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136 Research products

  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
  • Publications
  • Other research products
  • Academy of Finland

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nuria Benavent; Anoop S. Mahajan; Qinyi Li; Carlos A. Cuevas; +30 Authors

    This study received funding from the European Research Council Executive Agency under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (project ERC‐2016‐COG 726349 CLIMAHAL and ERC-2016-STG 714621 GASPARCON) and the European Commission via the EMME-CARE project and was supported by the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas of Spain. This work was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement no. 856612 and the Academy of Finland (project no. 334514). The Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology is funded by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. Ozone, CO, CH4 and AMS measurements were funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant 200021_188478), the Swiss Polar Institute and U.S. National Science Foundation grants 1914781 and 1807163. J.S. holds the Ingvar Kamprad chair for extreme environments research, sponsored by Ferring Pharmaceuticals. Data reported in this manuscript were produced as part of the international MOSAiC expedition with tag MOSAiC20192020, with activities supported by Polarstern expedition AWI-PS122_00. H.S. was funded by the European ERA-PLANET projects iGOSP and iCUPE (consortium agreement no. 689443 for both projects). We thank FORMAS and the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat for support. We gratefully acknowledge funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (project no. 268020496 – TRR 172) within the Transregional Collaborative Research Center ‘ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3’ in subproject C03. We thank I. Bourgeois (NOAA/CIRES) for providing the ATom NOx data. Unlike bromine, the effect of iodine chemistry on the Arctic surface ozone budget is poorly constrained. We present ship-based measurements of halogen oxides in the high Arctic boundary layer from the sunlit period of March to October 2020 and show that iodine enhances springtime tropospheric ozone depletion. We find that chemical reactions between iodine and ozone are the second highest contributor to ozone loss over the study period, after ozone photolysis-initiated loss and ahead of bromine. 6 pags., 2 figs. Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nature Geosciencearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Nature Geoscience
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nature Geosciencearrow_drop_down
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      Nature Geoscience
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Foreback, Benjamin; Yan, Chao; Wang, Lili; Kulmala, Markku; +1 Authors

    These are the datasets that have been used for the article "Measurement Report: A Multi-Year Study on the Impacts of Chinese New Year Celebrations on Air 1 Quality in Beijing, China," which is published in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, by Foreback et al. (2022).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ZENODO
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZENODO
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZENODO
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: ZENODO
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zoé Brasseur; Dimitri Castarède; Erik S. Thomson; Michael P. Adams; +41 Authors

    The formation of ice particles in Earth's atmosphere strongly influences the dynamics and optical properties of clouds and their impacts on the climate system. Ice formation in clouds is often triggered heterogeneously by ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that represent a very low number of particles in the atmosphere. To date, many sources of INPs, such as mineral and soil dust, have been investigated and identified in the low and mid latitudes. Although less is known about the sources of ice nucleation at high latitudes, efforts have been made to identify the sources of INPs in the Arctic and boreal environments. In this study, we investigate the INP emission potential from high-latitude boreal forests in the mixed-phase cloud regime. We introduce the HyICE-2018 measurement campaign conducted in the boreal forest of Hyytiala, Finland, between February and June 2018. The campaign utilized the infrastructure of the Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR) II, with additional INP instruments, including the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber I and II (PINC and PINCii), the SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN), the Portable Ice Nucleation Experiment (PINE), the Ice Nucleation SpEctrometer of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (INSEKT) and the Microlitre Nucleation by Immersed Particle Instrument (mu L-NIPI), used to quantify the INP concentrations and sources in the boreal environment. In this contribution, we describe the measurement infrastructure and operating procedures during HyICE-2018, and we report results from specific time periods where INP instruments were run in parallel for inter-comparison purposes. Our results show that the suite of instruments deployed during HyICE-2018 reports consistent results and therefore lays the foundation for forthcoming results to be considered holistically. In addition, we compare measured INP concentrations to INP parameterizations, and we observe good agreement with the Tobo et al. (2013) parameterization developed from measurements conducted in a ponderosa pine forest ecosystem in Colorado, USA. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 22 (8) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ KITopenarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    KITopen
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: KITopen
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research Collection
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ KITopenarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      KITopen
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: KITopen
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research Collection
      Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Meri Räty; Larisa Sogacheva; Helmi-Marja Keskinen; Veli-Matti Kerminen; +4 Authors

