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18 Research products

  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2014-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lampilahti, Janne; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mirme, Sander; +22 Authors

    We compared observations of aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different environments that have frequent new particle formation (NPF) events. In summer 2012 we had a campaign in Po Valley, Italy (urban background), and in spring 2013 a similar campaign took place in Hyytiälä, Finland (rural background). Our study consists of three case studies of airborne and ground-based measurements of ion and particle size distribution from ∼1 nm. The airborne measurements were performed using a Zeppelin inside the boundary layer up to 1000 m altitude. Our observations show the onset of regional NPF and the subsequent growth of the aerosol particles happening almost uniformly inside the mixed layer (ML) in both locations. However, in Hyytiälä we noticed local enhancement in the intensity of NPF caused by mesoscale boundary layer (BL) dynamics. Additionally, our observations indicate that in Hyytiälä NPF was probably also taking place above the ML. In Po Valley we observed NPF that was limited to a specific air mass.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Beck, Lisa J.; Sarnela, Nina; Junninen, Heikki; Hoppe, C. J. M.; +45 Authors

    The authors acknowledge European Research Council (GASPARCON, Grant no. 714621 and COALA, Grant no. 638703), Academy of Finland (Project nos. 296628, 306853, 317380, 316114, and 320094), INTERACT, European Regional Development Fund (project MOBTT42), Austrian Science Fund (FWF, Project J3951-N36), the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (Grant no. 689443) via project iCUPE (Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments) and Project ERC-2016- COG 726349 CLIMAHAL, National Research Foundation (NRF) of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2018R1A2A1A19019281), Knut-and-Alice-Wallenberg Foundation within the Arctic Climate Across Scales (Project No. \,2016.0024), the Swedish EPA's (Naturvårdsverket) Environmental monitoring program (Miljöövervakning), the Swedish Research Council FORMAS (Project "Interplay between water, clouds and Aerosols in the Arctic," \# 2016-01427), Climate Change Tower – Integrated Project of the National Research Council of Italy and the National Interest Project by the Italian Minister of Education, University and Research (PRIN2007 and PRIN2009). The authors thank Department of Earth System Sciences and Technologies for the Environment, Department of Earth Sciences and Technology of the Environment of CNR and the doctoral program in atmospheric sciences at the University of Helsinki for financial support. Aarhus University acknowledge financial support from Danish Ministry of Environment and food and Ministry of Climate, Energy and Utilities by means of DANCEA. New particle formation in the Arctic atmosphere is an important source of aerosol particles. Understanding the processes of Arctic secondary aerosol formation is crucial due to their significant impact on cloud properties and therefore Arctic amplification. We observed the molecular formation of new particles from low-volatility vapors at two Arctic sites with differing surroundings. In Svalbard, sulfuric acid (SA) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) contribute to the formation of secondary aerosol and to some extent to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). This occurs via ion-induced nucleation of SA and NH and subsequent growth by mainly SA and MSA condensation during springtime and highly oxygenated organic molecules during summertime. By contrast, in an ice-covered region around Villum, we observed new particle formation driven by iodic acid but its concentration was insufficient to grow nucleated particles to CCN sizes. Our results provide new insight about sources and precursors of Arctic secondary aerosol particles. 11 pags., 4 figs. Peer reviewed

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lampilahti, Janne; Manninen, Hanna Elina; Leino, Katri; Väänänen, Riikka; +12 Authors

    Recent studies have shown the importance of new particle formation (NPF) to global cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production, as well as to air pollution in megacities. In addition to the necessary presence of low-volatility vapors that can form new aerosol particles, both numerical and observational studies have shown that the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer (BL) plays an important role in NPF. Evidence from field observations suggests that roll vortices might be favorable for inducing NPF in a convective BL. However, direct observations and estimates of the potential importance of this phenomenon to the production of new aerosol particles are lacking. Here we show that rolls frequently induce NPF bursts along the horizontal circulations and that the small clusters and particles originating from these localized bursts grow in size similar to particles typically ascribed to atmospheric NPF that occur almost homogeneously at a regional scale. We outline a method to identify roll-induced NPF from measurements and, based on the collected data, estimate the impact of roll vortices on the overall aerosol particle production due to NPF at a boreal forest site (83 % ± 34 % and 26 % ± 8 % overall enhancement in particle formation for 3 and 10 nm particles, respectively). We conclude that the formation of roll vortices should be taken into account when estimating particle number budgets in the atmospheric BL.

