aircraft of Ministry for Industry and Information of the People’s Republic of China (MIIT) un- der Grant No MJ-2015-H-G-103, and from the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competividad through the project MAT2014-60647-R, Multi-scale and multi-objective optimization of composite laminate structures (OMMC). The authors also acknowledge the Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence (2019–2023), which financially supported this work under the grant CEX2018-000797-S funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. Peer Reviewed Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::13 - Acció per al Clima Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::9 - Indústria, Innovació i Infraestructura Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::12 - Producció i Consum Responsables

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Francesco Carbone; Tommaso Alberti; Davide Faranda; Daniele Telloni; Giuseppe Consolini; Luca Sorriso-Valvo;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | I-Seed (101017940), EC | ERA-PLANET (689443), EC | e-shape (820852)

    International audience The dynamics across different scales in the stable atmospheric boundary layer has been investigated by means of two metrics, based on instantaneous fractal dimensions, and grounded in dynamical systems theory. The wind velocity fluctuations obtained from data collected during the CASES-99 experiment were analyzed to provide a local (in terms of scales), and an instantaneous (in terms of time) description of the fractal properties and predictability of the system. By analyzing the phase space projections of the continuous turbulent, intermittent and radiative regimes, a progressive transformation, characterized by the emergence of multiple low-dimensional clusters embedded in a high-dimensional shell and a 2-lobe mirror symmetrical structure of the inverse persistence, have been found. The phase space becomes increasingly complex and anisotropic as the turbulent fluctuations become uncorrelated. The phase space is characterized by a three-dimensional structure for the continuous turbulent samples in a range of scales compatible with the inertial sub-range, where the phase space-filling turbulent fluctuations dominate the dynamics, and is low-dimensional in the other regimes. Moreover, lower dimensional structures present a stronger persistence than the higher dimensional structures. Eventually, all samples recover a three-dimensional structure and higher persistence level at large scales, far from the inertial sub-range. The two metrics obtained in the analysis can be considered as proxies for the decorrelation time and the local anisotropy in the turbulent flow.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Max L. E. Gräfnings; Jannes H. T. Heusinkveld; Dieuwke J. J. Hoeijmakers; Quirin Smeele; Henk Wiersema; Maarten Zwarts; Tjisse van der Heide; Laura L. Govers;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | MERCES (689518)

    Due to the major declines of seagrasses worldwide, there is an urgent need for effective restoration methods and strategies. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, intertidal seagrass restoration has proven very challenging, despite numerous restoration trials with different restoration methods. Recently, however, the first field trial performed with a newly developed “dispenser injection seeding” method (DIS) resulted in record-high plant densities and seed recruitment. Here, we present the further development of the methodology and consequently improved restoration results. During two consecutive growing seasons, we honed the seeding technique and experimentally investigated how seeding depth (2/4 cm), injection density (25/100 injects/m2), and seed amount (2/20 seeds/inject) affected restoration of intertidal annual Zostera marina. We found that all variables had a significant impact on plant establishment. Seeding deeper (4 cm) had the largest positive effect on restored plant densities, while lowered seed densities (2 seeds/inject) had the largest positive impact on seed recruitment. The optimized DIS method, combined with an altered placement of the seeding hole, resulted in a 50-fold increase in restored plant densities (from approximately 1 to 57 plants/m2) and a simultaneous increase in seed recruitment (from 0.3 to 11.4%). These improvements stem from the method's ability to counteract a recruitment bottleneck, where seeds are lost through hydrodynamic forcing. The methodological improvements described here are important steps toward restoring self-sustaining seagrass populations in the future and our study demonstrates the high potential of the seed-based DIS method for seagrass restoration.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ioannis Karavidas; Georgia Ntatsi; Sofia Marka; Theodora Ntanasi; Beppe Benedetto Consentino; Leo Sabatino; Pietro P. M. Iannetta; Dimitrios Savvas;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    The aim of the current study wat to comparatively assess the impact of different nitrogen (N) fertilization schemes on fresh pod yield and yield quality in either organically or conventionally grown common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Prior to common bean crop establishment, the experimental field site was cultivated following either organic (a) or conventional (b) farming practices with a winter non-legume crop (Brassica oleracea var. italica) (BR), or (c) with field bean (Vicia faba sp.) destined to serve as a green manure (GM) crop. At the end of the winter cultivation period the broccoli crop residues (BR) and green manure biomass (GM) were incorporated into the soil and the plots that accommodated the treatments (a) and (c) were followed by an organically cultivated common bean crop, while the conventional broccoli crop was followed by a conventionally cropped common bean crop. Additional to the plant residues (BR), sheep manure (SM) at a rate of 40 kg N ha−1 was also applied to the organically treated common beans, while the plots with a conventionally cropped common bean received 75 kg N ha−1. Organic common bean treated with SM + BR produced smaller pods of higher dry matter and bioactive compound content, responses that are correlated with limited soil N availability. No significant variations were observed on yield components and N levels of pods cultivated under organic (SM + GM) and conventional cropping systems. Pod sugar and starch content was not influenced by the different fertilization practices. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the combined application of SM + GM can be considered as an efficient N-fertilisation strategy for organic crops of common bean, benefiting their nutritional value without compromising yield.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lőrinc Mészáros; Frank van der Meulen; Geurt Jongbloed; Ghada El Serafy;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | ODYSSEA (727277)

