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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; H. Goelzer; S. Nowicki; +49 Authors

    Abstract. The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest contributors to global meansea-level rise today and is expected to continue to lose mass as the Arcticcontinues to warm. The two predominant mass loss mechanisms are increasedsurface meltwater run-off and mass loss associated with the retreat ofmarine-terminating outlet glaciers. In this paper we use a large ensemble ofGreenland ice sheet models forced by output from a representative subset ofthe Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) global climate models to project ice sheet changes and sea-level risecontributions over the 21st century. The simulations are part of theIce Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6). We estimate thesea-level contribution together with uncertainties due to future climateforcing, ice sheet model formulations and ocean forcing for the twogreenhouse gas concentration scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP2.6. The resultsindicate that the Greenland ice sheet will continue to lose mass in bothscenarios until 2100, with contributions of 90±50 and 32±17 mm to sea-level rise for RCP8.5 and RCP2.6, respectively. The largestmass loss is expected from the south-west of Greenland, which is governed bysurface mass balance changes, continuing what is already observed today.Because the contributions are calculated against an unforced controlexperiment, these numbers do not include any committed mass loss, i.e. massloss that would occur over the coming century if the climate forcingremained constant. Under RCP8.5 forcing, ice sheet model uncertaintyexplains an ensemble spread of 40 mm, while climate model uncertainty andocean forcing uncertainty account for a spread of 36 and 19 mm,respectively. Apart from those formally derived uncertainty ranges, thelargest gap in our knowledge is about the physical understanding andimplementation of the calving process, i.e. the interaction of the ice sheetwith the ocean. info:eu-repo/semantics/published

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    The Cryosphere
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: DI-fusion
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: JAIRO
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
    Preprint . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/...
    Other literature type
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    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    The Cryosphere; The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . Preprint . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Other literature type . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Cryosphere
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: NARCIS
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      DI-fusion
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: DI-fusion
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: JAIRO
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
      Preprint . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/...
      Other literature type
      License: CC BY
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      The Cryosphere; The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . Preprint . 2020
      License: CC BY
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Other literature type . 2020
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sebbar, N.; Bozzelli, J.W.; Bockhorn, H.; Trimis, D.;

    Several chemical reactions related to the oxidation and combustion of sulfur are investigated using a number of computational chemistry methods with the objective of determining appropriate methods for use in developing an elementary reaction mechanism for oxidation of sulfur. Calculations are focused on thermochemical properties and reaction energetics for reactive species and transition state structures for reactions in the oxidation / combustion of sulfur. Reactions involving several intermediates resulting from the reactions of S2 with oxygen were investigated with the density functional theory B3LYP (with several basis sets) and BB1K/GTLarge. The composite ab-initio methods G2, G3, G3MP2, G3B3, G3MP2B3 and CBS-QB3 were also used. Enthalpies of a series of sulfur compounds and transition state structures are calculated using the ab initio and DFT calculations. The calculations were combined with isodesmic reaction analysis, whenever possible, in order to cancel error and improve the accuracy of the calculations. Results show that all B3LYP DFT calculations including the 6-311++G(3df,2p) basis set show poor outcome in estimating the enthalpy of reactions involving S2. The six composite methods have all shown consistency with each other and their calculated reaction energies / bond energies are in good agreement with the available literature. Kinetic parameters for calculation of the kinetic parameters on SO3 dissociation to SO2 and O using the canonical transition state theory are reported.  

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ KITopenarrow_drop_down
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    KITopen
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: KITopen
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    ZENODO
    Conference object . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    ZENODO
    Conference object . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    Combustion Science and Technology
    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019
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      Conference object . 2017
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      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Severin D. H. Irl; Andreas H. Schweiger; Félix M. Medina; José María Fernández-Palacios; +5 Authors

