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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sophie Bastin; Philippe Drobinski; Marjolaine Chiriaco; Olivier Bock; +7 Authors

    This work uses a network of GPS stations over Europe from which a homogenized integrated water vapor (IWV) dataset has been retrieved, completed with colocated temperature and precipitation measurements over specific stations to (i) estimate the biases of six regional climate models over Europe in terms of humidity; (ii) understand their origins; and (iii) finally assess the impact of these biases on the frequency of occurrence of precipitation. The evaluated simulations have been performed in the framework of HYMEX/Med-CORDEX programs and cover the Mediterranean area and part of Europe at horizontal resolutions of 50 to 12 km. The analysis shows that models tend to overestimate the low values of IWV and the use of the nudging technique reduces the differences between GPS and simulated IWV. Results suggest that physics of models mostly explain the mean biases, while dynamics affects the variability. The land surface–atmosphere exchanges affect the estimation of IWV over most part of Europe, especially in summer. The limitations of the models to represent these processes explain part of their biases in IWV. However, models correctly simulate the dependance between IWV and temperature, and specifically the deviation that this relationship experiences regarding the Clausius–Clapeyron law after a critical value of temperature (Tbreak). The high spatial variability of Tbreak indicates that it has a strong dependence on local processes which drive the local humidity sources. This explains why the maximum values of IWV are not necessarily observed over warmer areas, which are often dry areas. Finally, it is shown over the SIRTA observatory (near Paris) that the frequency of occurrence of light precipitation is strongly conditioned by the biases in IWV and by the precision of the models to reproduce the distribution of IWV as a function of the temperature. The results of the models indicate that a similar dependence occurs in other areas of Europe, especially where precipitation has a predominantly convective character. According to the observations, for each range of temperature, there is a critical value of IWV from which precipitation starts to increase. The critical values and the probability of exceeding them are simulated with a bias that depends on the model. Those models, which generally present light precipitation too often, show lower critical values and higher probability of exceeding them. This work is a contribution to the HyMeX program (HYdrological cycle in The Mediterranean EXperiment) through INSU-MISTRALS support and the MEDCORDEX program (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment–Mediterranean region). This research has received funding from the French National Research Agency (ANR) project REMEMBER (grant ANR-12-SENV-001) and is a contribution to the VEGA project through LEFE/INSU support, to the EECLAT project through LEFE-INSU and CNES supports and to the GNSS4SWEC COST action ES1206 through EU support. It was supported by the IPSL group for regional climate and environmental studies, with granted access to the HPC resources of GENCI/IDRIS (under allocation i2011010227), by SIRTA Working Group “Climate studies” and by the national infrastructure ACTRIS-FR, identified on the French road map for Research Infrastructures, published by the Ministry of Research. The SIRTA-ReOBS effort also benefited from the support of the L-IPSL funded by ANR under the “Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir” (grant ANR-10-LABX-0018) and by the EUCLIPSE project funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program (grant no. 244067).

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Preprint . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . Preprint
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
      Preprint . 2018
      License: CC BY
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eleftherios Ioannidis; Kathy S. Law; Jean-Christophe Raut; Louis Marelle; +9 Authors