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    Authors: Peñaloza, Carolina; Manousaki, T.; Franch, R.; Tsakogiannis, A.; +6 Authors

    SNP arrays are powerful tools for high-resolution studies of the genetic basis of complex traits, facilitating both population genomic and selective breeding research. The European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) are the two most important fish species for Mediterranean aquaculture. While selective breeding programmes increasingly underpin stocky supply for this industry, genomic selection is not yet widespread. Genomic selection has major potential to expedite genetic gain, in particular for traits practically impossible to measure on selection candidates, such as disease resistance and fillet yield. The aim of our study was to design a combined-species 60K SNP array for both European seabass and gilthead seabream, and to validate its performance on farmed and wild populations from numerous locations throughout the species range. To achieve this, high coverage Illumina whole genome sequencing of pooled samples was performed for 24 populations of European seabass and 27 populations of gilthead seabream. This resulted in a database of ~20 million SNPs per species, which were then filtered to identify high-quality variants and create the final set for the development of the ‘MedFish’ SNP array. The array was then tested by genotyping a subset of the discovery populations and demonstrated a high conversion rate to functioning polymorphic assays on the array (92% in seabass: 89% in seabream) and repeatability (99.4 - 99.7%). The platform interrogates ~30K markers in each fish species, includes features such as SNPs previously shown to be associated with performance traits, and is enriched for SNPs predicted to alter protein function. The array was demonstrated to be effective at detecting population structure across a wide range of fish populations from diverse geographical origins, and to examine the extent of haplotype sharing among Mediterranean fish farms. Therefore, the MedFish array enables efficient and accurate high-throughput genotyping for genome-wide distributed SNPs on each fish species, and will facilitate stock management, population genomics approaches, and acceleration of selective breeding through genomic selection.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Norwegian Open Resea...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Vauhkonen, Jari; Berger, Ambros; Gschwantner, Thomas; Schadauer, Klemens; +44 Authors

    Abstract - Key message A dataset of forest resource projections in 23 European countries to 2040 has been prepared for forestrelated policy analysis and decision-making. Due to applying harmonised definitions, while maintaining country-specific forestry practices, the projections should be usable from national to international levels. The dataset can be accessed at https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.4t880qh. The associated metadata are available at https://metadata-afs.nancy.inra.fr/ geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/8f93e0d6-b524-43bd-bdb8-621ad5ae6fa9.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paglione, Marco; Gilardoni, Stefania; Rinaldi, Matteo; Decesari, Stefano; +17 Authors