    Coastal climate impact studies make increasing use of multi-source and multi-dimensional atmospheric and environmental datasets to investigate relationships between climate signals and the ecological response. The large quantity of numerically simulated data may, however, include redundancy, multi-colinearity and excess information not relevant to the studied processes. In such cases techniques for feature extraction and identification of latent processes prove useful. Using dimensionality reduction techniques this research provides a statistical underpinning of variable selection to study the impacts of atmospheric processes on coastal chlorophyll-a concentrations, taking the Dutch Wadden Sea as case study. Dimension reduction techniques are applied to environmental data simulated by the Delft3D coastal water quality model, the HIRLAM numerical weather prediction model and the Euro-CORDEX climate modelling experiment. The dimension reduction techniques were selected for their ability to incorporate (1) spatial correlation via multi-way methods (2), temporal correlation through Dynamic Factor Analysis, and (3) functional variability using Functional Data Analysis. The data reduction potential and explanatory value of these methods are showcased and important atmospheric variables affecting the chlorophyll-a concentration are identified. Our results indicate room for dimensionality reduction in the atmospheric variables (2 principle components can explain the majority of variance instead of 7 variables), in the chlorophyll-a time series at different locations (two characteristic patterns can describe the 10 locations), and in the climate projection scenarios of solar radiation and air temperature variables (a single principle component function explains 77% of the variation for solar radiation and 57% of the variation for air temperature). It was also found that solar radiation followed by air temperature are the most important atmospheric variables related to coastal chlorophyll-a concentration, noting that regional differences exist, for instance the importance of air temperature is greater in the Eastern Dutch Wadden Sea at Dantziggat than in the Western Dutch Wadden Sea at Marsdiep Noord. Common trends and different regional system characteristics have also been identified through dynamic factor analysis between the deeper channels and the shallower intertidal zones, where the onset of spring blooms occurs earlier. The functional analysis of climate data showed clusters of atmospheric variables with similar functional features. Moreover, functional components of Euro-CORDEX climate scenarios have been identified for radiation and temperature variables, which provide information on the dominant mode (pattern) of variation and its uncertainties. The findings suggest that radiation and temperature projections of different Euro-CORDEX scenarios share similar characteristics and mainly differ in their amplitudes and seasonal patterns, offering opportunities to construct statistical models that do not assume independence between climate scenarios but instead borrow information (“borrow strength”) from the larger pool of climate scenarios. The presented results were used in follow up studies to construct a Bayesian stochastic generator to complement existing Euro-CORDEX climate change scenarios and to quantify climate change induced trends and uncertainties in phytoplankton spring bloom dynamics in the Dutch Wadden Sea.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    M. L. Domingo-Calap; M. Bernabéu-Gimeno; C. M. Aure; E. Marco-Noales; P. Domingo-Calap;
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
    Project: EC | XF-ACTORS (727987)

    Phytopathogenic bacteria represent serious losses worldwide. The lack of current treatments has focused the spotlight on phages, viruses of bacteria, as very promising biocontrol tools.