    [Main conclusion] Both AE and SIE rarity on La Palma show a clear spatial pattern, with hotspots of endemic rarity found at high elevations and in rare climates, presumably owing to geographical and climatic constraints and possibly anthropogenic pressure (e.g., land use, introduced herbivores, fire). Areas of high rarity estimates coincide with the distribution and extent of PAs on La Palma, especially since the recent addition of the Natura 2000 sites. The hypervolume approach is a promising tool to estimate species range sizes, and can be applied on all scales where point/plot data are available. [Methods] We recorded all present endemic vascular plant species in 1,212 plots covering the entire island. We calculated endemic rarity (corrected range-rarity richness for endemics) using a rarity estimation approach based on kernel density estimations (hypervolume approach). We performed a sensitivity analysis based on multiple linear regressions and relative importance estimations of environmental drivers to estimate the performance of the hypervolume-based rarity estimation compared to standard methods (occurrence frequency, convex hulls, alpha hulls). [Aim] Rarity—an important measure for conservation biogeography—can vary over many orders of magnitude. However, it is unclear which regional-scale abiotic conditions drive processes affecting rarity of endemic species on islands. To support conservation efforts, we (1) assess the main abiotic drivers of endemic rarity, (2) determine how well existing protected areas (PAs) coincide with hotspots of endemic rarity and (3) introduce and evaluate a new hypervolume-based rarity estimator. [Results] Climate variables (mean annual temperature, climatic rarity, precipitation variability) best explained archipelago endemic (AE) and single-island endemic (SIE) rarity. Existing PAs covered the majority of AE and SIE rarity, especially national and natural parks as well as the Natura 2000 sites. In our study system, hypervolumes performed better than standard measures of range size. This work contributed to and was partially supported by the European H2020 Project 641762 ECOPOTENTIAL: Improving future ecosystem benefits through Earth Observations. [Location] La Palma (Canary Islands). © 2017 The Authors. Peer Reviewed

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    Other literature type . Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Authors: Agier, Lydiane; Basagaña, Xavier; Maitre, Lea; Granum, Berit; +26 Authors

    BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children.METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother-child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6-12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures.FINDINGS: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5-9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions.INTERPRETATION: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease.FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project).

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    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
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    Repositori Obert UdL
    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Marco Morabito; Alessandro Messeri; Pascal Noti; Ana Casanueva; +8 Authors

    platform (https://heatshield.zonalab.it/) operating for Europe and developed within the framework of the HEAT-SHIELD project. This system is based on probabilistic medium-range forecasts calibrated on approximately 1800 meteorological stations in Europe and provides the ensemble forecast of the daily maximum heat stress. The platform provides a non-customized output represented by a map showing the weekly maximum probability of exceeding a specific heat stress condition, for each of the four upcoming weeks. Customized output allows the forecast of the personalized local heat-stress-risk based on workers&rsquo physical, clothing and behavioral characteristics and the work environment (outdoors in the sun or shade), also taking into account heat acclimatization. Personal daily heat stress risk levels and behavioral suggestions (hydration and work breaks recommended) to be taken into consideration in the short term (5 days) are provided together with long-term heat risk forecasts (up to 46 days), all which are useful for planning work activities. The HEAT-SHIELD platform provides adaptation strategies for &ldquo health warning systems focus on warning vulnerable groups in order to reduce mortality. However, human health and performance are affected at much lower environmental heat strain levels than those directly associated with higher mortality. Moreover, workers are at elevated health risks when exposed to prolonged heat. This study describes the multilingual &ldquo HEAT-SHIELD occupational warning system&rdquo the impact of global warming. Existing heat&ndash managing&rdquo

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    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2019
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    UCrea
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      CNR ExploRA
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    Authors: Fumihiko Katakura; Kohei Nishiya; Annelieke S. Wentzel; Erika Hino; +5 Authors

    Mammalian granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; CSF3) is a primary cytokine that promotes the development, mobilization, and activation of neutrophils and their precursors. Teleosts have been reported to possess two paralogs as a likely result of the teleost-wide whole genome duplication (WGD) event, but functional divergence of G-CSF paralogs remains poorly understood. Common carp are an allotetraploid species owing to an additional WGD event in the carp lineage and here, we report on genomic synteny, sequence similarity, and phylogeny of four common carp G-CSF paralogs (g-csfa1 and g-csfa2; g-csfb1 and g-csfb2). G-csfa1 and g-csfa2 show differential and relatively high gene expression levels, while g-csfb1 and g-csfb2 show low basal gene expression levels in most tissues. All paralogs are expressed higher in macrophages than in other leukocyte sub-types and are highly up-regulated by treatment of macrophages with mitogens. Recombinant G-CSFa1 and G-CSFb1 both promoted the proliferation of kidney hematopoietic cells, while only G-CSFb1 induced the differentiation of kidney cells along the neutrophil-lineage. Colony-forming unit assays revealed that G-CSFb1 alone stimulates the formation of CFU-G colonies from head- and trunk-kidney whereas the combination of G-CSFa1 and G-CSFb1 stimulates the formation of both CFU-G and CFU-GM colonies. Recombinant G-CSFa1 and G-CSFb1 also exhibit chemotactic activity against kidney neutrophils and up-regulation of cxcr1 mRNA expression was highest in neutrophils after G-CSFb1 stimulation. Furthermore, G-CSFb1 more than G-CSFa1 induced priming of kidney neutrophils through up-regulation of a NADPH-oxidase component p47 phox . In vivo administration of G-CSF paralogs increased the number of circulating blood neutrophils of carp. Our findings demonstrate that gene duplications in teleosts can lead to functional divergence between paralogs and shed light on the sub-functionalization of G-CSF paralogs in cyprinid fish.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Immunology
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Immunology
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    Authors: Chapizanis, Dimitris; Karakitsios, Spyros; Gotti, Alberto; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A.;

