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  • SDSN - Greece
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  • Research software
  • Other research products
  • 2013-2022
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  • Publication . Other literature type . Project deliverable . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefanoni; Latterini; Attolico;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | MAGIC (727698)

    The exploitation of industrial crops for the production of ligno-cellulosic compounds and vegetable oil on marginal lands relies on efficient harvesting and logistics’ strategies. The present deliverable goes through the difficulties encountered from harvesting to dispatchment of indrustrial crops highlighting prons and cons of the currently available technologies to improve the whole value chain in the following categories: lignocellulosic crops (fiber, herbaceous perennial and Short-Medium Rotation Coppice (SRC-MRC)) and oil crops. The two sections are indipendently investigated focusing on harvesting and densifiction of the biomass to reduce cost and increase profitability. The information provided within the present document was gathered from experimental data collected on fields, from literature review and background knowledge gained from collaboration in previous research projects. Regarding fiber crop (in particular hemp) it is possible to say that there are several solutions available to harvest this species, which should be properly selected according to the crop features and to the aim of the cultivation, i.e. fiber and seed-fiber. Focusing on lignocellulosic crops, the present deliverable focused mainly on miscanthus, describing the possible alternative solutions which are generally based on cutting the plants and densify them through chipping and/or baling. Harvesting systems for SRC and MRC have been instead experiencing a substantial change in the last years, shifting from dedicated systems for biomass harvesting and densification to semi or fully mechanized harvesting approaches, derived from forestry sector, in order to produce fiber wood from the main stem and biomass from branches and tops. Finally, concerning oil crops, it is possible to say that, among the investigated ones, camelina and castor can efficiently be harvested with conventional combine harvesters equipped with cereal and sunflower header respectively. Castor bean harvesting is instead still a great challenge, indeed the present deliverable highlights how a sunflower header is a better option than a cereal one, but however many concerns are still present regarding seed loss and quality of the collected product.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Xavier Martínez; Jordi Pons-Prats; Francesc Turon; Martí Coma; Lucía Gratiela Barbu; Gabriel Bugeda;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ECO-COMPASS (690638)

    The use of composite materials has grown exponentially in transport structures due to their weight reduction advantages, added to their capability to adapt the material properties and internal micro-structure to the requirements of the application. This flexibility allows the design of highly efficient composite structures that can reduce the environmental impact of transport, especially if the used composites are bio-based. In order to design highly efficient structures, the numerical models and tools used to predict the structural and material performance are of great importance. In the present paper, the authors propose a multi-objective, multi-scale optimization procedure aimed to obtain the best possible structure and material design for a given application. The procedure developed is applied to an aircraft secondary structure, an overhead locker, made with a sandwich laminate in which both, the skins and the core, are bio-materials. The structural multiscale numerical model has been coupled with a Genetic Algorithm to perform the optimization of the structure design. Two optimization cases are presented. The first one consists of a single-objective optimization problem of the fibre alignment to improve the structural stiffness of the structure. The second optimization shows the advantages of using a multi-objective and multi-scale optimization approach. In this last case, the first objective function corresponds to the shelf stiffness, and the second objective function consists of minimizing the number of fibres placed in one of the woven directions, looking for a reduction in the material cost and weight. The obtained results with both optimization cases have proved the capability of the software developed to obtain an optimal design of composite structures, and the need to consider both, the macro-structural and the micro-structural configuration of the composite, in order to obtain the best possible solution. The presented approach allows to perform the optimisation of both the macro-structural and the micro-structural configurations. This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 690638, from the Special Research Plan on Civil Aircraft of Ministry for Industry and Information of the People’s Republic of China (MIIT) un- der Grant No MJ-2015-H-G-103, and from the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competividad through the project MAT2014-60647-R, Multi-scale and multi-objective optimization of composite laminate structures (OMMC). The authors also acknowledge the Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence (2019–2023), which financially supported this work under the grant CEX2018-000797-S funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. Peer Reviewed Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::13 - Acció per al Clima Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::9 - Indústria, Innovació i Infraestructura Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::12 - Producció i Consum Responsables

