ABSTRACT: One of the primary goals in FRAME project’s WP3 (Critical and Strategic Raw Materials Map of Europe), in collaboration with other work packages of FRAME and other GeoERA projects, is to produce and present the mineralisation and potential areas for CRM in Europe. Identifying new resources of supply critical mineral potential on land and in the European seabed for CRM needed for energy transition, is crucial for the European Union. In this regard, identifying and mapping of the major metallogenic areas for different type of mineralisation is essential. The global demand for CRM and strategic minerals containing cobalt, phosphorous, rare earth elements, tellurium, manganese, nickel, lithium and copper, concurrent with the rapidly diminishing quality and quantity of land-based mined deposits, has placed the seafloor as a promising new frontier for the exploration of mineral resources. To develop metallogenic research and models at regional and deposit scales, with special attention to strategic critical minerals, for which the EU’s downstream industry is highly dependent in the mid- and long-term perspectives, one must go from the known to the unknown, or at least, less known. Collating this information into favourable terrains is absolutely necessary to be able to understand mineralisation at the various scales. The latter was one of FRAME’s objectives as we will see developed below for phosphate and cobalt mineralisation. N/A
In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, innovation became a key element to promote economic growth. Cities started playing a significant role in promoting it quickly becoming torn between authentic urban regeneration processes and gentrification. We argue that ambience, and the concept of atmosphere, is a highly-relevant strategic element able to trigger city development that avoids gentrification. We take the inner-city parishes of Marvila and Beato (Lisbon, Portugal) as a case study currently undergoing significant changes due to strong investment after decades of neglect.
The Institute of Social Sciences at the University of Lisbon (ICSUL) is one of the academic partners of the ROCK project. ICSUL’s commitment towards cultural heritage-led regeneration has been developed through the application of an innovative community-based action research with local stakeholders and residents on the eastern side of Lisbon, in a demonstration area across the neighbouroods of Marvila and Beato. Acknowledgung that the optimization of tangible and intangible heritage was based on goals of social inclusion and participation for more effective solutions, we approached the demonstration area by triangulating qualitative and quantitative methods (i.e. participant observation, interviews with key actors, and both intensive and extensive surveys). Data were collected and made available in open access through scientifc and policy publications. The creation of the Lisbon Living Lab in partnership with the Lisbon city council provided needed conditions to promote a wide array of initiatives and to implement three major actions: one Pop-Up based on the reuse of empty stores led by the local NGO Rés do Chão; the co-design of an edible garden named “garden for all” by the local NGOs Muita Fruta and Coletivo Warehouse; and the creation of a new interpretive Centre of Beato and Marvila in the public library, co-led by the city council and ICSUL.
In the late 1990s, research on transparency, accountability and corruption in the context of public sector emerged. This research was motivated by heavy criticism concerning the presuppositions of the New Public Management (NPM) and traditional theories of public administration (Pedersen, Sehested, & Sørensen 2010) and offered a new perspective. According to this new paradigm, interactive collaboration between state, market, and society, was vital. Consequently, the importance of accountability, transparency, open government, and the democratic rule of law should be reinforced (Lyrio, Lunkes & Taliani 2018). The concept of transparency itself is an old concept. It started being discussed back in the French Revolution, and it was built from an idea of representative democracy, culminating in an idea of participatory democracy. What was emphasised was the importance of the relationship between the government and society (Meijer 2015).
In 2017 the project ROCK (“Regeneration and Optimization of Cultural Heritage in Creative and Knowledge Cities”) kicked-off in a number of European cities seeking to develop innovative solutions to use cultural heritage as a driver for urban regeneration. The project, financed by the European Commission under the Horizon2020 framework, is based on a methodology of replicating solutions from so-called “Role Model Cities” in three “Replicator Cities”, one of which is Lisbon. The solutions were developed through small-scale pilot projects by the Lisbon Municipality, in partnership with a team of researchers based at the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon (ICS-ULisboa; henceforth referred to as ICS) while also collaborating with a variety of local stakeholders. In Lisbon, the project focused on the eastern riverside area, composed by the parishes of Marvila and Beato. This area was identified by the Municipality of Lisbon as the ROCK intervention area, due to existing social and spatial challenges as well as its potential for cultural development.
This Memorandum is a policy-oriented research document conducted by the ICS-ULisboa team of the Horizon 2020 project ROCK. It seeks to organise some of the most up-to-date knowledge around Urban Centers and highlight important discussion topics, requiring further attention. In addition to academic literature review, the Memorandum relies on contributions from the international conference “Urban Centers: Acting upon or with cities?” organised by the ICS-ULisboa on the 19th October 2018 (https://rockproject.eu/event-details/41). The Conference took place in the Centre for Urban Information of Lisbon with the participation of representatives from the following Urban Centers: Centro de Informação Urbana de Lisboa (Lisbon); Fondazione Innovazione Urbana (Bologna); Urban Center of Torino; Pavillon de L’Arsenal (Paris); Centro de Cultura Contemporània Barcelona; and casa della Città / Case del Municipio (Rome). The participating Urban Centers were selected from the list provided by the international laboratory on Urban Centers (http://www.urban-center.org/en/), on the basis of their different working contexts, management models and activity. Representatives were invited to share knowledge and experience about the role, the challenges and potential of Urban Centers today and the different forms of action and participation they may have in the development of their cities.
Cities have always been built upon techniques and technologies. If we define technologies not as bleeping, high-tech gadgets but rather as the sum total of the human use of tools and related skill sets, then it is hard to think of a qualitative leap in urban development without an adjacent technological development. During the last decade, Lisbon has witnessed an increased frequency of so-called Smart City projects. The rhetoric surrounding the Smart City, at times make it sound as though the Smart City is bringing techniques & technologies to the city. As if cities were naturalized sites to which technologies are introduced. This is, of course, not the case. What does set the Smart City apart though, at least as it is envisioned, is that the development of IoT techniques, now quite literally, allows for a technological monitoring of the city. An all-encompassing retrofitting of the old. By implementing sensors and meters into ordinary objects – streetlights, buildings, roads, and traffic lights - they become aware of their surroundings. They become Smart. At least so in theory.
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