Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International - MDPI
Project: EC | FAirWAY (727984)
Solutions to current complex environmental challenges demand the consultation and involvement of various groups in society. In light of the WFD’s requirements of public participation, this paper presents an analysis of the establishment and development of nine different multi-actor platforms (MAPs) across Europe set up as arenas for long-term engagements to solve water quality challenges in relation to agriculture. The MAPs represent different histories and legacies of engagement some are recent initiatives and some are affiliated with previous government-initiated projects, while other MAPs are long-term engagement platforms. A case study approach rawing on insights from the nine engagement processes is used to discuss conditions for enabling long-term multi-actor engagement. The perceived pressure for change and preferred prioritization in complying with mitigating water quality problems vary within and among the MAPs. The results show that governmental and local actors’ concern for water quality improvements and focusing on pressure for change are important for establishing meaningful multi-actor engagement when concerns translate into a clear mandate of the MAP. Furthermore, the degree to which the MAPs have been able to establish relationships and networks with other institutions such as water companies, agricultural and environmental authorities, farmers, and civil society organizations influences possibilities for long-term meaningful engagement.
Ten innovative EU projects to build ocean observation systems that provide input for evidence-based management of the ocean and the Blue Economy, have joined forces in the strong cluster ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge’. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group published a joint policy brief listing recommendations for sustainable ocean observation and management. The cooperation is supported by the EU Horizon Results Booster and enables the group to achieve a higher societal impact. The policy brief will be presented to the European Commission on 15 October 2021. The ocean covers 70% of the Earth’s surface and provides us with a diverse set of ecosystem services that we cannot live without or that significantly improve our quality of life. It is the primary controller of our climate, plays a critical role in providing the air we breathe and the fresh water we drink, supplies us with a large range of exploitable resources (from inorganic resources such as sand and minerals to biotic resources such as seafood), allows us to generate renewable energy, is an important pathway for world transport, an important source of income for tourism, etc. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) evaluates the Blue Economy to currently represent 2.5% of the world economic value of goods and services produced, with the potential to further double in size by 2030 (seabed mining, shipping, fishing, tourism, renewable energy systems and aquaculture will intensify). However, the overall consequences of the intensification of human activities on marine ecosystems and their services (such as ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, sea level rise, changing distribution and abundance of fish etc.) are still poorly quantified. In addition, on larger geographic and temporal scales, marine data currently appear fragmented, are inhomogeneous, contain data gaps and are difficult to access. This limits our capacity to understand the ocean variability and sustainably manage the ocean and its resources. Consequently, there is a need to develop a framework for more in-depth understanding of marine ecosystems, that links reliable, timely and fit-for-purpose ocean observations to the design and implementation of evidence-based decisions on the management of the ocean. To adequately serve governments, societies, the sustainable Blue Economy and citizens, ocean data need to be collected and delivered in line with the Value Chain of Ocean Information: 1) identification of required data; 2) deployment and maintenance of instruments that collect the data; 3) delivery of data and derived information products; and 4) impact assessment of services to end users. To provide input to the possible future establishment of such a framework, ten innovative EU projects to build user-focused, interdisciplinary, responsive and sustained ocean information systems and increase the sustainability of the Blue Economy, joined forces in a strong cluster to better address key global marine challenges. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group translated its common concerns to recommendations and listed these in the joint policy brief ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge. Ocean Information for Sustainable Management.’. Following up on these recommendations will strengthen the entire Value Chain of Ocean Information and ensure sound sustainable ocean management. In this way, the 10 projects jointly strive to achieve goals set out in the EU Green Deal, the Paris Agreement (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and the United Nations 2021-2030 Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Ocean Development. Toste Tanhua (GEOMAR), EuroSea coordinator: “It was great to collaborate with these other innovative projects and make joint recommendations based on different perspectives and expertise.”
ABSTRACT: One of the primary goals in FRAME project’s WP3 (Critical and Strategic Raw Materials Map of Europe), in collaboration with other work packages of FRAME and other GeoERA projects, is to produce and present the mineralisation and potential areas for CRM in Europe. Identifying new resources of supply critical mineral potential on land and in the European seabed for CRM needed for energy transition, is crucial for the European Union. In this regard, identifying and mapping of the major metallogenic areas for different type of mineralisation is essential. The global demand for CRM and strategic minerals containing cobalt, phosphorous, rare earth elements, tellurium, manganese, nickel, lithium and copper, concurrent with the rapidly diminishing quality and quantity of land-based mined deposits, has placed the seafloor as a promising new frontier for the exploration of mineral resources. To develop metallogenic research and models at regional and deposit scales, with special attention to strategic critical minerals, for which the EU’s downstream industry is highly dependent in the mid- and long-term perspectives, one must go from the known to the unknown, or at least, less known. Collating this information into favourable terrains is absolutely necessary to be able to understand mineralisation at the various scales. The latter was one of FRAME’s objectives as we will see developed below for phosphate and cobalt mineralisation. N/A
Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz in an interesting oil crop for multipurpose uses and its cultivation is gaining growing attention in Mediterranean context. This species is indeed suitable for cultivation in marginal lands and feasible to crop rotation with cereals. Camelina seeds are currently harvested by a combine harvester equipped with cereal header. Considering the tiny dimension of the seeds, which can lead to substantial seed loss, proper assessment of mechanical harvesting is a key issue for the correct development of effective camelina seeds supply chain. The present study is one of the first which aimed to analyze mechanical harvesting of camelina seeds through combine harvester. Work performance, in details work productivity, harvesting costs and seed loss, of harvesting operation were carried out in two experimental field tests. The first one located in Northern Italy and characterized by organic farming, whilst the second experimental field was located in Spain, with conventional farming system. While working productivity and harvesting costs resulted to be comparable to the ones found in literature for other seeds collected by combine harvester, seed loss showed higher values. This is mainly related to two factors: the small dimension of seeds and the presence of weeds. Proper combine setting and assessment of the working speed seem currently being the most effective solutions to reduce seed loss.