  • Publication . Journal . 2022
    Open Access English
    Publisher: oeaw
    Country: Austria
    Project: EC | MS.MONINA (263479)
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Stefan Liersch; Hagen Koch; Joachim Ayiiwe Abungba; Seyni Salack; Fred Hattermann;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Project: EC | ERA4CS (690462)

    Abstract To feed the growing population, achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, and fulfil the commitments of the Paris Agreement, West African countries need to invest in agricultural development and renewable energy, among other sectors. Irrigated agriculture, feeding millions of people, and hydropower, generating clean electricity, depend on water availability and compete for the resource. In the Volta Basin, the planned 105,000 ha of irrigated land in Burkina Faso and Ghana could feed hundreds of thousands of people. However, irrigation in the dry season depends on upstream dams that change the river's flow regime from intermittent to permanent, and at the same time irrigation water is no longer available for hydropower generation. Using an integrated eco-hydrological and water management model, we investigated the water demand and supply of three planned irrigation projects and the impacts of the planned Pwalugu multi-purpose dam on the hydropower potentials and water availability in the entire Volta basin. We found that future irrigation withdrawals would reduce the hydropower potential in the Volta basin by 79 GWh/a and the operation of Pwalugu by another 86 GWh/a. Hence, Pwalugu contributes only about 101 GWh/a of its potential of 187 GWh/a. Under climate change simulations, using an ensemble of 8 bias-adjusted and downscaled GCMs, irrigation demand surprisingly did not increase. The higher evaporation losses due to higher temperatures were compensated by increasing precipitation while favouring hydropower generation. However, water availability at the irrigation site in Burkina Faso is clearly at its limit, while capacity in Ghana is not yet exhausted. Due to hydro-climatic differences in the Volta basin, the cost of irrigating one hectare of land in terms of lost hydropower potential follows a north-south gradient from the hot and dry north to the humid south. Nevertheless, food production should have priority over hydropower, which can be compensated by other renewables energies.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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arrow_drop_down
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Include:
The following results are related to SDSN - Greece. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
13,339 Research products, page 1 of 1,334
  • Publication . Other literature type . Project deliverable . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefanoni; Latterini; Attolico;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | MAGIC (727698)

    The exploitation of industrial crops for the production of ligno-cellulosic compounds and vegetable oil on marginal lands relies on efficient harvesting and logistics’ strategies. The present deliverable goes through the difficulties encountered from harvesting to dispatchment of indrustrial crops highlighting prons and cons of the currently available technologies to improve the whole value chain in the following categories: lignocellulosic crops (fiber, herbaceous perennial and Short-Medium Rotation Coppice (SRC-MRC)) and oil crops. The two sections are indipendently investigated focusing on harvesting and densifiction of the biomass to reduce cost and increase profitability. The information provided within the present document was gathered from experimental data collected on fields, from literature review and background knowledge gained from collaboration in previous research projects. Regarding fiber crop (in particular hemp) it is possible to say that there are several solutions available to harvest this species, which should be properly selected according to the crop features and to the aim of the cultivation, i.e. fiber and seed-fiber. Focusing on lignocellulosic crops, the present deliverable focused mainly on miscanthus, describing the possible alternative solutions which are generally based on cutting the plants and densify them through chipping and/or baling. Harvesting systems for SRC and MRC have been instead experiencing a substantial change in the last years, shifting from dedicated systems for biomass harvesting and densification to semi or fully mechanized harvesting approaches, derived from forestry sector, in order to produce fiber wood from the main stem and biomass from branches and tops. Finally, concerning oil crops, it is possible to say that, among the investigated ones, camelina and castor can efficiently be harvested with conventional combine harvesters equipped with cereal and sunflower header respectively. Castor bean harvesting is instead still a great challenge, indeed the present deliverable highlights how a sunflower header is a better option than a cereal one, but however many concerns are still present regarding seed loss and quality of the collected product.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dergan, Tanja; Ivanovska, Aneta; Kocjančič, Tina; Iannetta, Pietro; Debeljak, Marko;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Slovenia
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    Assessing the sustainability of agri-food chains is challenging for several reasons. It should account for the impacts on environmental, social, and economic wellbeing simultaneously, considering both the individual links in the chain and the chain as a whole. The primary aim of this study is to assess the conditions for meeting the sustainability criteria of a legume-based agri-food chain in Slovenia. Therefore, a quantitative sustainability assessment methodology was developed, using a multi-stakeholder approach, which upgraded the traditional SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. Our approach, called ‘Multi-SWOT’, aggregates the SWOT table inputs identified by stakeholders into factors, themes and focus areas, according to their importance for the agri-food chain, for each sustainability pillar, and links in the chain. By accounting for the relative number of incentives (beneficial factors) and barriers (constraint factors) we identified those factors that enhance the sustainability of the Slovenian legume-based agri-food chain and the factors jeopardising it. The incorporation of multi-stakeholder perspectives presents an innovative approach that adds value to a standard SWOT analysis. The study serves as a guide to help decision-makers better understand the multidimensionality of sustainability and identify effective activities to support and strengthen the current legume agri-food chain in Slovenia.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Xavier Martínez; Jordi Pons-Prats; Francesc Turon; Martí Coma; Lucía Gratiela Barbu; Gabriel Bugeda;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ECO-COMPASS (690638)