    Technology innovations create possibilities to capture exposure-related data at a great depth and breadth. Considering, though, the substantial hurdles involved in collecting individual data for whole populations, this study introduces a first approach of simulating human movement and interaction behaviour, using Agent Based Modelling (ABM). A city scale ABM was developed for urban Thessaloniki, Greece that feeds into population-based exposure assessment without imposing prior bias, basing its estimations onto emerging properties of the behaviour of the computerised autonomous decision makers (agents) that compose the city-system. Population statistics, road and buildings networks data were transformed into human, road and building agents, respectively. Survey outputs with time-use patterns were associated with human agent rules, aiming to model representative to real-world behaviours. Moreover, time-geography of exposure data, derived from a local sensors campaign, was used to inform and enhance the model. As a prevalence of an agent-specific decision-making, virtual individuals of different sociodemographic backgrounds express different spatiotemporal behaviours and their trajectories are coupled with spatially resolved pollution levels. Personal exposure was evaluated by assigning PM concentrations to human agents based on coordinates, type of location and intensity of encountered activities. Study results indicated that PM2.5 inhalation adjusted exposure between housemates can differ by 56.5% whereas exposure between two neighbours can vary by as much as 87%, due to the prevalence of different behaviours. This study provides details of a new methodology that permits the cost-effective construction of refined time-activity diaries and daily exposure profiles, taking into account different microenvironments and sociodemographic characteristics. The proposed method leads to a refined exposure assessment model, addressing effectively vulnerable subgroups of population. It can be used for evaluating the probable impacts of different public health policies prior to implementation reducing, therefore, the time and expense required to identify efficient measures.

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    Environmental Research
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    Environmental Research
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Environmental Research
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    Authors: Frantzeskaki, Niki; McPhearson, Timon; Collier, Marcus J.; Kendal, Dave; +11 Authors

    Nature-based solutions offer an exciting prospect for resilience building and advancing urban planning to address complex urban challenges simultaneously. In this article, we formulated through a coproduction process in workshops held during the first IPCC Cities and Climate Science Conference in Edmonton, Canada, in March 2018, a series of synthesis statements on the role, potential, and research gaps of nature-based solutions for climate adaptation and mitigation. We address interlocking questions about the evidence and knowledge needed for integrating nature-based solutions into urban agendas. We elaborate on the ways to advance the planning and knowledge agenda for nature-based solutions by focusing on knowledge coproduction, indicators and big data, and novel financing models. With this article, we intend to open a wider discussion on how cities can effectively mainstream nature-based solutions to mitigate and adapt to the negative effects of climate change and the future role of urban science in coproducing nature-based solutions. Also available at: Frantzeskaki, MacPhearson & Collier et al 2019. If you have any difficulty accessing this document, or you would like to know more about the Connecting Nature project, please email marcus.collier@tcd.ie.

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    Durham Research Online
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    BioScience
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    Authors: Marta Coll; Lynne J. Shannon; Kristin M. Kleisner; M. J. Juan-Jorda; +34 Authors