    Anthropogenic and natural emissions contribute to enhanced concentrations of aerosols in the Arctic winter and early spring, with most attention being paid to anthropogenic aerosols that contribute to so-called Arctic haze. Less-well-studied wintertime sea-spray aerosols (SSAs) under Arctic haze conditions are the focus of this study, since they can make an important contribution to wintertime Arctic aerosol abundances. Analysis of field campaign data shows evidence for enhanced local sources of SSAs, including marine organics at Utqiaġvik (formerly known as Barrow) in northern Alaska, United States, during winter 2014. Models tend to underestimate sub-micron SSAs and overestimate super-micron SSAs in the Arctic during winter, including the base version of the Weather Research Forecast coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model used here, which includes a widely used SSA source function based on Gong et al. (1997). Quasi-hemispheric simulations for winter 2014 including updated wind speed and sea-surface temperature (SST) SSA emission dependencies and sources of marine sea-salt organics and sea-salt sulfate lead to significantly improved model performance compared to observations at remote Arctic sites, notably for coarse-mode sodium and chloride, which are reduced. The improved model also simulates more realistic contributions of SSAs to inorganic aerosols at different sites, ranging from 20 %–93 % in the observations. Two-thirds of the improved model performance is from the inclusion of the dependence on SSTs. The simulation of nitrate aerosols is also improved due to less heterogeneous uptake of nitric acid on SSAs in the coarse mode and related increases in fine-mode nitrate. This highlights the importance of interactions between natural SSAs and inorganic anthropogenic aerosols that contribute to Arctic haze. Simulation of organic aerosols and the fraction of sea-salt sulfate are also improved compared to observations. However, the model underestimates episodes with elevated observed concentrations of SSA components and sub-micron non-sea-salt sulfate at some Arctic sites, notably at Utqiaġvik. Possible reasons are explored in higher-resolution runs over northern Alaska for periods corresponding to the Utqiaġvik field campaign in January and February 2014. The addition of a local source of sea-salt marine organics, based on the campaign data, increases modelled organic aerosols over northern Alaska. However, comparison with previous available data suggests that local natural sources from open leads, as well as local anthropogenic sources, are underestimated in the model. Missing local anthropogenic sources may also explain the low modelled (sub-micron) non-sea-salt sulfate at Utqiaġvik. The introduction of a higher wind speed dependence for sub-micron SSA emissions, also based on Arctic data, reduces biases in modelled sub-micron SSAs, while sea-ice fractions, including open leads, are shown to be an important factor controlling modelled super-micron, rather than sub-micron, SSAs over the north coast of Alaska. The regional results presented here show that modelled SSAs are more sensitive to wind speed dependence but that realistic modelling of sea-ice distributions is needed for the simulation of local SSAs, including marine organics. This study supports findings from the Utqiaġvik field campaign that open leads are the primary source of fresh and aged SSAs, including marine organic aerosols, during wintertime at Utqiaġvik; these findings do not suggest an influence from blowing snow and frost flowers. To improve model simulations of Arctic wintertime aerosols, new field data on processes that influence wintertime SSA production, in particular for fine-mode aerosols, are needed as is improved understanding about possible local anthropogenic sources.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PURE Aarhus Universi...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PURE Aarhus Universi...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Graham Mann; Kenneth S. Carslaw; David A. Ridley; Dominick V. Spracklen; +13 Authors

    Abstract. In the most advanced aerosol-climate models it is common to represent the aerosol particle size distribution in terms of several log-normal modes. This approach, motivated by computational efficiency, makes assumptions about the shape of the particle distribution that may not always capture the properties of global aerosol. Here, a global modal aerosol microphysics module (GLOMAP-mode) is evaluated and improved by comparing against a sectional version (GLOMAP-bin) and observations in the same 3-D global offline chemistry transport model. With both schemes, the model captures the main features of the global particle size distribution, with sub-micron aerosol approximately unimodal in continental regions and bi-modal in marine regions. Initial bin-mode comparisons showed that the current values for two size distribution parameter settings in the modal scheme (mode widths and inter-modal separation sizes) resulted in clear biases compared to the sectional scheme. By adjusting these parameters in the modal scheme, much better agreement is achieved against the bin scheme and observations. Annual mean surface-level mass of sulphate, sea-salt, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) are within 25% in the two schemes in nearly all regions. Surface level concentrations of condensation nuclei (CN), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), surface area density and condensation sink also compare within 25% in most regions. However, marine CCN concentrations between 30° N and 30° S are systematically 25–60% higher in the modal model, which we attribute to differences in size-resolved particle growth or cloud-processing. Larger differences also exist in regions or seasons dominated by biomass burning and in free-troposphere and high-latitude regions. Indeed, in the free-troposphere, GLOMAP-mode BC is a factor 2–4 higher than GLOMAP-bin, likely due to differences in size-resolved scavenging. Nevertheless, in most parts of the atmosphere, we conclude that bin-mode differences are much less than model-observation differences, although some processes are missing in these runs which may pose a bigger challenge to modal schemes (e.g., boundary layer nucleation and ultra-fine sea-spray). The findings here underline the need for a spectrum of complexity in global models, with size-resolved aerosol properties predicted by modal schemes needing to be continually benchmarked and improved against freely evolving sectional schemes and observations.