    The use of composite materials has grown exponentially in transport structures due to their weight reduction advantages, added to their capability to adapt the material properties and internal micro-structure to the requirements of the application. This flexibility allows the design of highly efficient composite structures that can reduce the environmental impact of transport, especially if the used composites are bio-based. In order to design highly efficient structures, the numerical models and tools used to predict the structural and material performance are of great importance. In the present paper, the authors propose a multi-objective, multi-scale optimization procedure aimed to obtain the best possible structure and material design for a given application. The procedure developed is applied to an aircraft secondary structure, an overhead locker, made with a sandwich laminate in which both, the skins and the core, are bio-materials. The structural multiscale numerical model has been coupled with a Genetic Algorithm to perform the optimization of the structure design. Two optimization cases are presented. The first one consists of a single-objective optimization problem of the fibre alignment to improve the structural stiffness of the structure. The second optimization shows the advantages of using a multi-objective and multi-scale optimization approach. In this last case, the first objective function corresponds to the shelf stiffness, and the second objective function consists of minimizing the number of fibres placed in one of the woven directions, looking for a reduction in the material cost and weight. The obtained results with both optimization cases have proved the capability of the software developed to obtain an optimal design of composite structures, and the need to consider both, the macro-structural and the micro-structural configuration of the composite, in order to obtain the best possible solution. The presented approach allows to perform the optimisation of both the macro-structural and the micro-structural configurations. This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 690638, from the Special Research Plan on Civil Aircraft of Ministry for Industry and Information of the People’s Republic of China (MIIT) un- der Grant No MJ-2015-H-G-103, and from the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competividad through the project MAT2014-60647-R, Multi-scale and multi-objective optimization of composite laminate structures (OMMC). The authors also acknowledge the Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence (2019–2023), which financially supported this work under the grant CEX2018-000797-S funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. Peer Reviewed Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::13 - Acció per al Clima Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::9 - Indústria, Innovació i Infraestructura Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::12 - Producció i Consum Responsables

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Francesco Carbone; Tommaso Alberti; Davide Faranda; Daniele Telloni; Giuseppe Consolini; Luca Sorriso-Valvo;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | I-Seed (101017940), EC | ERA-PLANET (689443), EC | e-shape (820852)

    International audience The dynamics across different scales in the stable atmospheric boundary layer has been investigated by means of two metrics, based on instantaneous fractal dimensions, and grounded in dynamical systems theory. The wind velocity fluctuations obtained from data collected during the CASES-99 experiment were analyzed to provide a local (in terms of scales), and an instantaneous (in terms of time) description of the fractal properties and predictability of the system. By analyzing the phase space projections of the continuous turbulent, intermittent and radiative regimes, a progressive transformation, characterized by the emergence of multiple low-dimensional clusters embedded in a high-dimensional shell and a 2-lobe mirror symmetrical structure of the inverse persistence, have been found. The phase space becomes increasingly complex and anisotropic as the turbulent fluctuations become uncorrelated. The phase space is characterized by a three-dimensional structure for the continuous turbulent samples in a range of scales compatible with the inertial sub-range, where the phase space-filling turbulent fluctuations dominate the dynamics, and is low-dimensional in the other regimes. Moreover, lower dimensional structures present a stronger persistence than the higher dimensional structures. Eventually, all samples recover a three-dimensional structure and higher persistence level at large scales, far from the inertial sub-range. The two metrics obtained in the analysis can be considered as proxies for the decorrelation time and the local anisotropy in the turbulent flow.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Max L. E. Gräfnings; Jannes H. T. Heusinkveld; Dieuwke J. J. Hoeijmakers; Quirin Smeele; Henk Wiersema; Maarten Zwarts; Tjisse van der Heide; Laura L. Govers;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | MERCES (689518)

