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6 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • SDSN - Greece
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elster, Daniel; Szőcs, Teodóra; Gál, Nóra; Hansen, Birgitte; Voutchkova, Denitza D.; Schullehner, Jörg; Lions, Julie; Martarelli, Lucio; Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Díaz-Muñoz, José Angel; +4 more
    Publisher: Geološki zavod Slovenije
    Country: Slovenia
    Project: EC | GeoERA (731166)

    This study discusses 1) the national legislative frameworks, terminologies, and criteria for the recognition of natural mineral waters and thermal waters in selected European countries (Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Denmark, France, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and Spain), and 2) it provides a first extensive multi-national overview of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics of numerous water sources from those regions. Študija razpravlja o: 1) nacionalnih zakonodajnih okvirjih, izrazoslovju in kriterijih za priznavanje naravnih mineralnih in termalnih voda v izbranih evropskih državah (Avstrija, Bosna in Hercegovina, Danska, Francija, Madžarska, Islandija, Italija, Litva, Poljska, Portugalska, Romunija, Srbija, Slovenia in Španija), ter 2) predstavlja prvi pregledni več-nacionalni pregled hidrogeoloških in hidrogeokemijskih značilnostih številnih vodnih virov v teh regijah.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nina Rman; Teodóra Szőcs; László Palcsu; Andrej Lapanje;
    Country: Slovenia
    Project: EC | GeoERA (731166)

    AbstractBottled natural mineral waters from an andesitic aquifer in Slovenia are enriched in magnesium (1.1 g/l), sulphate (2.2 g/l) and dissolved inorganic carbon (204 g/l). We analysed major ions, trace elements, tritium activity, 14C, δ18OH2O, δ2HH2O,δ13CDIC, gas composition and noble gases in six wells. In addition, 87Sr//86Sr, δ34SSO4 and δ11B were analysed here for the first time. Stable isotopes with δ18O = −11.97 to −10.30‰ and δ2H = −77.3 to −63.8 confirm meteoric origin. CO2 degassing is evident at three wells, causing the oxygen shift of about −1.3‰. Tritium activity was detectable only in the shallowest well, where the freshwater component was dated to the 1960s. δ13CDIC in five waters is −1.78 to + 1.33‰, typical of carbonate dissolution. Radiocarbon is low, 1.03–5.16 pMC. Chemical correction with bicarbonate concentration and δ13C correction methods gave best mean residence times, slightly longer than previously published. Sulphate has δ34S 26.6–28.9‰ and δ18O 8.9–11.1‰ due to dissolution of evaporites in carbonate rocks. Boron at concentrations of 1.2–6.1 mg/l has two origins: δ11B = 11.3–16.4‰ from hydrothermal alteration and δ11B = 26.6–31.7‰ from carbonate dissolution. Strontium at concentrations of 0.5–22.0 mg/l has 87Sr//86Sr, indicating three sources: 0.7106 for Miocene clastic rocks, 0.7082 for Triassic carbonates and 0.7070 for Lower Oligocene andesitic rocks. CO2 represents the majority of the dissolved (> 98.84 vol%) and separated gas (> 95.23 vol%). Methane is only found in two wells with a max. of 0.30 vol%. All waters show excess helium and 16–97% of mantle-derived helium. Since all show subsurface degassing, the paleo-infiltration temperature could not be calculated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thomas Gschwantner; Iciar Alberdi; Sébastien Bauwens; Susann Bender; Dragan Borota; Michal Bosela; Olivier Bouriaud; Johannes Breidenbach; Jānis Donis; Christoph Fischer; +25 more
    Countries: Denmark, Norway, Slovenia, Germany, Belgium
    Project: EC | DIABOLO (633464)

