Background: Foodborne illnesses have a significant global burden and can be life-threatening, but good food hygiene practice can prevent most. SafeConsume is an EU-funded, transdisciplinary project aiming to improve consumers’ food safety behaviour and reduce the burden of foodborne illness. Young people are at risk of foodborne illness and research indicates a lack of knowledge or concern about food hygiene. Educational settings provide an opportunity to influence behaviour; but for resources to be effective and implementable, they should be evidence-based and thoughtfully designed. Aim: To develop educational resources to teach food hygiene and food safety to school children aged 11–18 years old, through a user-based approach, specific to the educational setting. Methods: Development used a two-step process referred to as: the insight phase; and prototyping and refinement phase. This included using the findings of a needs assessment with students and educators based on the Theo-retical Domains Framework (TDF) presented in earlier publications (Eley et al., 2021; Syeda et al., 2021). A user-centred approach to development was then taken, employing an iterative process of idea generation, consultation with a multidisciplinary steering group, and user testing. Results: The insight phase identified students’ and educators’ deficiencies in knowledge and skills, and cultural and social influences on food safety behaviours. This phase, including Curriculum analysis informed student learning objectives and educator training topics. Following a round of development and consultation, a total of seven teaching resources were developed, with four educator training modules to improve knowledge and confidence of educators. Conclusions: Behavioural theory is a useful foundation for the development of school-based health interventions, which aim to positively influence students’ knowledge, behaviour, and attitudes. To support educators’ uptake, materials should be aligned to the national curriculum and should consider practical factors like time and environmental factors. By working closely with stakeholders at all stages of development, barriers to use, implementation and efficacy can be identified and mitigated.
The exploitation of industrial crops for the production of ligno-cellulosic compounds and vegetable oil on marginal lands relies on efficient harvesting and logistics’ strategies. The present deliverable goes through the difficulties encountered from harvesting to dispatchment of indrustrial crops highlighting prons and cons of the currently available technologies to improve the whole value chain in the following categories: lignocellulosic crops (fiber, herbaceous perennial and Short-Medium Rotation Coppice (SRC-MRC)) and oil crops. The two sections are indipendently investigated focusing on harvesting and densifiction of the biomass to reduce cost and increase profitability. The information provided within the present document was gathered from experimental data collected on fields, from literature review and background knowledge gained from collaboration in previous research projects. Regarding fiber crop (in particular hemp) it is possible to say that there are several solutions available to harvest this species, which should be properly selected according to the crop features and to the aim of the cultivation, i.e. fiber and seed-fiber. Focusing on lignocellulosic crops, the present deliverable focused mainly on miscanthus, describing the possible alternative solutions which are generally based on cutting the plants and densify them through chipping and/or baling. Harvesting systems for SRC and MRC have been instead experiencing a substantial change in the last years, shifting from dedicated systems for biomass harvesting and densification to semi or fully mechanized harvesting approaches, derived from forestry sector, in order to produce fiber wood from the main stem and biomass from branches and tops. Finally, concerning oil crops, it is possible to say that, among the investigated ones, camelina and castor can efficiently be harvested with conventional combine harvesters equipped with cereal and sunflower header respectively. Castor bean harvesting is instead still a great challenge, indeed the present deliverable highlights how a sunflower header is a better option than a cereal one, but however many concerns are still present regarding seed loss and quality of the collected product.
Gunhild A. Reigstad; Simon Roussanaly; Julian Straus; Rahul Anantharaman; Robert de Kler; Maxine Akhurst; Nixon Sunny; Ward Goldthorpe; Lionel Avignon; Jonathan Pearce; +4 more
Gunhild A. Reigstad; Simon Roussanaly; Julian Straus; Rahul Anantharaman; Robert de Kler; Maxine Akhurst; Nixon Sunny; Ward Goldthorpe; Lionel Avignon; Jonathan Pearce; Stefan Flamme; Gianfranco Guidati; Evangelos Panos; Christian Bauer;
The urgency to achieve net-zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2050, as first presented by the IPCC special report on 1.5 °C Global Warming, has spurred renewed interest in hydrogen, to complement electrification, for widespread decarbonization of the economy. We present reflections on estimates of future hydrogen demand, optimization of infrastructure for hydrogen production, transport and storage, development of viable business cases, and environmental impact evaluations using life cycle assessments. We highlight challenges and opportunities that are common across studies of the business cases for hydrogen in Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Norway. The use of hydrogen in the industrial sector is an important driver and could incentivise large-scale hydrogen value chains. In the long-term hydrogen becomes important also for the transport sector. Hydrogen production from natural gas with capture and permanent storage of the produced CO2 (CCS) enables large-scale hydrogen production in the intermediate future and is complementary to hydrogen from renewable power. Furthermore, timely establishment of hydrogen and CO2 infrastructures serves as an anchor to support the deployment of carbon dioxide removal technologies, such as direct air carbon capture and storage (DACCS) and biohydrogen production with CCS. Significant public support is needed to ensure coordinated planning, governance, and the establishment of supportive regulatory frameworks which foster the growth of hydrogen markets. Advances in Applied Energy, 8 ISSN:2666-7924
In this work, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for magnesium determination in saliva samples. The idea was to develop a fast and simple method for biological magnesium quantification targeting saliva as an easy to collect and non-invasive alternative to blood or urine samples. The μPAD approach was chosen due to its advantages, namely ideally suited to conduct on-location determinations, and not requiring trained operators or specialized laboratory equipment. The developed μPAD was based on the colorimetric reaction between eriochrome cyanine and magnesium to form an intense orange/reddish colour product. The colour intensity was determined by image processing after digital scanning, made within 10 to 90 min after sample loading. Under optimal conditions, the dynamic concentration range was 82–247 μM, with detection and quantification limits of 62 μM and 81 μM, respectively. The device is stable for up to 3 months when stored in vacuum or in a modified nitrogen atmosphere. An accuracy assessment was made by comparing the results obtained using the developed μPAD with those from atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The relative difference between the two sets of results was below 5%.