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ioannis Karavidas; Georgia Ntatsi; Sofia Marka; Theodora Ntanasi; Beppe Benedetto Consentino; Leo Sabatino; Pietro P. M. Iannetta; Dimitrios Savvas;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    The aim of the current study wat to comparatively assess the impact of different nitrogen (N) fertilization schemes on fresh pod yield and yield quality in either organically or conventionally grown common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Prior to common bean crop establishment, the experimental field site was cultivated following either organic (a) or conventional (b) farming practices with a winter non-legume crop (Brassica oleracea var. italica) (BR), or (c) with field bean (Vicia faba sp.) destined to serve as a green manure (GM) crop. At the end of the winter cultivation period the broccoli crop residues (BR) and green manure biomass (GM) were incorporated into the soil and the plots that accommodated the treatments (a) and (c) were followed by an organically cultivated common bean crop, while the conventional broccoli crop was followed by a conventionally cropped common bean crop. Additional to the plant residues (BR), sheep manure (SM) at a rate of 40 kg N ha−1 was also applied to the organically treated common beans, while the plots with a conventionally cropped common bean received 75 kg N ha−1. Organic common bean treated with SM + BR produced smaller pods of higher dry matter and bioactive compound content, responses that are correlated with limited soil N availability. No significant variations were observed on yield components and N levels of pods cultivated under organic (SM + GM) and conventional cropping systems. Pod sugar and starch content was not influenced by the different fertilization practices. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the combined application of SM + GM can be considered as an efficient N-fertilisation strategy for organic crops of common bean, benefiting their nutritional value without compromising yield.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juliana I.S. Aguiar; Mafalda T.S. Silva; Helena A.G. Ferreira; Elisabete C.B. Pinto; Marta W. Vasconcelos; António O.S.S. Rangel; Raquel B.R. Mesquita;
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    In this work, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for magnesium determination in saliva samples. The idea was to develop a fast and simple method for biological magnesium quantification targeting saliva as an easy to collect and non-invasive alternative to blood or urine samples. The μPAD approach was chosen due to its advantages, namely ideally suited to conduct on-location determinations, and not requiring trained operators or specialized laboratory equipment. The developed μPAD was based on the colorimetric reaction between eriochrome cyanine and magnesium to form an intense orange/reddish colour product. The colour intensity was determined by image processing after digital scanning, made within 10 to 90 min after sample loading. Under optimal conditions, the dynamic concentration range was 82–247 μM, with detection and quantification limits of 62 μM and 81 μM, respectively. The device is stable for up to 3 months when stored in vacuum or in a modified nitrogen atmosphere. An accuracy assessment was made by comparing the results obtained using the developed μPAD with those from atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The relative difference between the two sets of results was below 5%.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Evgenia Micha; Mauro Vigani; George Vlahos; Emi Tsakalou; Damian Maye;
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    Feta cheese is a Greek product under Protection Designation of Origin (PDO), benefiting its producing regions with its marketing potential. However, farmers are evidently often excluded from this value chain. This study aims at understanding the opportunities farmers in Greece have for supply chain arrangements (SCAs) that ensure fair market participation. It uses a two-step latent class analysis on data from a farm survey to explore and classify farmer–cheesemaker SCAs based on their perceived characteristics, farmers’ satisfaction, availability of alternative options and farmers’ sustainability objectives. Results highlight the importance of collective arrangements, economic incentives and price formulation mechanisms in forming farmer-inclusive SCAs.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Project deliverable . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Barnes, A.P; Ferreira, J.;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ReMIX (727217)

    Construction of solutions for maintaining the economic and environmental sustainability of the arable sector relies on demonstration and understanding of local practical knowledge. This report presents the results of a survey of growers to identify local practical knowledge of current species mixtures, the reasons for these current mixtures as well as barriers and enablers towards more intercropping approaches. The key characteristics of those conducting food intercropping are contrasted against those who grow for forage and those who do not undertake these particular types of intercropping. A novel network approach is used to link the main types of intercropping and this indicates the diversity of intercropping strategies occurring across Europe. Moreover, farmers currently conducting food intercropping emerge as curiosity driven, generally younger and more focused on promotion of individual values around the environment. This seems to agree with the literature on both organic and agro-ecological farming practices. However, farmers have a core of belief around the economic sustainability of the business. The survey provides valuable data for the multi-actor partnerships currently evolving within the ReMIX project to understand the main barriers to uptake.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Presentation . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Collier, Marcus;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | CONNECTING Nature (730222), SFI | ADAPT: Centre for Digital... (13/RC/2106)