    Boreal forests cover vast areas of land in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, which are under amplified climate warming. The interactions between the forests and the atmosphere are known to generate a complex set of feedback processes. One feedback process, potentially producing a cooling effect, is associated with an increased reflectance of clouds due to aerosol–cloud interactions. Here, we investigate the effect that the boreal forest environment can have on cloud-related properties during the growing season. The site investigated was the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Finland. Air mass back trajectories were the basis of the analysis and were used to estimate the time each air mass had spent over land prior to its arrival at the station. This enabled tracking the changes occurring in originally marine air masses as they travelled across the forested land. Only air masses arriving from the northwestern sector were investigated, as these areas have a relatively uniform forest cover and relatively little anthropogenic interference. We connected the air mass analysis with comprehensive in situ and remote-sensing data sets covering up to 11 growing seasons. We found that the properties of air masses with short land transport times, thereby less influenced by the forest, differed from those exposed to the forest environment for a longer period. The fraction of air masses with cloud condensation nuclei concentrations (at 0.2 % supersaturation) above the median value of 180 cm−3 of the analysed air masses increased from approximately 10 % to 80 % after 55 h of exposure to boreal forest, while the fraction of air masses with specific humidity above the median value of 5 g kg−1 increased from roughly 25 % to 65 %. Signs of possible resulting changes in the cloud layer were also observed from satellite measurements. Lastly, precipitation frequency increased from the average of approximately 7 % to about 12 % after a threshold of 50 h of land transport. Most of the variables showed an increase with an increasing land transport time until approximately 50–55 h, after which a balance with little further variation seemed to have been reached. This appears to be the approximate timescale in which the forest–cloud interactions take effect and the air masses adjust to the local forest environment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Tareq Hussein; Asal Al-Abdallat; Shatha Suleiman Ali Saleh; Marwan Al-Kloub;

    In this study, we present an estimation for the inhaled deposited dose rate in adult males and females during common exposure scenarios to urban background aerosols in an Eastern Mediterranean city (Amman, Jordan) based on a one-year database of measured particle number size distribution. The dose rates show seasonal variations reflecting the physical characteristics (i.e., modal structure) of the particle number size distribution. An additional factor was the varying deposition fraction (DF) for different regions and different human activities (exercising versus resting). The total dose rate was 3 × 109–65 × 109 particles/h (PM2.5 and PM10 doses 1–22 µg/h and 9–210 µg/h; respectively) depending on the gender, activity, and season. Based on the particle number metrics, the inhaled deposited dose in the head, Tracheobronchial, and alveolar were 7–16%, 16–28%, and 56–76%; respectively. Based on the PM2.5 metric, the corresponding dose rate was 9–41%,13–19%; and 46–72% respectively. As for the PM10 metric, they were 25–75%, 7–35%, and 15–55%; respectively.

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    Authors: Xudan Zhu; Liang Chen; Jukka Pumpanen; Anne Ojala; +6 Authors

    AbstractThe past decades have witnessed an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the catchments of the Northern Hemisphere. Increasing terrestrial productivity and changing hydrology may be reasons for the increases in DOC concentration. The aim of this study is to investigate the impacts of increased terrestrial productivity and changed hydrology following climate change on DOC concentrations. We tested and quantified the effects of gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RE) and discharge on DOC concentrations in boreal catchments over 3 years. As catchment characteristics can regulate the extent of rising DOC concentrations caused by the regional or global environmental changes, we selected four catchments with different sizes (small, medium and large) and landscapes (forest, mire and forest‐mire mixed). We applied multiple models: Wavelet coherence analysis detected the delay‐effects of terrestrial productivity and discharge on aquatic DOC variations of boreal catchments; thereafter, the distributed‐lag linear models quantified the contributions of each factor on DOC variations. Our results showed that the combined impacts of terrestrial productivity and discharge explained 62% of aquatic DOC variations on average across all sites, whereas discharge, gross primary production (GPP) and RE accounted for 26%, 22% and 3%, respectively. The impact of GPP and discharge on DOC changes was directly related to catchment size: GPP dominated DOC fluctuations in small catchments (<1 km2), whereas discharge controlled DOC variations in big catchments (>1 km2). The direction of the relation between GPP and discharge on DOC varied. Increasing RE always made a positive contribution to DOC concentration. This study reveals that climate change‐induced terrestrial greening and shifting hydrology change the DOC export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. The work improves our mechanistic understanding of surface water DOC regulation in boreal catchments and confirms the importance of DOC fluxes in regulating ecosystem C budgets.