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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Authors: Christos Fountoukis; A. G. Megaritis; Ksakousti Skyllakou; P. E. Charalampidis; +16 Authors

    A detailed three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions, PMCAMx) was applied over Europe, focusing on the formation and chemical transformation of organic matter. Three periods representative of different seasons were simulated, corresponding to intensive field campaigns. An extensive set of AMS measurements was used to evaluate the model and, using factor-analysis results, gain more insight into the sources and transformations of organic aerosol (OA). Overall, the agreement between predictions and measurements for OA concentration is encouraging, with the model reproducing two-thirds of the data (daily average mass concentrations) within a factor of 2. Oxygenated OA (OOA) is predicted to contribute 93% to total OA during May, 87% during winter and 96% during autumn, with the rest consisting of fresh primary OA (POA). Predicted OOA concentrations compare well with the observed OOA values for all periods, with an average fractional error of 0.53 and a bias equal to −0.07 (mean error = 0.9 μg m−3, mean bias = −0.2 μg m−3). The model systematically underpredicts fresh POA at most sites during late spring and autumn (mean bias up to −0.8 μg m−3). Based on results from a source apportionment algorithm running in parallel with PMCAMx, most of the POA originates from biomass burning (fires and residential wood combustion), and therefore biomass burning OA is most likely underestimated in the emission inventory. The sensitivity of POA predictions to the corresponding emissions' volatility distribution is discussed. The model performs well at all sites when the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF)-estimated low-volatility OOA is compared against the OA with saturation concentrations of the OA surrogate species C* ≤ 0.1 μg m−3 and semivolatile OOA against the OA with C* > 0.1 μg m−3. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14 (17) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
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    Authors: Lars Ahlm; Jan Julin; Christos Fountoukis; Spyros N. Pandis; +1 Authors

    The aerosol particle number concentration is a key parameter when estimating impacts of aerosol particles on climate and human health. We use a three-dimensional chemical transport model with detailed microphysics, PMCAMx-UF, to simulate particle number concentrations over Europe in the year 2030, by applying emission scenarios for trace gases and primary aerosols. The scenarios are based on expected changes in anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and primary aerosol particles with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) focusing on a photochemically active period, and the implications for other seasons are discussed. For the baseline scenario, which represents a best estimate of the evolution of anthropogenic emissions in Europe, PMCAMx-UF predicts that the total particle number concentration (Ntot) will decrease by 30–70% between 2008 and 2030. The number concentration of particles larger than 100 nm (N100), a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, is predicted to decrease by 40–70% during the same period. The predicted decrease in Ntot is mainly a result of reduced new particle formation due to the expected reduction in SO2 emissions, whereas the predicted decrease in N100 is a result of both decreasing condensational growth and reduced primary aerosol emissions. For larger emission reductions, PMCAMx-UF predicts reductions of 60–80% in both Ntotand N100 over Europe. Sensitivity tests reveal that a reduction in SO2 emissions is far more efficient than any other emission reduction investigated, in reducing Ntot. For N100, emission reductions of both SO2 and PM2.5 contribute significantly to the reduced concentration, even though SO2 plays the dominant role once more. The impact of SO2 for both new particle formation and growth over Europe may be expected to be somewhat higher during the simulated period with high photochemical activity than during times of the year with less incoming solar radiation. The predicted reductions in both Ntot and N100 between 2008 and 2030 in this study will likely reduce both the aerosol direct and indirect effects, and limit the damaging effects of aerosol particles on human health in Europe.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
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    Authors: J. Kaiser; Glenn M. Wolfe; Birger Bohn; Sebastian Broch; +18 Authors

    Ozone concentrations in the Po Valley of northern Italy often exceed international regulations. As both a source of radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. We investigate the sources of HCHO in the Po Valley using vertical profile measurements acquired from the airship Zeppelin NT over an agricultural region during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. Using a 1-D model, the total VOC oxidation rate is examined and discussed in the context of formaldehyde and ozone production in the early morning. While model and measurement discrepancies in OH reactivity are small (on average 3.4 ± 13%), HCHO concentrations are underestimated by as much as 1.5 ppb (45%) in the convective mixed layer. A similar underestimate in HCHO was seen in the 2002–2003 FORMAT Po Valley measurements, though the additional source of HCHO was not identified. Oxidation of unmeasured VOC precursors cannot explain the missing HCHO source, as measured OH reactivity is explained by measured VOCs and their calculated oxidation products. We conclude that local direct emissions from agricultural land are the most likely source of missing HCHO. Model calculations demonstrate that radicals from degradation of this non-photochemical HCHO source increase model ozone production rates by as much as 0.6 ppb h−1 (12%) before noon. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15 (3) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    Authors: Katerina Sindelarova; Claire Granier; Idir Bouarar; Alex Guenther; +6 Authors