    IndiSeas (>Indicators for the Seas>) is a collaborative international working group that was established in 2005 to evaluate the status of exploited marine ecosystems using a suite of indicators in a comparative framework. An initial shortlist of seven ecological indicators was selected to quantify the effects of fishing on the broader ecosystem using several criteria (i.e., ecological meaning, sensitivity to fishing, data availability, management objectives and public awareness). The suite comprised: (i) the inverse coefficient of variation of total biomass of surveyed species, (ii) mean fish length in the surveyed community, (iii) mean maximum life span of surveyed fish species, (iv) proportion of predatory fish in the surveyed community, (v) proportion of under and moderately exploited stocks, (vi) total biomass of surveyed species, and (vii) mean trophic level of the landed catch. In line with the Nagoya Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2011-2020), we extended this suite to emphasize the broader biodiversity and conservation risks in exploited marine ecosystems. We selected a subset of indicators from a list of empirically based candidate biodiversity indicators initially established based on ecological significance to complement the original IndiSeas indicators. The additional selected indicators were: (viii) mean intrinsic vulnerability index of the fish landed catch, (ix) proportion of non-declining exploited species in the surveyed community, (x) catch-based marine trophic index, and (xi) mean trophic level of the surveyed community. Despite the lack of data in some ecosystems, we also selected (xii) mean trophic level of the modelled community, and (xiii) proportion of discards in the fishery as extra indicators. These additional indicators were examined, along with the initial set of IndiSeas ecological indicators, to evaluate whether adding new biodiversity indicators provided useful additional information to refine our understanding of the status evaluation of 29 exploited marine ecosystems. We used state and trend analyses, and we performed correlation, redundancy and multivariate tests. Existing developments in ecosystem-based fisheries management have largely focused on exploited species. Our study, using mostly fisheries independent survey-based indicators, highlights that biodiversity and conservation-based indicators are complementary to ecological indicators of fishing pressure. Thus, they should be used to provide additional information to evaluate the overall impact of fishing on exploited marine ecosystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved We thank the Euroceans IndiSeas Working Group funded by the European Network of Excellence EUR-OCEANS (FP6, Contract N° 511106), the European collaborative project MEECE – Marine Ecosystem Evolution in a Changing Environment (FP7, Contract N° 212085) and IRD (Institute of Research for Development) and IOC/UNESCO. [...] MC was partially funded by the European Commission through the Marie Curie Career Integration Grant Fellowships – PCIG10-GA-2011-303534 – to the BIOWEB project and by the Spanish National Program Ramon y Cajal. LJS was supported through the South African Research Chair Initiative, funded through the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) and administered by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF). LJS and YS were also funded by the European collaborative project MEECE – Marine Ecosystem Evolution in a Changing Environment – (FP7, Contract N° 212085). KMK was supported by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center and the Nature Conservancy through a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. MJJJ was supported by an EU Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship – PIOF-GA-2013-628116. MFB was supported by the Portuguese Oceanic and Atmospheric Institute and the trawl survey data collected under Biological Sampling (PNAB) Program. LJG would like to thank the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission for support. HO was financed by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (Grant SF0180005s10). JJH was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs [Grant Number NE/L003279/1, Marine Ecosystems Research Programme]. GIvdM was supported by the Institute of Marine Research, Norway. KT was partially funded by the project PERSEUS (Policy-oriented marine Environmental Research in the Southern EUropean Seas; FP7 Contract N° 287600). MAT was funded by the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) through a Predoctoral FPI fellowship. KNM was supported by a National Research Council fellowship at the Northwest Fishery Science Center. YJS and MTT were partially supported by the French project EMIBIOS (FRB, Contract No. APP-SCEN-2010-II). Chatham Rise trawl survey data were provided by the Ministry for Primary Industries. CL acknowledges DEVOTES – Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status – EC project (FP7 Grant Agreement 308392) Coll, Marta ... et al.-- 16 pages, 6 figures, 6 tables Peer Reviewed

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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . 2016
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      Ecological Indicators
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Erica R. Trump; Christos Fountoukis; Neil M. Donahue; Spyros N. Pandis;

    Abstract Atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) have often serious difficulties reproducing the observed aerosol nitrate levels. We hypothesize that one of the reasons for these errors is their treatment of the competition between the accumulation and coarse-mode particles for the condensing nitric acid. The hybrid mass transfer method is used in the CTM PMCAMx to test this hypothesis. The simulation approach combines the dynamic calculation of mass transfer to coarse-mode particles while maintaining computational efficiency by assuming that the fine mode particles are in equilibrium. The resulting model is applied to Europe and evaluated for the period of May 2008 against ground-based and airborne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer measurements from the EUCAARI campaign. PMCAMx using the default equilibrium approach to calculate the partitioning of semi-volatile PM components between the gas and particle phases seriously overpredicts PM1 nitrate levels especially for locations in which there were relatively high coarse-mode particle concentrations (significant sea-salt or dust concentrations). This shortcoming was especially apparent for the Mace Head site in Ireland, where a large amount of nitrate was associated with sea-salt. The improved simulation of the coarse-mode particle chemistry results in significant improvement of the predictions of PM1 nitrate and ammonium. Sea-salt emissions in areas with high nitric acid levels reduce the PM1 nitrate concentrations.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Atmospheric Environm...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Atmospheric Environment
    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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