    Hyperlinks to EU and some non-EU funded Nature-based Solution projects and platforms, 2016 to 2026. Some projects do not have websites at the time of upload. This information will be updated on an annual basis. Suggested citation: Collier, M.J. (2022) Hyperlinked compendium of nature-based solutions projects 2016-2026. NovelEco Project. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7338943

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    William F. Swanson; Chris D. Holmes; William R. Simpson; Kaitlyn Confer; Louis Marelle; Jennie L. Thomas; Lyatt Jaeglé; Becky Alexander; Shuting Zhai; Qianjie Chen; +2 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    Abstract. Reactive halogens play a prominent role in the atmospheric chemistry of the Arctic during springtime. Field measurements and modeling studies suggest that halogens are emitted into the atmosphere from snowpack and reactions on wind-blown snow-sourced aerosols. The relative importance of snowpack and blowing snow sources is still debated, both at local scales and regionally throughout the Arctic. To understand the implications of these halogen sources on a pan-Arctic scale, we simulate Arctic reactive bromine chemistry in the atmospheric chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Two mechanisms are included: (1) a blowing snow sea salt aerosol formation mechanism and (2) a snowpack mechanism assuming uniform molecular bromine production from all snow surfaces. We compare simulations including neither mechanism, each mechanism individually, and both mechanisms to examine conditions where one process may dominate or the mechanisms may interact. We compare the models using these mechanisms to observations of bromine monoxide (BrO) derived from multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments on O-Buoy platforms on the sea ice and at a coastal site in Utqiaġvik, Alaska, during spring 2015. Model estimations of hourly and monthly average BrO are improved by assuming a constant yield of 0.1 % molecular bromine from all snowpack surfaces on ozone deposition. The blowing snow aerosol mechanism increases modeled BrO by providing more bromide-rich aerosol surface area for reactive bromine recycling. The snowpack mechanism led to increased model BrO across the Arctic Ocean with maximum production in coastal regions, whereas the blowing snow aerosol mechanism increases BrO in specific areas due to high surface wind speeds. Our uniform snowpack source has a greater impact on BrO mixing ratios than the blowing snow source. Model results best replicate several features of BrO observations during spring 2015 when using both mechanisms in conjunction, adding evidence that these mechanisms are both active during the Arctic spring. Extending our transport model throughout the entire year leads to predictions of enhanced fall BrO that are not supported by observations.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raphael Seguin; David Mouillot; Joshua E. Cinner; Rick D. Stuart Smith; Eva Maire; Nicholas A. J. Graham; Matthew McLean; Laurent Vigliola; Nicolas Loiseau;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    AbstractTropical reefs and the fish relying on them are under increasing pressure. Shallow-reef fish provide important ecological information in addition to sustaining fisheries, tourism and more. Although empirical metrics of fish biomass are widely used in fisheries management, metrics of biomass production—how much new biomass is produced over time—are rarely estimated even though such production informs potential fisheries yields. Here we estimate fish standing biomass (B), biomass production (P, the rate of biomass accumulation) and biomass turnover (P/B ratio, the rate of biomass replacement) for 1,979 tropical reef sites spanning 39 tropical countries. On the basis of fish standing biomass and biomass turnover, we propose a conceptual framework that splits reefs into three classes to visualize ecological and socio-economic risk and help guide spatial management interventions (for example, marine protected areas) to optimize returns on conservation efforts. At large scales, high turnover was associated with high human pressure and low primary productivity, whereas high biomass was associated with low human pressure and high primary productivity. Going beyond standing fish biomass to consider dynamic ecological processes can better guide regional coral reef conservation and sustainable fisheries management.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Apostolos Papanikolaou;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: EC | HOLISHIP (689074)

    The recently completed Horizon 2020 European Research project—HOLISHIP—Holistic Optimization of Ship Design and Operation for Life Cycle (2016–2020) has developed suitable tools and software platforms which are necessary for the creation of innovative design solutions meeting the set low-emission strategic objectives. The present paper introduces an innovative, holistic approach to ship design and the development of integrated design software platforms and tools, which are used in practical applications. In the era of the 4th industrial revolution, this project sets out to substantially advance ship design via the introduction of a fully computerized, multi-disciplinary optimization approach to ship design and life-cycle operation. The approach enables the exploration of a huge design space in a relatively short time, as well as the distributed/multi-site working and the virtual reality testing; thus, it is a strong asset for the development of innovative maritime concepts in response to the needs of the 21st century.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to SDSN - Greece. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
3,174 Research products, page 1 of 318
  • Publication . Other literature type . Project deliverable . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefanoni; Latterini; Attolico;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | MAGIC (727698)