We compared observations of aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different environments that have frequent new particle formation (NPF) events. In summer 2012 we had a campaign in Po Valley, Italy (urban background), and in spring 2013 a similar campaign took place in Hyytiälä, Finland (rural background). Our study consists of three case studies of airborne and ground-based measurements of ion and particle size distribution from ∼1 nm. The airborne measurements were performed using a Zeppelin inside the boundary layer up to 1000 m altitude. Our observations show the onset of regional NPF and the subsequent growth of the aerosol particles happening almost uniformly inside the mixed layer (ML) in both locations. However, in Hyytiälä we noticed local enhancement in the intensity of NPF caused by mesoscale boundary layer (BL) dynamics. Additionally, our observations indicate that in Hyytiälä NPF was probably also taking place above the ML. In Po Valley we observed NPF that was limited to a specific air mass.
These files contain the R code for inference of IDF-models for extreme precipitation. The code is based on the main elements of the two publications: Van de Vyver, H. (2015) Bayesian estimation of rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relationships, Journal of Hydrology 529 (3), 1451--1463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.08.036 Van de Vyver, H. (2018) A multiscaling-based intensity-duration-frequency model for extreme precipitation, Hydrological Processes 32 (11), 1635-1647. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.11516 There are two different IDF-models included: (i) Simple Scaling model (Van de Vyver, 2015), and (ii) Multiscaling model (Van de Vyver, 2018). The IDF-model parameters are estimated, and the corresponding return levels are computed (the so-called IDF-values). There are two adjusted Bayesian schemes involved: (i) Magnitude adjusted, and (ii) Curvature adjusted, but they give similar results. The output consists of the posterior densities, the posterior medians, and the 95%-Credible Intervals. In addition, BIC-values are computed for model selection (i.e. simple scaling versus multiscaling). The files include: "AM_UCCLE.RData": data input file with Annual Maximum Rainfall Intensities for station Uccle. "Inference.functions.R": file with R-functions defining the likelihoods of the IDF-models. R-scripts for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of IDF-models, which is always performed first, before the Bayesian estimation: "MLE.SS.R" (Simple Scaling model), and "MLE.MS.R (Multiscaling model). R-scripts for Bayesian Estimation of IDF-models. The output of the maximum likelihood estimation (point 3) is used. For the Simple Scaling model: "BAYES.MAGN.SS.R" (magnitude adjusted), and "BAYES.CURV.SS.R" (curvature adjusted). For the Multiscaling model: "BAYES.MAGN.MS.R" (magnitude adjusted), and "BAYES.CURV.MS.R" (curvature adjusted).
These files contain the R code for the Quantile Regression models for the scaling of short‐duration precipitation extremes with (dew point) temperature. The code is based on the main elements of the following Technical Note: Van de Vyver, H., Van Schaeybroeck, B., De Troch, R., Hamdi, R., & Termonia, P. (2019). Modeling the scaling of short‐duration precipitation extremes with temperature. Earth and Space Science, 6, 2031--2041. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EA000665 There are two different quantile regression models included: (i) CC model: linear quantile regression model for estimating the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate, and (ii) CC+ model: piecewise linear quantile regression model for estimating the CC rate, the super-CC rate, and the (dew) point temperature where the transition from CC scaling to super-CC scaling takes place. The output consists of the estimated scaling rates, the change-point, 95%-Confidence Intervals, BIC, and a Goodness-of-Fit which measures the relative strength of the predictor, i.e. (dew point) temperature, to the hourly precipitation extremes. The files include: "PP1h.TEMP.DEW.UCCLE.RData": data input file with declustered hourly precipitation, and corresponding daily mean (dew point) temperature. "QR.functions.R": file with Least Absolute Deviation (LAD) Functions to be Minimized. "QR.R": R-script for estimating the CC and CC+ models "QR.BOOT.R": R-script for estimating the uncertainty with the Bootstrap.
Project: EC | MEDSEA (265103), UKRI | NSFGEO-NERC An unexpected... (NE/N011708/1), MZOS | Mechanism of long-term ch... (098-0982705-2731), EC | SEACELLS (670390), UKRI | GW4+ - a consortium of ex... (NE/L002434/1)
Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.
This is chapter 10 of the State of Environmental Science in Svalbard (SESS) report 2020 (https://sios-svalbard.org/SESS_Issue3). Ground-based observations are critical requirements for many disciplines that are trying to monitor climate change in a remote environment such as the Svalbard archipelago. This overview of cameras operating in Svalbard has been compiled by searching for specific applications that monitor the snow cover and by collecting information about images that can be accessed on the internet, including those not solely dedicated to cryospheric research. The survey identified 43 cameras operating in the region that are managed by research institutions and private companies. These cameras include facilities operated by different nationalities. The datasets vary, but the feasibility of using them to determine fractional snow cover is generally limited. Identifying the key metadata necessary to survey the available devices revealed problems and knowledge gaps that prevent using the full potential of terrestrial photography networks in Svalbard.
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