    Wood resources have been essential for human welfare throughout history. Also nowadays, the volume of growing stock (GS) is considered one of the most important forest attributes monitored by National Forest Inventories (NFIs) to inform policy decisions and forest management planning. The origins of forest inventories closely relate to times of early wood shortage in Europe causing the need to explore and plan the utilisation of GS in the catchment areas of mines, saltworks and settlements. Over time, forest surveys became more detailed and their scope turned to larger areas, although they were still conceived as stand-wise inventories. In the 1920s, the first sample-based NFIs were introduced in the northern European countries. Since the earliest beginnings, GS monitoring approaches have considerably evolved. Current NFI methods differ due to country-specific conditions, inventory traditions, and information needs. Consequently, GS estimates were lacking international comparability and were therefore subject to recent harmonisation efforts to meet the increasing demand for consistent forest resource information at European level. As primary large-area monitoring programmes in most European countries, NFIs assess a multitude of variables, describing various aspects of sustainable forest management, including for example wood supply, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity. Many of these contemporary subject matters involve considerations about GS and its changes, at different geographic levels and time frames from past to future developments according to scenario simulations. Due to its historical, continued and currently increasing importance, we provide an up-to-date review focussing on large-area GS monitoring where we i) describe the origins and historical development of European NFIs, ii) address the terminology and present GS definitions of NFIs, iii) summarise the current methods of 23 European NFIs including sampling methods, tree measurements, volume models, estimators, uncertainty components, and the use of air- and space-borne data sources, iv) present the recent progress in NFI harmonisation in Europe, and v) provide an outlook under changing climate and forest-based bioeconomy objectives.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nina MALI; Anja KOROŠA; Janko URBANC;
    Publisher: Geological Survey of Slovenia
    Country: Slovenia
    Project: EC | GeoERA (731166)

    Onesnaženje podzemne vode s pesticidi je splošno razširjen problem, tako v svetu kot tudi v Sloveniji. Glede na pretekle velike obremenitve podzemne vode s pesticidi, je bil namen predstavljene raziskave ugotoviti razširjenost pesticidov v podzemni vodi Krško-Brežiškega polja v obdobju 2018 - 2019 in pri tem preveriti uporabnost metode vzorčenja vode s pasivnimi vzorčevalniki. Skupno smo odvzeli 21 vzorcev podzemne vode na enajstih lokacijah in po dva vzorca v rekah Sava in Krka. V vodi smo določili 15 različnih pesticidov in njihovih razgradnih produktov. V vzorcih podzemne vode sta bila največkrat določena atrazin in njegov razgradni produkt desetilatrazin. Sledijo pesticidi desetilterbutilazin, terbutilazin, metolaklor ter simazin. V površinski vodi smo zaznali atrazin, desetilatrazin, klortoluron, metolaklor in terbutilazin. S kvalitativno metodo vzorčenja s pasivnimi vzorčevalniki smo v podzemni in površinski vodi odvzeli skupno 24 vzorcev. Izločili smo 8 pesticidov, ki se pojavljajo v dveh serijah. Pogostnost pojavljanja posameznih pesticidov je po obeh metodah primerljiva. Pasivno vzorčenje vode se je izkazalo za primerno metodo identifikacije prisotnosti pesticidov. Največje obremenitve s pesticidi na Krško-Brežiškem polju prihajajo s kmetijskih površin. Podzemna voda je bolj obremenjena s pesticidi v osrednjem delu polja v smeri toka od zahoda proti vzhodu. Atrazin in desetilatrazin sta še vedno, kljub dvajsetletni prepovedi, najpogosteje in v najvišjih koncentracijah zaznana pesticida v podzemni vodi Krško-Brežiškega polja. Groundwater pollution with pesticides is a problem that occurs all over the world as well as in Slovenia. Considering the past high loads of groundwater with pesticides, the purpose of the presented research was to determine the presence of pesticides in the groundwater of Krško-Brežiško polje in the period 2018-2019 and to check the applicability of the passive sampling method. A total of 21 groundwater samples were taken at 11 locations and 2 samples each in the Sava and Krka rivers. We identified 15 pesticides and their degradation products. Atrazine and its degradation product desethylatrazine were most frequently determined in groundwater samples. They are followed by desethylterbutylazine, terbutylazine, metolachlor and simazine. Atrazine, desethylatrazine, chlortoluron, metolachlor and terbuthylazine were detected in surface water. A total of 24 samples were taken in groundwater and surface water using the qualitative passive sampling method. We singled out 8 pesticides that appear in two campaigns. The frequency and occurrence of individual pesticides by both methods are comparable. Passive sampling has proven to be an appropriate method of identifying the presence of pesticides. The highest loads in the Krško-Brežiško field arise from the agricultural land areas. Groundwater is more contaminated with pesticides in the central part of the field in the direction of groundwater flow from west to east. In the groundwater of the Krško-Brežice field, atrazine and desethylatrazine are still the most frequently detected pesticides with higher concentrations, despite a 20 years long ban on the use of atrazine-based plant protection products.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    S.Y. Bunting; Dan Lapworth; Emily Crane; J. Grima-Olmedo; A. Koroša; A. Kuczyńska; N. Mali; L. Rosenqvist; M.E. van Vliet; A. Togola; +1 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: United Kingdom, Slovenia, Slovenia
    Project: EC | GeoERA (731166), EC | GeoERA (731166)

