The exploitation of industrial crops for the production of ligno-cellulosic compounds and vegetable oil on marginal lands relies on efficient harvesting and logistics’ strategies. The present deliverable goes through the difficulties encountered from harvesting to dispatchment of indrustrial crops highlighting prons and cons of the currently available technologies to improve the whole value chain in the following categories: lignocellulosic crops (fiber, herbaceous perennial and Short-Medium Rotation Coppice (SRC-MRC)) and oil crops. The two sections are indipendently investigated focusing on harvesting and densifiction of the biomass to reduce cost and increase profitability. The information provided within the present document was gathered from experimental data collected on fields, from literature review and background knowledge gained from collaboration in previous research projects. Regarding fiber crop (in particular hemp) it is possible to say that there are several solutions available to harvest this species, which should be properly selected according to the crop features and to the aim of the cultivation, i.e. fiber and seed-fiber. Focusing on lignocellulosic crops, the present deliverable focused mainly on miscanthus, describing the possible alternative solutions which are generally based on cutting the plants and densify them through chipping and/or baling. Harvesting systems for SRC and MRC have been instead experiencing a substantial change in the last years, shifting from dedicated systems for biomass harvesting and densification to semi or fully mechanized harvesting approaches, derived from forestry sector, in order to produce fiber wood from the main stem and biomass from branches and tops. Finally, concerning oil crops, it is possible to say that, among the investigated ones, camelina and castor can efficiently be harvested with conventional combine harvesters equipped with cereal and sunflower header respectively. Castor bean harvesting is instead still a great challenge, indeed the present deliverable highlights how a sunflower header is a better option than a cereal one, but however many concerns are still present regarding seed loss and quality of the collected product.
Gunhild A. Reigstad; Simon Roussanaly; Julian Straus; Rahul Anantharaman; Robert de Kler; Maxine Akhurst; Nixon Sunny; Ward Goldthorpe; Lionel Avignon; Jonathan Pearce; +4 more
Gunhild A. Reigstad; Simon Roussanaly; Julian Straus; Rahul Anantharaman; Robert de Kler; Maxine Akhurst; Nixon Sunny; Ward Goldthorpe; Lionel Avignon; Jonathan Pearce; Stefan Flamme; Gianfranco Guidati; Evangelos Panos; Christian Bauer;
The urgency to achieve net-zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2050, as first presented by the IPCC special report on 1.5 °C Global Warming, has spurred renewed interest in hydrogen, to complement electrification, for widespread decarbonization of the economy. We present reflections on estimates of future hydrogen demand, optimization of infrastructure for hydrogen production, transport and storage, development of viable business cases, and environmental impact evaluations using life cycle assessments. We highlight challenges and opportunities that are common across studies of the business cases for hydrogen in Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Norway. The use of hydrogen in the industrial sector is an important driver and could incentivise large-scale hydrogen value chains. In the long-term hydrogen becomes important also for the transport sector. Hydrogen production from natural gas with capture and permanent storage of the produced CO2 (CCS) enables large-scale hydrogen production in the intermediate future and is complementary to hydrogen from renewable power. Furthermore, timely establishment of hydrogen and CO2 infrastructures serves as an anchor to support the deployment of carbon dioxide removal technologies, such as direct air carbon capture and storage (DACCS) and biohydrogen production with CCS. Significant public support is needed to ensure coordinated planning, governance, and the establishment of supportive regulatory frameworks which foster the growth of hydrogen markets. Advances in Applied Energy, 8 ISSN:2666-7924
In this study, we assessed the effect of environmental salinity and pH as independent factors on larval survival of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT –Thunnus thynnus) together with their whole-body Na+/K+-ATPase and v-type H+- ATPase activities. Fertilized eggs of ABFT were obtained from a spontaneous spawning of broodstock in the farming facilities at El Gorguel (Cartagena, SE Spain) and were transferred to facilities of the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) in Mazarron ´ (SE Spain). In a first experiment, eggs (200 fertilized eggs L− 1 per treatment, in 3 replicates) were exposed to different salinities treatments and constant pH 8.0 (control) until hatch was completed (50 h post-fertilization, hpf, at 23 ◦C): 27, 30, 33, 36, 37, 38 (control), 39, 40, 43, 46 and 49 ppt. In a second experiment eggs (200 fertilized eggs L− 1 , in 3 replicates) were exposed to seawater salinity (SW: 38 ppt) and four reduced pH treatments until hatch was completed (50 hpf at 23 ◦C): 8.0 (control), 7.7, 7.5 and 7.3. An inverse “U-shaped” relationship was observed between environmental salinity and number of hatched larvae. An opposite pattern was observed for both Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase activities in hatched larvae, increasing both activities in groups exposed to extreme salinities. Thus, larval survival was higher at intermediate salinities and lower at the extreme salinities tested. These results suggest higher survival rates with lower active pumps activities. No significant differences in larval survival were observed with pH treatment, but lower H+-ATPase activity was detected at control environmental pH (pH 8.0). Survival results are discussed in terms of osmoregulatory cost adapting to a salinity and pH predicted for the near future scenarios.