    The exploitation of industrial crops for the production of ligno-cellulosic compounds and vegetable oil on marginal lands relies on efficient harvesting and logistics’ strategies. The present deliverable goes through the difficulties encountered from harvesting to dispatchment of indrustrial crops highlighting prons and cons of the currently available technologies to improve the whole value chain in the following categories: lignocellulosic crops (fiber, herbaceous perennial and Short-Medium Rotation Coppice (SRC-MRC)) and oil crops. The two sections are indipendently investigated focusing on harvesting and densifiction of the biomass to reduce cost and increase profitability. The information provided within the present document was gathered from experimental data collected on fields, from literature review and background knowledge gained from collaboration in previous research projects. Regarding fiber crop (in particular hemp) it is possible to say that there are several solutions available to harvest this species, which should be properly selected according to the crop features and to the aim of the cultivation, i.e. fiber and seed-fiber. Focusing on lignocellulosic crops, the present deliverable focused mainly on miscanthus, describing the possible alternative solutions which are generally based on cutting the plants and densify them through chipping and/or baling. Harvesting systems for SRC and MRC have been instead experiencing a substantial change in the last years, shifting from dedicated systems for biomass harvesting and densification to semi or fully mechanized harvesting approaches, derived from forestry sector, in order to produce fiber wood from the main stem and biomass from branches and tops. Finally, concerning oil crops, it is possible to say that, among the investigated ones, camelina and castor can efficiently be harvested with conventional combine harvesters equipped with cereal and sunflower header respectively. Castor bean harvesting is instead still a great challenge, indeed the present deliverable highlights how a sunflower header is a better option than a cereal one, but however many concerns are still present regarding seed loss and quality of the collected product.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Xavier Martínez; Jordi Pons-Prats; Francesc Turon; Martí Coma; Lucía Gratiela Barbu; Gabriel Bugeda;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ECO-COMPASS (690638)

    The use of composite materials has grown exponentially in transport structures due to their weight reduction advantages, added to their capability to adapt the material properties and internal micro-structure to the requirements of the application. This flexibility allows the design of highly efficient composite structures that can reduce the environmental impact of transport, especially if the used composites are bio-based. In order to design highly efficient structures, the numerical models and tools used to predict the structural and material performance are of great importance. In the present paper, the authors propose a multi-objective, multi-scale optimization procedure aimed to obtain the best possible structure and material design for a given application. The procedure developed is applied to an aircraft secondary structure, an overhead locker, made with a sandwich laminate in which both, the skins and the core, are bio-materials. The structural multiscale numerical model has been coupled with a Genetic Algorithm to perform the optimization of the structure design. Two optimization cases are presented. The first one consists of a single-objective optimization problem of the fibre alignment to improve the structural stiffness of the structure. The second optimization shows the advantages of using a multi-objective and multi-scale optimization approach. In this last case, the first objective function corresponds to the shelf stiffness, and the second objective function consists of minimizing the number of fibres placed in one of the woven directions, looking for a reduction in the material cost and weight. The obtained results with both optimization cases have proved the capability of the software developed to obtain an optimal design of composite structures, and the need to consider both, the macro-structural and the micro-structural configuration of the composite, in order to obtain the best possible solution. The presented approach allows to perform the optimisation of both the macro-structural and the micro-structural configurations. This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 690638, from the Special Research Plan on Civil Aircraft of Ministry for Industry and Information of the People’s Republic of China (MIIT) un- der Grant No MJ-2015-H-G-103, and from the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competividad through the project MAT2014-60647-R, Multi-scale and multi-objective optimization of composite laminate structures (OMMC). The authors also acknowledge the Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence (2019–2023), which financially supported this work under the grant CEX2018-000797-S funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033. Peer Reviewed Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::13 - Acció per al Clima Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::9 - Indústria, Innovació i Infraestructura Objectius de Desenvolupament Sostenible::12 - Producció i Consum Responsables

