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1,508 Research products

  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2014-2023
  • Publications
  • Research software
  • FR
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
  • Hal-Diderot

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  • Authors: Vandeputte, Marc;

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    Authors: Eleftherios Ioannidis; Kathy S. Law; Jean-Christophe Raut; Louis Marelle; +9 Authors

    Anthropogenic and natural emissions contribute to enhanced concentrations of aerosols in the Arctic winter and early spring, with most attention being paid to anthropogenic aerosols that contribute to so-called Arctic haze. Less-well-studied wintertime sea-spray aerosols (SSAs) under Arctic haze conditions are the focus of this study, since they can make an important contribution to wintertime Arctic aerosol abundances. Analysis of field campaign data shows evidence for enhanced local sources of SSAs, including marine organics at Utqiaġvik (formerly known as Barrow) in northern Alaska, United States, during winter 2014. Models tend to underestimate sub-micron SSAs and overestimate super-micron SSAs in the Arctic during winter, including the base version of the Weather Research Forecast coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model used here, which includes a widely used SSA source function based on Gong et al. (1997). Quasi-hemispheric simulations for winter 2014 including updated wind speed and sea-surface temperature (SST) SSA emission dependencies and sources of marine sea-salt organics and sea-salt sulfate lead to significantly improved model performance compared to observations at remote Arctic sites, notably for coarse-mode sodium and chloride, which are reduced. The improved model also simulates more realistic contributions of SSAs to inorganic aerosols at different sites, ranging from 20 %–93 % in the observations. Two-thirds of the improved model performance is from the inclusion of the dependence on SSTs. The simulation of nitrate aerosols is also improved due to less heterogeneous uptake of nitric acid on SSAs in the coarse mode and related increases in fine-mode nitrate. This highlights the importance of interactions between natural SSAs and inorganic anthropogenic aerosols that contribute to Arctic haze. Simulation of organic aerosols and the fraction of sea-salt sulfate are also improved compared to observations. However, the model underestimates episodes with elevated observed concentrations of SSA components and sub-micron non-sea-salt sulfate at some Arctic sites, notably at Utqiaġvik. Possible reasons are explored in higher-resolution runs over northern Alaska for periods corresponding to the Utqiaġvik field campaign in January and February 2014. The addition of a local source of sea-salt marine organics, based on the campaign data, increases modelled organic aerosols over northern Alaska. However, comparison with previous available data suggests that local natural sources from open leads, as well as local anthropogenic sources, are underestimated in the model. Missing local anthropogenic sources may also explain the low modelled (sub-micron) non-sea-salt sulfate at Utqiaġvik. The introduction of a higher wind speed dependence for sub-micron SSA emissions, also based on Arctic data, reduces biases in modelled sub-micron SSAs, while sea-ice fractions, including open leads, are shown to be an important factor controlling modelled super-micron, rather than sub-micron, SSAs over the north coast of Alaska. The regional results presented here show that modelled SSAs are more sensitive to wind speed dependence but that realistic modelling of sea-ice distributions is needed for the simulation of local SSAs, including marine organics. This study supports findings from the Utqiaġvik field campaign that open leads are the primary source of fresh and aged SSAs, including marine organic aerosols, during wintertime at Utqiaġvik; these findings do not suggest an influence from blowing snow and frost flowers. To improve model simulations of Arctic wintertime aerosols, new field data on processes that influence wintertime SSA production, in particular for fine-mode aerosols, are needed as is improved understanding about possible local anthropogenic sources.

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    Authors: Brooker, Rob, W; Hawes, Cathy; Iannetta, Pietro, P M; Karley, Alison, J; +1 Authors

    AbstractEcological intensification (EI) is the enhancement of ecosystem services to complement or substitute for the role of anthropogenic inputs in maintaining or increasing yields. EI has potential to increase farming’s environmental sustainability, e.g. reducing environmentally harmful management activities while sustaining yields. EI is based upon ecological processes which in turn are influenced by biodiversity. We review how biodiversity, particularly vascular plant diversity, can regulate ecosystem processes relevant to EI at multiple spatial scales. At an individual plant genotype level, complementarity in functional traits has a direct impact on productivity. At in-field, population level, mixtures of crop types confer resilience to minimize the risk of pest and disease incidence and spread. Scaling up to the field level, a diversity of non-crop plants (i.e. weeds) provides resources necessary for in-field functional processes, both below ground (carbon inputs, decomposition) and above ground (resource continuity for pollinators and natural enemies). At the landscape scale, mosaics of semi-natural and managed vegetation provide buffers against extreme events through flood and drought risk mitigation, climate amelioration and pest population regulation. Overall this emphasizes the importance of heterogeneity across scales in maintaining ecosystem functions in farmland. Major research challenges highlighted by our review include the need: to better integrate plant functional diversity (from traits to habitat scales) into cropping system design; to quantify the (likely interactive) contribution of plant diversity for effective EI relative to other management options; and to optimize through targeted management the system function benefits of biodiversity for resilient, efficient and productive agroecosystems.