    Abstract. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1) together with the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields were used to create a global emission data set of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) available on a monthly basis for the time period of 1980–2010. This data set, developed under the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project (MACC), is called MEGAN–MACC. The model estimated mean annual total BVOC emission of 760 Tg (C) yr−1 consisting of isoprene (70%), monoterpenes (11%), methanol (6%), acetone (3%), sesquiterpenes (2.5%) and other BVOC species each contributing less than 2%. Several sensitivity model runs were performed to study the impact of different model input and model settings on isoprene estimates and resulted in differences of up to ±17% of the reference isoprene total. A greater impact was observed for a sensitivity run applying parameterization of soil moisture deficit that led to a 50% reduction of isoprene emissions on a global scale, most significantly in specific regions of Africa, South America and Australia. MEGAN–MACC estimates are comparable to results of previous studies. More detailed comparison with other isoprene inventories indicated significant spatial and temporal differences between the data sets especially for Australia, Southeast Asia and South America. MEGAN–MACC estimates of isoprene, α-pinene and group of monoterpenes showed a reasonable agreement with surface flux measurements at sites located in tropical forests in the Amazon and Malaysia. The model was able to capture the seasonal variation of isoprene emissions in the Amazon forest.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2014
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-1...
      Preprint . 2014
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Jean-Christophe Raut; Louis Marelle; Jerome D. Fast; Jennie L. Thomas; +9 Authors

    During the ACCESS airborne campaign in July 2012, extensive boreal forest fires resulted in significant aerosol transport to the Arctic. A 10-day episode combining intense biomass burning over Siberia and low-pressure systems over the Arctic Ocean resulted in efficient transport of plumes containing black carbon (BC) towards the Arctic, mostly in the upper troposphere (6–8 km). A combination of in situ observations (DLR Falcon aircraft), satellite analysis and WRF-Chem simulations is used to understand the vertical and horizontal transport mechanisms of BC with a focus on the role of wet removal. Between the northwestern Norwegian coast and the Svalbard archipelago, the Falcon aircraft sampled plumes with enhanced CO concentrations up to 200 ppbv and BC mixing ratios up to 25 ng kg−1. During transport to the Arctic region, a large fraction of BC particles are scavenged by two wet deposition processes, namely wet removal by large-scale precipitation and removal in wet convective updrafts, with both processes contributing almost equally to the total accumulated deposition of BC. Our results underline that applying a finer horizontal resolution (40 instead of 100 km) improves the model performance, as it significantly reduces the overestimation of BC levels observed at a coarser resolution in the mid-troposphere. According to the simulations at 40 km, the transport efficiency of BC (TEBC) in biomass burning plumes was larger (60 %), because it was impacted by small accumulated precipitation along trajectory (1 mm). In contrast TEBC was small (< 30 %) and accumulated precipitation amounts were larger (5–10 mm) in plumes influenced by urban anthropogenic sources and flaring activities in northern Russia, resulting in transport to lower altitudes. TEBC due to large-scale precipitation is responsible for a sharp meridional gradient in the distribution of BC concentrations. Wet removal in cumulus clouds is the cause of modeled vertical gradient of TEBC, especially in the mid-latitudes, reflecting the distribution of convective precipitation, but is dominated in the Arctic region by the large-scale wet removal associated with the formation of stratocumulus clouds in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) that produce frequent drizzle.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint . 2017
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Preprint . 2017
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2017
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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Guohui Li; Miguel A. Zavala; W. Lei; Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; +4 Authors