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ioannis Karavidas; Georgia Ntatsi; Sofia Marka; Theodora Ntanasi; Beppe Benedetto Consentino; Leo Sabatino; Pietro P. M. Iannetta; Dimitrios Savvas;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    The aim of the current study wat to comparatively assess the impact of different nitrogen (N) fertilization schemes on fresh pod yield and yield quality in either organically or conventionally grown common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Prior to common bean crop establishment, the experimental field site was cultivated following either organic (a) or conventional (b) farming practices with a winter non-legume crop (Brassica oleracea var. italica) (BR), or (c) with field bean (Vicia faba sp.) destined to serve as a green manure (GM) crop. At the end of the winter cultivation period the broccoli crop residues (BR) and green manure biomass (GM) were incorporated into the soil and the plots that accommodated the treatments (a) and (c) were followed by an organically cultivated common bean crop, while the conventional broccoli crop was followed by a conventionally cropped common bean crop. Additional to the plant residues (BR), sheep manure (SM) at a rate of 40 kg N ha−1 was also applied to the organically treated common beans, while the plots with a conventionally cropped common bean received 75 kg N ha−1. Organic common bean treated with SM + BR produced smaller pods of higher dry matter and bioactive compound content, responses that are correlated with limited soil N availability. No significant variations were observed on yield components and N levels of pods cultivated under organic (SM + GM) and conventional cropping systems. Pod sugar and starch content was not influenced by the different fertilization practices. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the combined application of SM + GM can be considered as an efficient N-fertilisation strategy for organic crops of common bean, benefiting their nutritional value without compromising yield.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juliana I.S. Aguiar; Mafalda T.S. Silva; Helena A.G. Ferreira; Elisabete C.B. Pinto; Marta W. Vasconcelos; António O.S.S. Rangel; Raquel B.R. Mesquita;
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | true (727973)

    In this work, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for magnesium determination in saliva samples. The idea was to develop a fast and simple method for biological magnesium quantification targeting saliva as an easy to collect and non-invasive alternative to blood or urine samples. The μPAD approach was chosen due to its advantages, namely ideally suited to conduct on-location determinations, and not requiring trained operators or specialized laboratory equipment. The developed μPAD was based on the colorimetric reaction between eriochrome cyanine and magnesium to form an intense orange/reddish colour product. The colour intensity was determined by image processing after digital scanning, made within 10 to 90 min after sample loading. Under optimal conditions, the dynamic concentration range was 82–247 μM, with detection and quantification limits of 62 μM and 81 μM, respectively. The device is stable for up to 3 months when stored in vacuum or in a modified nitrogen atmosphere. An accuracy assessment was made by comparing the results obtained using the developed μPAD with those from atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The relative difference between the two sets of results was below 5%.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Evgenia Micha; Mauro Vigani; George Vlahos; Emi Tsakalou; Damian Maye;
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    Feta cheese is a Greek product under Protection Designation of Origin (PDO), benefiting its producing regions with its marketing potential. However, farmers are evidently often excluded from this value chain. This study aims at understanding the opportunities farmers in Greece have for supply chain arrangements (SCAs) that ensure fair market participation. It uses a two-step latent class analysis on data from a farm survey to explore and classify farmer–cheesemaker SCAs based on their perceived characteristics, farmers’ satisfaction, availability of alternative options and farmers’ sustainability objectives. Results highlight the importance of collective arrangements, economic incentives and price formulation mechanisms in forming farmer-inclusive SCAs.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Project deliverable . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Barnes, A.P; Ferreira, J.;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ReMIX (727217)

    Construction of solutions for maintaining the economic and environmental sustainability of the arable sector relies on demonstration and understanding of local practical knowledge. This report presents the results of a survey of growers to identify local practical knowledge of current species mixtures, the reasons for these current mixtures as well as barriers and enablers towards more intercropping approaches. The key characteristics of those conducting food intercropping are contrasted against those who grow for forage and those who do not undertake these particular types of intercropping. A novel network approach is used to link the main types of intercropping and this indicates the diversity of intercropping strategies occurring across Europe. Moreover, farmers currently conducting food intercropping emerge as curiosity driven, generally younger and more focused on promotion of individual values around the environment. This seems to agree with the literature on both organic and agro-ecological farming practices. However, farmers have a core of belief around the economic sustainability of the business. The survey provides valuable data for the multi-actor partnerships currently evolving within the ReMIX project to understand the main barriers to uptake.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Presentation . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Collier, Marcus;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | CONNECTING Nature (730222), SFI | ADAPT: Centre for Digital... (13/RC/2106)