Project: EC | ZERO BRINE (730390), EC | ZERO BRINE (730390)
Traditionally, industrial processes produce wastes that, even though often containing useful materials, are discarded, contributing to environmental pollution and depletion of natural resources. An example of such wastes are brines, flows of concentrated salts, produced in water treatment processes, which are now routinely discharged into receiving water bodies. Brines however can also be considered as flows of reusable materials which should be recovered, and the Zero Brine cooperation project aims to develop processes for that purpose. For a demineralized water production plant in the port of Rotterdam (the Netherlands), a closed water processing cycle was proposed to treat the large volume of spent Ion Exchange (IEX) regenerant brine which, apart from recovering demineralized water, is also intended to produce magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+) salts, with the highest purity possible, from the otherwise discharged brine. The process scheme includes nanofiltration (NF) for separating mono- and multivalent ions, followed by sequential chemical precipitation of Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions from the NF concentrate, and production of demineralized water by evaporation of the NF permeate. The concentrate of monovalent ions produced in the evaporator, essentially a concentrated sodium chloride solution, in its turn might be reused for IEX regeneration. Part of the supernatant of the sequential precipitation may be fed to the evaporator as well, but bleeding the other part of this supernatant is essential in order to maintain process stability, avoid accumulation of minor pollutants, and reduce scaling. In this study, various scenarios to operate the process were modeled, using PHREEQC and Excel. According to the simulation results, recovery of ≈97% of Mg2+ and Ca2+ is possible, the latter with a higher purity than the former. The main factors affecting the results are the concentration of carbonate present in the spent IEX regenerant, as well as characteristics of the NF membrane and the dosing of sodium hydroxide in the sequential precipitation steps. The results of the simulations were used for the design and operation of a pilot plant, comprising all mentioned process steps.
Food safety beliefs are not always science based. In this study, we aim to contribute to the state of the art of food safety knowledge by investigating unscientific beliefs consequences for gastroenteritis. After collecting food safety myths across Europe, we conducted a web-based survey on a representative sample of consumers from UK, Germany and Norway (N = 3110) to investigate what food safety myths people believe to be true, and if these beliefs influence gastroenteritis incidences and prevalence. The results show that a large share of the population believe in food safety myths, in the worst cases more than 70% report to believe myths to be facts and believing in many of these myths correlates positively with gastroenteritis incidences and prevalence. The largest correlations are observed for unscientific beliefs about eggs (such as storing eggs at room temperature and eating raw eggs to cure hangover), bacteria inactivation (that a wooden cutting board, and chili, wasabi and marinades kills bacteria), that vegetarians don't get food poisoning, and that eating dirt and having a diarrhea is good since it cleans up the stomach. In the discussion, we explain the negative consequences by linking the food safety myths to science-based food safety knowledge. This is the first study linking unscientific beliefs to gastroenteritis. Future studies need to investigate the mechanisms explaining why beliefs in food safety myths correlate with gastroenteritis incidences and prevalence. Studies investigating behavior change methods, including but not limited to correcting false beliefs are also needed.
In this work a SPE/GC-FID method, incorporating the use of a 1-g silica cartridge, for the determination of FAEE in olive oils is presented. The procedure has been fully validated, initially 'in-house' and subsequently by an international validation study involving sixteen laboratories from Europe, the United States of America, and China. Key performance parameters of the method are: (1) Linearity in the 10-134 mg/kg range (R2 > 0.999), (2) LOD and LOQ < 0.5 mg/kg, (3) RSDr < 10%, (4) RSDR < 20% (for 4 out of 5 test materials). In addition, the method has been demonstrated to provide equivalent results to the Official Method (Commission Regulation 2568/91) while providing advantages in terms of reductions in time and solvents and ease of automation. In fact, the proposed protocol requires 30 mL solvents and takes 1.5 h per determination instead of the 350 mL and 6 h needed in the UE Official Method. The authors would like to thank Fera Science Ltd for providing the samples for this study. They would also like to thanks Tassos Koidis for his contribution to the pre-trial and as a technical expert on the methodology, and to Martyna Korytkowska as responsible for day to day liaison with participants and calculation of data. OLEUM “Advanced solutions for assuring the authenticity and quality of olive oil at a global scale” has received funding from the EC within the Horizon 2020 Program (2014–2020), GA no. 635690. The information expressed in this abstract reflects the authors’ views; the EC is not liable for the information contained therein. 8 Páginas.-- 5 Tablas.-- 1 Figura Peer reviewed
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