    The Po Valley (Italy) is a well-known air quality hotspot characterized by particulate matter (PM) levels well above the limit set by the European Air Quality Directive and by the World Health Organization, especially during the colder season. In the framework of Emilia-Romagna regional project “Supersito”, the southern Po Valley submicron aerosol chemical composition was characterized by means of high-resolution aerosol mass spectroscopy (HR-AMS) with the specific aim of organic aerosol (OA) characterization and source apportionment. Eight intensive observation periods (IOPs) were carried out over 4 years (from 2011 to 2014) at two different sites (Bologna, BO, urban background, and San Pietro Capofiume, SPC, rural background), to characterize the spatial variability and seasonality of the OA sources, with a special focus on the cold season. On the multi-year basis of the study, the AMS observations show that OA accounts for averages of 45±8 % (ranging from 33 % to 58 %) and 46±7 % (ranging from 36 % to 50 %) of the total non-refractory submicron particle mass (PM1-NR) at the urban and rural sites, respectively. Primary organic aerosol (POA) comprises biomass burning (23±13 % of OA) and fossil fuel (12±7 %) contributions with a marked seasonality in concentration. As expected, the biomass burning contribution to POA is more significant at the rural site (urban / rural concentration ratio of 0.67), but it is also an important source of POA at the urban site during the cold season, with contributions ranging from 14 % to 38 % of the total OA mass. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributes to OA mass to a much larger extent than POA at both sites throughout the year (69±16 % and 83±16 % at the urban and rural sites, respectively), with important implications for public health. Within the secondary fraction of OA, the measurements highlight the importance of biomass burning aging products during the cold season, even at the urban background site. This biomass burning SOA fraction represents 14 %–44 % of the total OA mass in the cold season, indicating that in this region a major contribution of combustion sources to PM mass is mediated by environmental conditions and atmospheric reactivity. Among the environmental factors controlling the formation of SOA in the Po Valley, the availability of liquid water in the aerosol was shown to play a key role in the cold season. We estimate that the organic fraction originating from aqueous reactions of biomass burning products (“bb-aqSOA”) represents 21 % (14 %–28 %) and 25 % (14 %–35 %) of the total OA mass and 44 % (32 %–56 %) and 61 % (21 %–100 %) of the SOA mass at the urban and rural sites, respectively.

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    Authors: Leino, Katri; Lampilahti, Janne; Poutanen, Pyry; Väänänen, Riikka; +19 Authors

    This work presents airborne observations of sub-3 nm particles in the lower troposphere and investigates new particle formation (NPF) within an evolving boundary layer (BL). We studied particle concentrations together with supporting gas and meteorological data inside the planetary BL over a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. The analysed data were collected during three flight measurement campaigns: May–June 2015, August 2015 and April–May 2017, including 27 morning and 26 afternoon vertical profiles. As a platform for the instrumentation, we used a Cessna 172 aircraft. The analysed flight data were collected horizontally within a 30 km distance from SMEAR II in Hyytiälä and vertically from 100 m above ground level up to 2700 m. The number concentration of 1.5–3 nm particles was observed to be, on average, the highest near the forest canopy top and to decrease with increasing altitude during the mornings of NPF event days. This indicates that the precursor vapours emitted by the forest play a key role in NPF in Hyytiälä. During daytime, newly formed particles were observed to grow in size and the particle population became more homogenous within the well-mixed BL in the afternoon. During undefined days with respect to NPF, we also detected an increase in concentration of 1.5–3 nm particles in the morning but not their growth in size, which indicates an interrupted NPF process during these undefined days. Vertical mixing was typically stronger during the NPF event days than during the undefined or non-event days. The results shed light on the connection between boundary layer dynamics and NPF.

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    Authors: Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Frölicher, T. L.; Bopp, L.; +8 Authors

    Changes in marine net primary productivity (PP) and export of particulate organic carbon (EP) are projected over the 21st century with four global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All four models show a decrease in global mean PP and EP between 2 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in PP and EP. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in PP and EP as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where three models project an increase in PP while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observation-based estimates compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer net primary production from satellite observations.

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    Authors: Patoulias, David; Fountoukis, Christos; Riipinen, Ilona; Asmi, Ari; +2 Authors

    PMCAMx-UF, a three-dimensional chemical transport model focusing on the simulation of the ultrafine particle size distribution and composition has been extended with the addition of the volatility basis set (VBS) approach for the simulation of organic aerosol (OA). The model was applied in Europe to quantify the effect of secondary semi-volatile organic vapors on particle number concentrations. The model predictions were evaluated against field observations collected during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. The measurements included both ground and airborne measurements, from stations across Europe and a zeppelin measuring above Po Valley. The ground level concentrations of particles with a diameter larger than 100 nm (N100) were reproduced with a daily normalized mean error of 40 % and a daily normalized mean bias of −20 %. PMCAMx-UF tended to overestimate the concentration of particles with a diameter larger than 10 nm (N10) with a daily normalized mean bias of 75 %. The model was able to reproduce, within a factor of 2, 85 % of the N10 and 75 % of the N100 zeppelin measurements above ground. The condensation of organics led to an increase (50 %–120 %) in the N100 concentration mainly in central and northern Europe, while the N10 concentration decreased by 10 %–30 %. Including the VBS in PMCAMx-UF improved its ability to simulate aerosol number concentration compared to simulations neglecting organic condensation on ultrafine particles.