    Organic aerosol concentrations are simulated using the WRF-CHEM model in Mexico City during the period from 24 to 29 March in association with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Two approaches are employed to predict the variation and spatial distribution of the organic aerosol concentrations: (1) a traditional 2-product secondary organic aerosol (SOA) model with non-volatile primary organic aerosols (POA); (2) a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic components are assumed to be semi-volatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) 2006 official emission inventory is used in simulations and the POA emissions are modified and distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments for the non-traditional SOA model. The model results are compared to the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations analyzed using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique at an urban background site (T0) and a suburban background site (T1) in Mexico City. The traditional SOA model frequently underestimates the observed POA concentrations during rush hours and overestimates the observations in the rest of the time in the city. The model also substantially underestimates the observed SOA concentrations, particularly during daytime, and only produces 21% and 25% of the observed SOA mass in the suburban and urban area, respectively. The non-traditional SOA model performs well in simulating the POA variation, but still overestimates during daytime in the urban area. The SOA simulations are significantly improved in the non-traditional SOA model compared to the traditional SOA model and the SOA production is increased by more than 100% in the city. However, the underestimation during daytime is still salient in the urban area and the non-traditional model also fails to reproduce the high level of SOA concentrations in the suburban area. In the non-traditional SOA model, the aging process of primary organic components considerably decreases the OH levels in simulations and further impacts the SOA formation. If the aging process in the non-traditional model does not have feedback on the OH in the gas-phase chemistry, the SOA production is enhanced by more than 10% compared to the simulations with the OH feedback during daytime, and the gap between the simulations and observations in the urban area is around 3 μg m[superscript −3] or 20% on average during late morning and early afternoon, within the uncertainty from the AMS measurements and PMF analysis. In addition, glyoxal and methylglyoxal can contribute up to approximately 10% of the observed SOA mass in the urban area and 4% in the suburban area. Including the non-OH feedback and the contribution of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, the non-traditional SOA model can explain up to 83% of the observed SOA in the urban area, and the underestimation during late morning and early afternoon is reduced to 0.9 μg m[superscript −3] or 6% on average. Considering the uncertainties from measurements, emissions, meteorological conditions, aging of semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic compounds, and contributions from background transport, the non-traditional SOA model is capable of closing the gap in SOA mass between measurements and models. National Science Foundation (U.S.). Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ATM-0528227) National Science Foundation (U.S.). Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ATM-0810931) Molina Center for Energy and the Environment

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    DSpace@MIT
    Article . 2011
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.1184/r1/646...
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Authors: Mytilinaios, Michail; Basart, Sara; Ciamprone, Sergio; Cuesta, Juan; +9 Authors

    Aerosol reanalysis datasets are model-based, observationally constrained, continuous 3D aerosol fields with a relatively high temporal frequency that can be used to assess aerosol variations and trends, climate effects, and impacts on socioeconomic sectors, such as health. Here we compare and assess the recently published MONARCH (Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry) high-resolution regional desert dust reanalysis over northern Africa, the Middle East, and Europe (NAMEE) with a combination of ground-based observations and space-based dust retrievals and products. In particular, we compare the total and coarse dust optical depth (DOD) from the new reanalysis with DOD products derived from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), and IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) spaceborne instruments. Despite the larger uncertainties, satellite-based datasets provide a better geographical coverage than ground-based observations, and the use of different retrievals and products allows at least partially overcoming some single-product weaknesses in the comparison. Nevertheless, limitations and uncertainties due to the type of sensor, its operating principle, its sensitivity, its temporal and spatial resolution, and the methodology for retrieving or further deriving dust products are factors that bias the reanalysis assessment. We, therefore, also use ground-based DOD observations provided by 238 stations of the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) located within the NAMEE region as a reference evaluation dataset. In particular, prior to the reanalysis assessment, the satellite datasets were evaluated against AERONET, showing moderate underestimations in the vicinities of dust sources and downwind regions, whereas small or significant overestimations, depending on the dataset, can be found in the remote regions. Taking these results into consideration, the MONARCH reanalysis assessment shows that total and coarse-DOD simulations are consistent with satellite- and ground-based data, qualitatively capturing the major dust sources in the area in addition to the dust transport patterns. Moreover, the MONARCH reanalysis reproduces the seasonal dust cycle, identifying the increased dust activity that occurred in the NAMEE region during spring and summer. The quantitative comparison between the MONARCH reanalysis DOD and satellite multi-sensor products shows that the reanalysis tends to slightly overestimate the desert dust that is emitted from the source regions and underestimate the transported dust over the outflow regions, implying that the model's removal of dust particles from the atmosphere, through deposition processes, is too effective. More specifically, small positive biases are found over the Sahara desert (0.04) and negative biases over the Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea (−0.04), which constitute the main pathways of the long-range dust transport. Considering the DOD values recorded on average there, such discrepancies can be considered low, as the low relative bias in the Sahara desert (< 50 %) and over the adjacent maritime regions (< 100 %) certifies. Similarly, over areas with intense dust activity, the linear correlation coefficient between the MONARCH reanalysis simulations and the ensemble of the satellite products is significantly high for both total and coarse DOD, reaching 0.8 over the Middle East, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Arabian Sea and exceeding it over the African continent. Moreover, the low relative biases and high correlations are associated with regions for which large numbers of observations are available, thus allowing for robust reanalysis assessment.

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