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    Global Change Biology
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    Global Change Biology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Global Change Biology
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      Global Change Biology
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    Authors: Chao Yan; Yicheng Shen; Dominik Stolzenburg; Lubna Dada; +53 Authors

    During the COVID-19 lockdown, the dramatic reduction of anthropogenic emissions provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of reduced anthropogenic activity and primary emissions on atmospheric chemical processes and the consequent formation of secondary pollutants. Here, we utilize comprehensive observations to examine the response of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) to the changes in the atmospheric chemical cocktail. We find that the main clustering process was unaffected by the drastically reduced traffic emissions, and the formation rate of 1.5 nm particles remained unaltered. However, particle survival probability was enhanced due to an increased particle growth rate (GR) during the lockdown period, explaining the enhanced NPF activity in earlier studies. For GR at 1.5–3 nm, sulfuric acid (SA) was the main contributor at high temperatures, whilst there were unaccounted contributing vapors at low temperatures. For GR at 3–7 and 7–15 nm, oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) played a major role. Surprisingly, OOM composition and volatility were insensitive to the large change of atmospheric NOx concentration; instead the associated high particle growth rates and high OOM concentration during the lockdown period were mostly caused by the enhanced atmospheric oxidative capacity. Overall, our findings suggest a limited role of traffic emissions in NPF.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://acp.copernicus.org/pre...
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
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    Authors: Tareq Hussein; Xinyang Li; Zaid Bakri; Andres Alastuey; +4 Authors

    The Mediterranean region is an important area for air pollution as it is the crossroads between three continents; therefore, the concentrations of atmospheric aerosol particles are influenced by emissions from Africa, Asia, and Europe. Here we concentrate on an eleven-month time series of the ambient concentration of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) between May 2018– March 2019 in Amman, Jordan. Such a dataset is unique in Jordan. The results show that the OC and EC annual mean concentrations in PM2.5 samples were 5.9 ± 2.8 µg m–3 and 1.7 ± 1.1 µg m–3, respectively. It was found that the majority of OC and EC concentrations were within the fine particle fraction (PM2.5). During sand and dust storm (SDS) episodes OC and EC concentrations were higher than the annual means; the mean values during these periods were about 9.6 ± 3.5 µg m–3 and 2.5 ± 1.2 µg m–3 in the PM2.5 samples. Based on this, the SDS episodes were identified to be responsible for an increased carbonaceous aerosol content as well as PM2.5 and PM10 content, which may have direct implications on human health. This study encourages us to perform more extensive measurements during a longer time period and to include an advanced chemical and physical characterization for urban aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Amman, which can be representative of other urban areas in the region. This research was funded by the Deanship of Academic Research (DAR, project number 2015) at the University of Jordan. Academy of Finland Center of Excellence (project No. 272041). eCOST action (inDUST, project number CA16202) support via the Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM) mobility grant. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Leinonen, Ville; Kokkola, Harri; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Mielonen, Tero; +32 Authors

    Despite a large number of studies, out of all drivers of radiative forcing, the effect of aerosols has the largest uncertainty in global climate model radiative forcing estimates. There have been studies of aerosol optical properties in climate models, but the effects of particle number size distribution need a more thorough inspection. We investigated the trends and seasonality of particle number concentrations in nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes at 21 measurement sites in Europe and the Arctic. For 13 of those sites, with longer measurement time series, we compared the field observations with the results from five climate models, namely EC-Earth3, ECHAM-M7, ECHAM-SALSA, NorESM1.2, and UKESM1. This is the first extensive comparison of detailed aerosol size distribution trends between in situ observations from Europe and five earth system models (ESMs). We found that the trends of particle number concentrations were mostly consistent and decreasing in both measurements and models. However, for many sites, climate models showed weaker decreasing trends than the measurements. Seasonal variability in measured number concentrations, quantified by the ratio between maximum and minimum monthly number concentration, was typically stronger at northern measurement sites compared to other locations. Models had large differences in their seasonal representation, and they can be roughly divided into two categories: for EC-Earth and NorESM, the seasonal cycle was relatively similar for all sites, and for other models the pattern of seasonality varied between northern and southern sites. In addition, the variability in concentrations across sites varied between models, some having relatively similar concentrations for all sites, whereas others showed clear differences in concentrations between remote and urban sites. To conclude, although all of the model simulations had identical input data to describe anthropogenic mass emissions, trends in differently sized particles vary among the models due to assumptions in emission sizes and differences in how models treat size-dependent aerosol processes. The inter-model variability was largest in the accumulation mode, i.e. sizes which have implications for aerosol-cloud interactions. Our analysis also indicates that between models there is a large variation in efficiency of long-range transportation of aerosols to remote locations. The differences in model results are most likely due to the more complex effect of different processes instead of one specific feature (e.g. the representation of aerosol or emission size distributions). Hence, a more detailed characterization of microphysical processes and deposition processes affecting the long-range transport is needed to understand the model variability. Peer reviewed