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    Authors: Etheridge, J. R.; Birgand, F.; Burchell II, M. R.; Lepistö, A.; +2 Authors

    The Integrated Catchment model for Nitrogen (INCA-N) is a semi-distributed, process based model that has been used to model the impacts of land use, climate, and land management changes on hydrology and nitrogen loading. An observed problem with the INCA-N model is reproducing low nitrate–nitrogen concentrations during the summer growing season in some catchments. In this study, the current equation used to simulate the rate of in-stream denitrification was replaced with an alternate equation that uses a mass transfer coefficient and the stream bottom area. The results of simulating in-stream denitrification using the two different methods were compared for a one year simulation period of the Yläneenjoki catchment in Finland. The alternate equation (Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.61) simulated concentrations during the periods of the growing season with the lowest flow that were closer to the observed concentrations than the current equation (Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.60), but the results were mixed during other portions of the year. The results of the calibration and validation of the model using the two equations show that the alternate equation will simulate lower nitrate–nitrogen concentrations during the growing season when compared to the current equation, but promote investigation into other errors in the model that may be causing inaccuracies in the modeled concentrations.

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18 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lampilahti, Janne; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mirme, Sander; +22 Authors

    We compared observations of aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different environments that have frequent new particle formation (NPF) events. In summer 2012 we had a campaign in Po Valley, Italy (urban background), and in spring 2013 a similar campaign took place in Hyytiälä, Finland (rural background). Our study consists of three case studies of airborne and ground-based measurements of ion and particle size distribution from ∼1 nm. The airborne measurements were performed using a Zeppelin inside the boundary layer up to 1000 m altitude. Our observations show the onset of regional NPF and the subsequent growth of the aerosol particles happening almost uniformly inside the mixed layer (ML) in both locations. However, in Hyytiälä we noticed local enhancement in the intensity of NPF caused by mesoscale boundary layer (BL) dynamics. Additionally, our observations indicate that in Hyytiälä NPF was probably also taking place above the ML. In Po Valley we observed NPF that was limited to a specific air mass.

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    Authors: Beck, Lisa J.; Sarnela, Nina; Junninen, Heikki; Hoppe, C. J. M.; +45 Authors

    The authors acknowledge European Research Council (GASPARCON, Grant no. 714621 and COALA, Grant no. 638703), Academy of Finland (Project nos. 296628, 306853, 317380, 316114, and 320094), INTERACT, European Regional Development Fund (project MOBTT42), Austrian Science Fund (FWF, Project J3951-N36), the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (Grant no. 689443) via project iCUPE (Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments) and Project ERC-2016- COG 726349 CLIMAHAL, National Research Foundation (NRF) of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2018R1A2A1A19019281), Knut-and-Alice-Wallenberg Foundation within the Arctic Climate Across Scales (Project No. \,2016.0024), the Swedish EPA's (Naturvårdsverket) Environmental monitoring program (Miljöövervakning), the Swedish Research Council FORMAS (Project "Interplay between water, clouds and Aerosols in the Arctic," \# 2016-01427), Climate Change Tower – Integrated Project of the National Research Council of Italy and the National Interest Project by the Italian Minister of Education, University and Research (PRIN2007 and PRIN2009). The authors thank Department of Earth System Sciences and Technologies for the Environment, Department of Earth Sciences and Technology of the Environment of CNR and the doctoral program in atmospheric sciences at the University of Helsinki for financial support. Aarhus University acknowledge financial support from Danish Ministry of Environment and food and Ministry of Climate, Energy and Utilities by means of DANCEA. New particle formation in the Arctic atmosphere is an important source of aerosol particles. Understanding the processes of Arctic secondary aerosol formation is crucial due to their significant impact on cloud properties and therefore Arctic amplification. We observed the molecular formation of new particles from low-volatility vapors at two Arctic sites with differing surroundings. In Svalbard, sulfuric acid (SA) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) contribute to the formation of secondary aerosol and to some extent to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). This occurs via ion-induced nucleation of SA and NH and subsequent growth by mainly SA and MSA condensation during springtime and highly oxygenated organic molecules during summertime. By contrast, in an ice-covered region around Villum, we observed new particle formation driven by iodic acid but its concentration was insufficient to grow nucleated particles to CCN sizes. Our results provide new insight about sources and precursors of Arctic secondary aerosol particles. 11 pags., 4 figs. Peer reviewed