    Due to the major declines of seagrasses worldwide, there is an urgent need for effective restoration methods and strategies. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, intertidal seagrass restoration has proven very challenging, despite numerous restoration trials with different restoration methods. Recently, however, the first field trial performed with a newly developed “dispenser injection seeding” method (DIS) resulted in record-high plant densities and seed recruitment. Here, we present the further development of the methodology and consequently improved restoration results. During two consecutive growing seasons, we honed the seeding technique and experimentally investigated how seeding depth (2/4 cm), injection density (25/100 injects/m2), and seed amount (2/20 seeds/inject) affected restoration of intertidal annual Zostera marina. We found that all variables had a significant impact on plant establishment. Seeding deeper (4 cm) had the largest positive effect on restored plant densities, while lowered seed densities (2 seeds/inject) had the largest positive impact on seed recruitment. The optimized DIS method, combined with an altered placement of the seeding hole, resulted in a 50-fold increase in restored plant densities (from approximately 1 to 57 plants/m2) and a simultaneous increase in seed recruitment (from 0.3 to 11.4%). These improvements stem from the method's ability to counteract a recruitment bottleneck, where seeds are lost through hydrodynamic forcing. The methodological improvements described here are important steps toward restoring self-sustaining seagrass populations in the future and our study demonstrates the high potential of the seed-based DIS method for seagrass restoration.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ioannis Karavidas; Georgia Ntatsi; Sofia Marka; Theodora Ntanasi; Beppe Benedetto Consentino; Leo Sabatino; Pietro P. M. Iannetta; Dimitrios Savvas;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    The aim of the current study wat to comparatively assess the impact of different nitrogen (N) fertilization schemes on fresh pod yield and yield quality in either organically or conventionally grown common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Prior to common bean crop establishment, the experimental field site was cultivated following either organic (a) or conventional (b) farming practices with a winter non-legume crop (Brassica oleracea var. italica) (BR), or (c) with field bean (Vicia faba sp.) destined to serve as a green manure (GM) crop. At the end of the winter cultivation period the broccoli crop residues (BR) and green manure biomass (GM) were incorporated into the soil and the plots that accommodated the treatments (a) and (c) were followed by an organically cultivated common bean crop, while the conventional broccoli crop was followed by a conventionally cropped common bean crop. Additional to the plant residues (BR), sheep manure (SM) at a rate of 40 kg N ha−1 was also applied to the organically treated common beans, while the plots with a conventionally cropped common bean received 75 kg N ha−1. Organic common bean treated with SM + BR produced smaller pods of higher dry matter and bioactive compound content, responses that are correlated with limited soil N availability. No significant variations were observed on yield components and N levels of pods cultivated under organic (SM + GM) and conventional cropping systems. Pod sugar and starch content was not influenced by the different fertilization practices. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the combined application of SM + GM can be considered as an efficient N-fertilisation strategy for organic crops of common bean, benefiting their nutritional value without compromising yield.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lőrinc Mészáros; Frank van der Meulen; Geurt Jongbloed; Ghada El Serafy;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | ODYSSEA (727277)