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Authors: Matthew D. Shupe; Markus Rex; Byron Blomquist; P. Ola G. Persson; +110 Authors

    International audience; With the Arctic rapidly changing, the needs to observe, understand, and model the changes are essential. To support these needs, an annual cycle of observations of atmospheric properties, processes, and interactions were made while drifting with the sea ice across the central Arctic during the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition from October 2019 to September 2020. An international team designed and implemented the comprehensive program to document and characterize all aspects of the Arctic atmospheric system in unprecedented detail, using a variety of approaches, and across multiple scales. These measurements were coordinated with other observational teams to explore cross-cutting and coupled interactions with the Arctic Ocean, sea ice, and ecosystem through a variety of physical and biogeochemical processes. This overview outlines the breadth and complexity of the atmospheric research program, which was organized into 4 subgroups: atmospheric state, clouds and precipitation, gases and aerosols, and energy budgets. Atmospheric variability over the annual cycle revealed important influences from a persistent large-scale winter circulation pattern, leading to some storms with pressure and winds that were outside the interquartile range of past conditions suggested by long-term reanalysis. Similarly, the MOSAiC location was warmer and wetter in summer than the reanalysis climatology, in part due to its close proximity to the sea ice edge. The comprehensiveness of the observational program for characterizing and analyzing atmospheric phenomena is demonstrated via a winter case study examining air mass transitions and a summer case study examining vertical atmospheric evolution. Overall, the MOSAiC atmospheric program successfully met its objectives and was the most comprehensive atmospheric measurement program to date conducted over the Arctic sea ice. The obtained data will support a broad range of coupled-system scientific research and provide an important foundation for advancing multiscale modeling capabilities in the Arctic.

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    Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene
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    Authors: Nuria Benavent; Anoop S. Mahajan; Qinyi Li; Carlos A. Cuevas; +30 Authors

    This study received funding from the European Research Council Executive Agency under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (project ERC‐2016‐COG 726349 CLIMAHAL and ERC-2016-STG 714621 GASPARCON) and the European Commission via the EMME-CARE project and was supported by the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas of Spain. This work was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement no. 856612 and the Academy of Finland (project no. 334514). The Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology is funded by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. Ozone, CO, CH4 and AMS measurements were funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant 200021_188478), the Swiss Polar Institute and U.S. National Science Foundation grants 1914781 and 1807163. J.S. holds the Ingvar Kamprad chair for extreme environments research, sponsored by Ferring Pharmaceuticals. Data reported in this manuscript were produced as part of the international MOSAiC expedition with tag MOSAiC20192020, with activities supported by Polarstern expedition AWI-PS122_00. H.S. was funded by the European ERA-PLANET projects iGOSP and iCUPE (consortium agreement no. 689443 for both projects). We thank FORMAS and the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat for support. We gratefully acknowledge funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (project no. 268020496 – TRR 172) within the Transregional Collaborative Research Center ‘ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3’ in subproject C03. We thank I. Bourgeois (NOAA/CIRES) for providing the ATom NOx data. Unlike bromine, the effect of iodine chemistry on the Arctic surface ozone budget is poorly constrained. We present ship-based measurements of halogen oxides in the high Arctic boundary layer from the sunlit period of March to October 2020 and show that iodine enhances springtime tropospheric ozone depletion. We find that chemical reactions between iodine and ozone are the second highest contributor to ozone loss over the study period, after ozone photolysis-initiated loss and ahead of bromine. 6 pags., 2 figs. Peer reviewed

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