    Hyperlinks to EU and some non-EU funded Nature-based Solution projects and platforms, 2016 to 2026. Some projects do not have websites at the time of upload. This information will be updated on an annual basis. Suggested citation: Collier, M.J. (2022) Hyperlinked compendium of nature-based solutions projects 2016-2026. NovelEco Project. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7338943

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    William F. Swanson; Chris D. Holmes; William R. Simpson; Kaitlyn Confer; Louis Marelle; Jennie L. Thomas; Lyatt Jaeglé; Becky Alexander; Shuting Zhai; Qianjie Chen; +2 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    Abstract. Reactive halogens play a prominent role in the atmospheric chemistry of the Arctic during springtime. Field measurements and modeling studies suggest that halogens are emitted into the atmosphere from snowpack and reactions on wind-blown snow-sourced aerosols. The relative importance of snowpack and blowing snow sources is still debated, both at local scales and regionally throughout the Arctic. To understand the implications of these halogen sources on a pan-Arctic scale, we simulate Arctic reactive bromine chemistry in the atmospheric chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Two mechanisms are included: (1) a blowing snow sea salt aerosol formation mechanism and (2) a snowpack mechanism assuming uniform molecular bromine production from all snow surfaces. We compare simulations including neither mechanism, each mechanism individually, and both mechanisms to examine conditions where one process may dominate or the mechanisms may interact. We compare the models using these mechanisms to observations of bromine monoxide (BrO) derived from multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments on O-Buoy platforms on the sea ice and at a coastal site in Utqiaġvik, Alaska, during spring 2015. Model estimations of hourly and monthly average BrO are improved by assuming a constant yield of 0.1 % molecular bromine from all snowpack surfaces on ozone deposition. The blowing snow aerosol mechanism increases modeled BrO by providing more bromide-rich aerosol surface area for reactive bromine recycling. The snowpack mechanism led to increased model BrO across the Arctic Ocean with maximum production in coastal regions, whereas the blowing snow aerosol mechanism increases BrO in specific areas due to high surface wind speeds. Our uniform snowpack source has a greater impact on BrO mixing ratios than the blowing snow source. Model results best replicate several features of BrO observations during spring 2015 when using both mechanisms in conjunction, adding evidence that these mechanisms are both active during the Arctic spring. Extending our transport model throughout the entire year leads to predictions of enhanced fall BrO that are not supported by observations.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raphael Seguin; David Mouillot; Joshua E. Cinner; Rick D. Stuart Smith; Eva Maire; Nicholas A. J. Graham; Matthew McLean; Laurent Vigliola; Nicolas Loiseau;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    AbstractTropical reefs and the fish relying on them are under increasing pressure. Shallow-reef fish provide important ecological information in addition to sustaining fisheries, tourism and more. Although empirical metrics of fish biomass are widely used in fisheries management, metrics of biomass production—how much new biomass is produced over time—are rarely estimated even though such production informs potential fisheries yields. Here we estimate fish standing biomass (B), biomass production (P, the rate of biomass accumulation) and biomass turnover (P/B ratio, the rate of biomass replacement) for 1,979 tropical reef sites spanning 39 tropical countries. On the basis of fish standing biomass and biomass turnover, we propose a conceptual framework that splits reefs into three classes to visualize ecological and socio-economic risk and help guide spatial management interventions (for example, marine protected areas) to optimize returns on conservation efforts. At large scales, high turnover was associated with high human pressure and low primary productivity, whereas high biomass was associated with low human pressure and high primary productivity. Going beyond standing fish biomass to consider dynamic ecological processes can better guide regional coral reef conservation and sustainable fisheries management.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Apostolos Papanikolaou;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: EC | HOLISHIP (689074)

    The recently completed Horizon 2020 European Research project—HOLISHIP—Holistic Optimization of Ship Design and Operation for Life Cycle (2016–2020) has developed suitable tools and software platforms which are necessary for the creation of innovative design solutions meeting the set low-emission strategic objectives. The present paper introduces an innovative, holistic approach to ship design and the development of integrated design software platforms and tools, which are used in practical applications. In the era of the 4th industrial revolution, this project sets out to substantially advance ship design via the introduction of a fully computerized, multi-disciplinary optimization approach to ship design and life-cycle operation. The approach enables the exploration of a huge design space in a relatively short time, as well as the distributed/multi-site working and the virtual reality testing; thus, it is a strong asset for the development of innovative maritime concepts in response to the needs of the 21st century.