    Coastal climate impact studies make increasing use of multi-source and multi-dimensional atmospheric and environmental datasets to investigate relationships between climate signals and the ecological response. The large quantity of numerically simulated data may, however, include redundancy, multi-colinearity and excess information not relevant to the studied processes. In such cases techniques for feature extraction and identification of latent processes prove useful. Using dimensionality reduction techniques this research provides a statistical underpinning of variable selection to study the impacts of atmospheric processes on coastal chlorophyll-a concentrations, taking the Dutch Wadden Sea as case study. Dimension reduction techniques are applied to environmental data simulated by the Delft3D coastal water quality model, the HIRLAM numerical weather prediction model and the Euro-CORDEX climate modelling experiment. The dimension reduction techniques were selected for their ability to incorporate (1) spatial correlation via multi-way methods (2), temporal correlation through Dynamic Factor Analysis, and (3) functional variability using Functional Data Analysis. The data reduction potential and explanatory value of these methods are showcased and important atmospheric variables affecting the chlorophyll-a concentration are identified. Our results indicate room for dimensionality reduction in the atmospheric variables (2 principle components can explain the majority of variance instead of 7 variables), in the chlorophyll-a time series at different locations (two characteristic patterns can describe the 10 locations), and in the climate projection scenarios of solar radiation and air temperature variables (a single principle component function explains 77% of the variation for solar radiation and 57% of the variation for air temperature). It was also found that solar radiation followed by air temperature are the most important atmospheric variables related to coastal chlorophyll-a concentration, noting that regional differences exist, for instance the importance of air temperature is greater in the Eastern Dutch Wadden Sea at Dantziggat than in the Western Dutch Wadden Sea at Marsdiep Noord. Common trends and different regional system characteristics have also been identified through dynamic factor analysis between the deeper channels and the shallower intertidal zones, where the onset of spring blooms occurs earlier. The functional analysis of climate data showed clusters of atmospheric variables with similar functional features. Moreover, functional components of Euro-CORDEX climate scenarios have been identified for radiation and temperature variables, which provide information on the dominant mode (pattern) of variation and its uncertainties. The findings suggest that radiation and temperature projections of different Euro-CORDEX scenarios share similar characteristics and mainly differ in their amplitudes and seasonal patterns, offering opportunities to construct statistical models that do not assume independence between climate scenarios but instead borrow information (“borrow strength”) from the larger pool of climate scenarios. The presented results were used in follow up studies to construct a Bayesian stochastic generator to complement existing Euro-CORDEX climate change scenarios and to quantify climate change induced trends and uncertainties in phytoplankton spring bloom dynamics in the Dutch Wadden Sea.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    M. L. Domingo-Calap; M. Bernabéu-Gimeno; C. M. Aure; E. Marco-Noales; P. Domingo-Calap;
    Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
    Project: EC | XF-ACTORS (727987)

    Phytopathogenic bacteria represent serious losses worldwide. The lack of current treatments has focused the spotlight on phages, viruses of bacteria, as very promising biocontrol tools.

  • Publication . Journal . 2022
    Open Access English
    Publisher: oeaw
    Country: Austria
    Project: EC | MS.MONINA (263479)
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Stefan Liersch; Hagen Koch; Joachim Ayiiwe Abungba; Seyni Salack; Fred Hattermann;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Project: EC | ERA4CS (690462)

    Abstract To feed the growing population, achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, and fulfil the commitments of the Paris Agreement, West African countries need to invest in agricultural development and renewable energy, among other sectors. Irrigated agriculture, feeding millions of people, and hydropower, generating clean electricity, depend on water availability and compete for the resource. In the Volta Basin, the planned 105,000 ha of irrigated land in Burkina Faso and Ghana could feed hundreds of thousands of people. However, irrigation in the dry season depends on upstream dams that change the river's flow regime from intermittent to permanent, and at the same time irrigation water is no longer available for hydropower generation. Using an integrated eco-hydrological and water management model, we investigated the water demand and supply of three planned irrigation projects and the impacts of the planned Pwalugu multi-purpose dam on the hydropower potentials and water availability in the entire Volta basin. We found that future irrigation withdrawals would reduce the hydropower potential in the Volta basin by 79 GWh/a and the operation of Pwalugu by another 86 GWh/a. Hence, Pwalugu contributes only about 101 GWh/a of its potential of 187 GWh/a. Under climate change simulations, using an ensemble of 8 bias-adjusted and downscaled GCMs, irrigation demand surprisingly did not increase. The higher evaporation losses due to higher temperatures were compensated by increasing precipitation while favouring hydropower generation. However, water availability at the irrigation site in Burkina Faso is clearly at its limit, while capacity in Ghana is not yet exhausted. Due to hydro-climatic differences in the Volta basin, the cost of irrigating one hectare of land in terms of lost hydropower potential follows a north-south gradient from the hot and dry north to the humid south. Nevertheless, food production should have priority over hydropower, which can be compensated by other renewables energies.