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lampilahti, Janne; Manninen, Hanna Elina; Leino, Katri; Väänänen, Riikka; +12 Authors

    Recent studies have shown the importance of new particle formation (NPF) to global cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production, as well as to air pollution in megacities. In addition to the necessary presence of low-volatility vapors that can form new aerosol particles, both numerical and observational studies have shown that the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer (BL) plays an important role in NPF. Evidence from field observations suggests that roll vortices might be favorable for inducing NPF in a convective BL. However, direct observations and estimates of the potential importance of this phenomenon to the production of new aerosol particles are lacking. Here we show that rolls frequently induce NPF bursts along the horizontal circulations and that the small clusters and particles originating from these localized bursts grow in size similar to particles typically ascribed to atmospheric NPF that occur almost homogeneously at a regional scale. We outline a method to identify roll-induced NPF from measurements and, based on the collected data, estimate the impact of roll vortices on the overall aerosol particle production due to NPF at a boreal forest site (83 % ± 34 % and 26 % ± 8 % overall enhancement in particle formation for 3 and 10 nm particles, respectively). We conclude that the formation of roll vortices should be taken into account when estimating particle number budgets in the atmospheric BL.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Peñaloza, Carolina; Manousaki, T.; Franch, R.; Tsakogiannis, A.; +6 Authors

    SNP arrays are powerful tools for high-resolution studies of the genetic basis of complex traits, facilitating both population genomic and selective breeding research. The European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) are the two most important fish species for Mediterranean aquaculture. While selective breeding programmes increasingly underpin stocky supply for this industry, genomic selection is not yet widespread. Genomic selection has major potential to expedite genetic gain, in particular for traits practically impossible to measure on selection candidates, such as disease resistance and fillet yield. The aim of our study was to design a combined-species 60K SNP array for both European seabass and gilthead seabream, and to validate its performance on farmed and wild populations from numerous locations throughout the species range. To achieve this, high coverage Illumina whole genome sequencing of pooled samples was performed for 24 populations of European seabass and 27 populations of gilthead seabream. This resulted in a database of ~20 million SNPs per species, which were then filtered to identify high-quality variants and create the final set for the development of the ‘MedFish’ SNP array. The array was then tested by genotyping a subset of the discovery populations and demonstrated a high conversion rate to functioning polymorphic assays on the array (92% in seabass: 89% in seabream) and repeatability (99.4 - 99.7%). The platform interrogates ~30K markers in each fish species, includes features such as SNPs previously shown to be associated with performance traits, and is enriched for SNPs predicted to alter protein function. The array was demonstrated to be effective at detecting population structure across a wide range of fish populations from diverse geographical origins, and to examine the extent of haplotype sharing among Mediterranean fish farms. Therefore, the MedFish array enables efficient and accurate high-throughput genotyping for genome-wide distributed SNPs on each fish species, and will facilitate stock management, population genomics approaches, and acceleration of selective breeding through genomic selection.

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  • Authors: Vauhkonen, Jari; Berger, Ambros; Gschwantner, Thomas; Schadauer, Klemens; +44 Authors

    Abstract - Key message A dataset of forest resource projections in 23 European countries to 2040 has been prepared for forestrelated policy analysis and decision-making. Due to applying harmonised definitions, while maintaining country-specific forestry practices, the projections should be usable from national to international levels. The dataset can be accessed at https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.4t880qh. The associated metadata are available at https://metadata-afs.nancy.inra.fr/ geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/8f93e0d6-b524-43bd-bdb8-621ad5ae6fa9.