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    Journal of Plant Ecology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
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      Journal of Plant Ecology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Castaldi, Fabio; Halil Koparan, Muhammed; Wetterlind, Johanna; Žydelis, Renaldas; +9 Authors

    International audience; The use of remote sensing data methods is affordable for the mapping of soil properties of the plowed layer over croplands. Carried out in the framework of the ongoing STEROPES project of the European Joint H2020 Program SOIL, this work is focused on the feasibility of Sentinel-2 based approaches for the high resolution mapping of topsoil clay and organic carbon (SOC) contents at the within-farm or within-field scales, for cropland sites of contrasted climates and soil types across the Northern hemisphere. Four pixelwise temporal mosaicking methods, using a two years-Sentinel-2 time series and several spectral indices (NDVI, NBR2, BSI, S2WI), were developed and compared for i) pure bare soil condition (maxBSI), ii) driest soil condition (minS2WI), iii) average bare soil condition (Median) and iv) dry soil conditions excluding extreme reflectance values (R90). Three spectral modeling approaches, using the Sentinel-2 bands of the output temporal mosaics as covariates, were tested and compared: (i) Quantile Regression Forest (QRF) algorithm; (ii) QRF adding longitude and latitude as covariates (QRFxy); (iii) a hybrid approach, Linear Mixed Effect Model (LMEM), that includes spatial autocorrelation of the soil properties. We tested pairs of mosaic and spectral approaches on ten sites in Türkiye, Italy, Lithuania, and USA where soil samples were collected and SOC and clay content were measured in the lab. The average RPIQ of the best performances among the test sites was 2.50 both for SOC (RMSE = 0.15%) and clay (RMSE = 3.3%). Both accuracy level and uncertainty were mainly influenced by site characteristics of cloud frequency, soil types and management. Generally, the models including a spatial component (QRFxy and LMEM) were the best performing, while the best spatial mosaicking approaches mostly were Median and R90. The most frequent optimal combination of mosaicking and model type was Median or R90 and QRFxy for SOC, and R90 and LMEM for clay estimation.

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    ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
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    Authors: Higgins, Vaughan; van der Velden, Daniël; Bechtet, Noemie; Bryant, Melanie; +3 Authors

    Assemblage thinking is an increasingly influential approach in critical studies of food and farming, and particularly in research on new agri-food technology such as precision agriculture (PA). This research is important in highlighting the distributed forms of power and agency through which farming worlds are assembled, and what these engender for more sustainable and equitable farming futures. However, to date, there has been limited attention to assembling PA from the perspective of farmers, what Legun and Burch (2021) refer to as ‘deliberative assembling’. This paper contributes to knowledge in this area by applying post actor network theoretical work to investigate across case studies in Australia, the Netherlands and France, the forms of tinkering by which farmers attempt to make PA workable, and what these engender for farmer agency. Through our analysis, we show that much of the tinkering by farmers is aimed at holding together their own priorities, routines, and experiences with practices inscribed in PA technology, such as dependence on commercial advice, data-driven knowledge, and commitment to a single technological platform/company. Integral to this tinkering work are support networks that include agronomists, advisors, machinery dealers and/or farmer discussion groups. We argue that whilst these support networks are critical to holding together different practices, and making PA workable, they also play a more diverse and nuanced role in PA implementation than what has previously been recognised. Our case studies provide insights into three key forms of tinkering used by farmers in navigating support networks to make PA workable – disconnection, experimentation and trial-and-error, and trade-offs and compromises – and the specific distributions of agency which these tinkering practices engender. In conclusion, we argue that a tinkering lens provides a valuable approach for enabling agri-food scholars to tease out in greater depth deliberative assembling practices and how these variously open-up or foreclose options for farmers in making PA workable.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2023
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    Journal of Rural Studies
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2023
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      Journal of Rural Studies
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Schaeffer, Julien; Desdouits, Marion; Besnard, Alban; Le Guyader, Soizick;

    The impact of human sewage on environmental and food contamination constitutes an important safety issue. Indeed, human sewage reflects the microbiome of the local population, and a variety of human viruses can be detected in wastewater samples. Being able to describe the diversity of viruses present in sewage will provide information on the health of the surrounding population health and will help to prevent further transmission. Metagenomic developments, allowing the description of all the different genomes present in a sample, are very promising tools for virome analysis. However, looking for human enteric viruses with short RNA genomes which are present at low concentrations is challenging. In this study we demonstrate the benefits of performing technical replicates to improve viral identification by increasing contig length, and the set-up of quality criteria to increase confidence in results. Our approach was able to effectively identify some virus sequences and successfully describe the viral diversity. The method yielded full genomes either for norovirus, enterovirus and rotavirus, even if, for these segmented genomes, combining genes remain a difficult issue. Developing reliable viromic methods is important as wastewater sample analysis provides an important tool to prevent further virus transmission by raising alerts in case of viral outbreaks or emergence.