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Project: EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)
AbstractWhile increasing methane emissions from thawing permafrost are anticipated to be a major climate feedback, no observational evidence for such an increase has previously been documented in the literature. Here we report a trend of increasing methane emissions for the early summer months of June and July at a permafrost site in the Lena River Delta, on the basis of the longest set of eddy covariance methane flux data in the Arctic. Along with a strong air temperature rise of 0.3 ± 0.1 °C yr−1 in June, which corresponds to an earlier warming of 11 d, the methane emissions in June and July have increased by roughly 1.9 ± 0.7% yr−1 since 2004. Although the tundra’s maximum source strength in August has not yet changed, this increase in early summer methane emissions shows that atmospheric warming has begun to considerably affect the methane flux dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems in the Arctic.
ABSTRACT: Climate change may increase water needs for irrigation in southern Europe competing with other water uses, such as hydropower, which may likely be impacted by lower precipitation. Climate change will also potentially affect the variability and availability of other renewable energy resources (solar and wind) and electricity consumption patterns. This work quantifies the effect of competition for water use between irrigation and hydropower in the future 2050 Portuguese carbon-neutral power sector and under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 climate change projections. It uses the power system eTIMES_PT model to assess the combined effects of climate change on the cost-optimal configuration of the power sectorconsidering changes in irrigation, hydropower, wind and solar PV availability. eTIMES_PT is a linear optimisation model that satisfies electricity demand at minimal total power system cost. Results show that, by 2050, climate change can lead to an increase in annual irrigation water needs up to 12% in Tagus and 19% in Douro watersheds (from 2005 values), with substantially higher values for spring (up to 84%). Combining these increased water needs with the expected reduction in river runoff can lead to a decline in summer and spring hydropower capacity factors from half to three times below current values. By 2050, concurrent water uses under climate change can reduce hydropower generation by 26–56% less than historically observed, mainly in summer and spring. Higher solar PV, complemented with batteries’ electricity storage, can offset the lower hydropower availability, but this will lead to higher electricity prices. Adequate transboundary water management agreements and reducing water losses in irrigation systems will play a key role in mitigating climate impacts in both agriculture and power sector. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Project: EC | GEMex (727550)
AbstractHydrothermal alteration is a common process in active geothermal systems and can significantly change the physiochemical properties of rocks. To improve reservoir assessment and modeling of high-temperature geothermal resources linked to active volcanic settings, a detailed understanding of the reservoir is needed. The Los Humeros Volcanic Complex, hosting the third largest exploited geothermal field in Mexico, represents a natural laboratory to investigate the impact of hydrothermal processes on the rock properties through andesitic reservoir cores and outcropping analogs. Complementary petrographic and chemical analyses were used to characterize the intensities and facies of hydrothermal alteration. The alteration varies from argillic and propylitic facies characterized by no significant changes of the REE budget indicating an inert behavior to silicic facies and skarn instead showing highly variable REE contents. Unaltered outcrop samples predominantly feature low matrix permeabilities (< 10–17 m2) as well as low to intermediate matrix porosities (< 5–15%), thermal conductivities (0.89–1.49 W m−1 K−1), thermal diffusivities (~ 0.83 10–6 m2 s−1), and sonic wave velocities (VP: ~ 2800–4100 m s−1, VS: ~ 1600–2400 m s−1). Average magnetic susceptibility and specific heat capacity range between 2.4–7.0 10–3 SI and 752–772 J kg−1 K−1, respectively. In contrast, the hydrothermally altered reservoir samples show enhanced porosities (~ 7–23%), permeabilities (10–17–10–14 m2), and thermal properties (> 1.67 W m−1 K−1; > 0.91 10–6 m2 s−1), but a significant loss of magnetic susceptibility (10–3–10–6 SI). In particular, this latter characteristic appears to be a suitable indicator during geophysical survey for the identification of hydrothermalized domains and possible pathways for fluids. The lack of clear trends between alteration facies, alteration intensity, and chemical indices in the studied samples is interpreted as the response to multiple and/or repeated hydrothermal events. Finally, the proposed integrated field-based approach shows the capability to unravel the complexity of geothermal reservoir rocks in active volcanic settings.
In some food production systems, sustainability and acceptability are considered umbrella concepts that can be assessed through a combination of criteria and indicators. After a remarkable and somewhat chaotic development in the early ‘90s, European aquaculture has been evolving in both scientific and policy domains to improve, and to prove, its sustainability. The updated review of the literature and policy framework presented in this contribution highlights gaps in European studies, addressing mostly concerns over the environmental impacts and food safety and less in terms of economic impacts on other coastal activities or the effects on social values and local traditions. The analysis of the legislative framework demonstrates that the existing legislation adopted at different levels addresses most of the criteria of social acceptability through binding rules and supporting guidelines. Nonetheless, some elements of social concerns, such as the impact of escapes or the degradation of the landscape, remain unaddressed. A number of actions are proposed that should be implemented by all the actors involved in aquaculture management to improve social attitudes and thus, the acceptance by the different segments of the society.
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Project: EC | SABINA (731211)
The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources creates a challenge for the stability of current power systems due to their intermittent and stochastic nature. This paper presents the field results of an efficient demand response solution for controlling and adjusting the electric demand of buildings in an energy district through the activation of their thermal mass while respecting the occupants’ thermal comfort constraints. This multilevel control approach aims to support grid flexibility during peak times by constraining the energy exchange with the grid and increasing the self-consumption of the district. The results show a great potential for increasing the self-consumption up to 37% for offices, as well as improving the indoor environment, based on real data collected from a case study in Greece.
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