    In Europe, emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in groundwater is a growing research area. Prioritisation for monitoring EOCs in Europe was formalised in 2019 through the development of the first voluntary groundwater watch list (GWWL). Despite this, groundwater occurrence data in the peer reviewed literature for Europe has not been reviewed to date. Questions surrounding the effect, toxicity, movement in the subsurface and unsaturated zone make the process of regulating EOC use difficult. The aim in Europe is to develop a unified strategy for the classification, and prioritisation of EOCs to be monitored in groundwater. This paper compiles evidence from the recent published studies from across Europe, since 2012, when the last major literature global review of EOCs in groundwater took place. A total of 39 studies were identified for review based on specific selection criteria (geography, publication date, sample size>10, inclusion of EOCs data). Data on specific compounds, and associated meta-data, are compiled and reviewed. The two most frequently detected EOCs, carbamazepine and caffeine, occurred in groundwater at concentrations of up to 2.3 and 14.8 ?g/L, respectively. The most frequently reported category of compounds were ‘Pharmaceuticals’; a highly studied group with 135 compounds identified within 31 of the 39 studies. In Europe, the majority of reviewed studies (23) were at a regional scale, looking specifically at EOCs in a specific city or aquifer. The use of analytical methods is not uniform across Europe, and this inevitably influences the current assessment of EOCs in groundwater. A correlation between the number of compounds analysed for, and the number detected in groundwater highlights the need for further studies, especially larger-scale studies throughout Europe. For the development of EU and national regulation, further work is required to understand the occurrence and impacts of EOCs in groundwater throughout Europe and elsewhere. © 2020 Copyright British Geological Survey (c) UKRI 2020Assessing the occurrence of emerging organic compounds in European groundwater; implications for environmental exposure. © 2020 Copyright British Geological Survey (c) UKRI 2020

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kevin Kress; Ulrike Weiler; Sonja Schmucker; Marjeta Čandek-Potokar; Milka Vrecl; Gregor Fazarinc; Martin Škrlep; Nina Batorek-Lukač; Volker Stefanski;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Slovenia
    Project: EC | SusAn (696231)

    vaccinations at an age of 12 and 22 weeks, respectively. Boars, immunocastrates and barrows (n = 48 each) were assigned to three different housing conditions (n = 36 enriched, n = 36 standard n = 72 repeated social mixing). Immune response was quantified by measuring GnRH-binding and its consequences for testosterone concentrations, development of the genital tract and boar taint. Growth performance was evaluated via average daily gain (ADG). GnRH-binding and testosterone levels revealed that immunocastration reliably suppressed testicular functions after the 2nd vaccination. Housing conditions did not modify testicular function but influenced ADG as animals under mixing grew slower than those under enriched conditions. Gonadal status had only a slight impact on ADG except in immunocastrates, which showed a temporarily higher ADG after the 2nd vaccination. The results show that immunocastration is a reliable procedure under different housing conditions and competitive in terms of growth performance. Immunocastration is a sustainable alternative to piglet castration but faces limited market acceptance. The phenomenon of non-responders has not to date been examined in detail, but adverse and stressful housing conditions (e.g., mixing of groups) might impair the success of vaccinations. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of housing conditions on the immune response after two Improvac®