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    Authors: Paglione, Marco; Gilardoni, Stefania; Rinaldi, Matteo; Decesari, Stefano; +17 Authors

    The Po Valley (Italy) is a well-known air quality hotspot characterized by particulate matter (PM) levels well above the limit set by the European Air Quality Directive and by the World Health Organization, especially during the colder season. In the framework of Emilia-Romagna regional project “Supersito”, the southern Po Valley submicron aerosol chemical composition was characterized by means of high-resolution aerosol mass spectroscopy (HR-AMS) with the specific aim of organic aerosol (OA) characterization and source apportionment. Eight intensive observation periods (IOPs) were carried out over 4 years (from 2011 to 2014) at two different sites (Bologna, BO, urban background, and San Pietro Capofiume, SPC, rural background), to characterize the spatial variability and seasonality of the OA sources, with a special focus on the cold season. On the multi-year basis of the study, the AMS observations show that OA accounts for averages of 45±8 % (ranging from 33 % to 58 %) and 46±7 % (ranging from 36 % to 50 %) of the total non-refractory submicron particle mass (PM1-NR) at the urban and rural sites, respectively. Primary organic aerosol (POA) comprises biomass burning (23±13 % of OA) and fossil fuel (12±7 %) contributions with a marked seasonality in concentration. As expected, the biomass burning contribution to POA is more significant at the rural site (urban / rural concentration ratio of 0.67), but it is also an important source of POA at the urban site during the cold season, with contributions ranging from 14 % to 38 % of the total OA mass. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributes to OA mass to a much larger extent than POA at both sites throughout the year (69±16 % and 83±16 % at the urban and rural sites, respectively), with important implications for public health. Within the secondary fraction of OA, the measurements highlight the importance of biomass burning aging products during the cold season, even at the urban background site. This biomass burning SOA fraction represents 14 %–44 % of the total OA mass in the cold season, indicating that in this region a major contribution of combustion sources to PM mass is mediated by environmental conditions and atmospheric reactivity. Among the environmental factors controlling the formation of SOA in the Po Valley, the availability of liquid water in the aerosol was shown to play a key role in the cold season. We estimate that the organic fraction originating from aqueous reactions of biomass burning products (“bb-aqSOA”) represents 21 % (14 %–28 %) and 25 % (14 %–35 %) of the total OA mass and 44 % (32 %–56 %) and 61 % (21 %–100 %) of the SOA mass at the urban and rural sites, respectively.

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    Authors: Leino, Katri; Lampilahti, Janne; Poutanen, Pyry; Väänänen, Riikka; +19 Authors

    This work presents airborne observations of sub-3 nm particles in the lower troposphere and investigates new particle formation (NPF) within an evolving boundary layer (BL). We studied particle concentrations together with supporting gas and meteorological data inside the planetary BL over a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. The analysed data were collected during three flight measurement campaigns: May–June 2015, August 2015 and April–May 2017, including 27 morning and 26 afternoon vertical profiles. As a platform for the instrumentation, we used a Cessna 172 aircraft. The analysed flight data were collected horizontally within a 30 km distance from SMEAR II in Hyytiälä and vertically from 100 m above ground level up to 2700 m. The number concentration of 1.5–3 nm particles was observed to be, on average, the highest near the forest canopy top and to decrease with increasing altitude during the mornings of NPF event days. This indicates that the precursor vapours emitted by the forest play a key role in NPF in Hyytiälä. During daytime, newly formed particles were observed to grow in size and the particle population became more homogenous within the well-mixed BL in the afternoon. During undefined days with respect to NPF, we also detected an increase in concentration of 1.5–3 nm particles in the morning but not their growth in size, which indicates an interrupted NPF process during these undefined days. Vertical mixing was typically stronger during the NPF event days than during the undefined or non-event days. The results shed light on the connection between boundary layer dynamics and NPF.

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