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    Frontiers in Microbiology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Microbiology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Charifat Saïd Hassane; Florent Tintillier; Pierre-Eric Campos; Gaëtan Herbette; +5 Authors

    NMR raw data: Zipped file of 1D and 2D NMR files for the new PBDE 3,5-dibromo-2-(3’,4’,5’-tribromo-2’-hydroxyphenoxy)phenol (compound 6 - LS6) and known PBDEs 3,5-dibromo-2-(3’,5’-dibromo-2’-hydroxyphenoxy)phenol (compound 1 - LS1), 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(3’,5’-dibromo-2’-hydroxyphenoxy)phenol (compound 2 - LS2), 3,5-dibromo-2-(3’,5’-dibromo-2’-hydroxyphenoxy)anisole (compound 3 - LS3), 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(3’,5’-dibromo-2’-hydroxyphenoxy)anisole (compound 4 - LS4), and 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-2-(3’,5’-dibromo-2’-hydroxyphenoxy)phenol (compound 5 - LS5). NMR processing : Topspin 4.1.3

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    Natural Product Research
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    Authors: Xavier Faïn; David M. Etheridge; Kévin Fourteau; Patricia Martinerie; +15 Authors

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a naturally occurring atmospheric trace gas, a regulated pollutant, and one of the main components determining the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Evaluating climate–chemistry models under different conditions than today and constraining past CO sources requires a reliable record of atmospheric CO mixing ratios ([CO]) that includes data since preindustrial times. Here, we report the first continuous record of atmospheric [CO] for Southern Hemisphere (SH) high latitudes over the past 3 millennia. Our continuous record is a composite of three high-resolution Antarctic ice core gas records and firn air measurements from seven Antarctic locations. The ice core gas [CO] records were measured by continuous flow analysis (CFA), using an optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (OF-CEAS), achieving excellent external precision (2.8–8.8 ppb; 2σ) and consistently low blanks (ranging from 4.1±1.2 to 7.4±1.4 ppb), thus enabling paleo-atmospheric interpretations. Six new firn air [CO] Antarctic datasets collected between 1993 and 2016 CE at the DE08-2, DSSW19K, DSSW20K, South Pole, Aurora Basin North (ABN), and Lock-In sites (and one previously published firn CO dataset at Berkner) were used to reconstruct the atmospheric history of CO from ∼1897 CE, using inverse modeling that incorporates the influence of gas transport in firn. Excellent consistency was observed between the youngest ice core gas [CO] and the [CO] from the base of the firn and between the recent firn [CO] and atmospheric [CO] measurements at Mawson station (eastern Antarctica), yielding a consistent and contiguous record of CO across these different archives. Our Antarctic [CO] record is relatively stable from −835 to 1500 CE, with mixing ratios within a 30–45 ppb range (2σ). There is a ∼5 ppb decrease in [CO] to a minimum at around 1700 CE during the Little Ice Age. CO mixing ratios then increase over time to reach a maximum of ∼54 ppb by ∼1985 CE. Most of the industrial period [CO] growth occurred between about 1940 to 1985 CE, after which there was an overall [CO] decrease, as observed in Greenland firn air and later at atmospheric monitoring sites and attributed partly to reduced CO emissions from combustion sources. Our Antarctic ice core gas CO observations differ from previously published records in two key aspects. First, our mixing ratios are significantly lower than reported previously, suggesting that previous studies underestimated blank contributions. Second, our new CO record does not show a maximum in the late 1800s. The absence of a [CO] peak around the turn of the century argues against there being a peak in Southern Hemisphere biomass burning at this time, which is in agreement with (i) other paleofire proxies such as ethane or acetylene and (ii) conclusions reached by paleofire modeling. The combined ice core and firn air [CO] history, spanning −835 to 1992 CE, extended to the present by the Mawson atmospheric record, provides a useful benchmark for future atmospheric chemistry modeling studies.

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    Climate of the Past (CP)
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-202...
    Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-202...
      Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
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    Authors: Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Rosell-Moll, Enrique; Besson, Mathieu; Vergnet, Alain; +6 Authors

    Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an important trait to target in fish breeding programs, and the aim of the present study is to underline how the genetic improvement of FCR in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) drives to changes in transcriptional and behavioural patterns. Groups of fish with high (FCR+) and low (FCR-) individual FCR were established at the juvenile stage (161–315 dph) by rearing isolated fish on a restricted ration. Fish were then grouped on the basis of their individual FCR and they grew up until behavioural monitoring and gene expression analyses were done at 420 dph. The AEFishBIT datalogger (externally attached to operculum) was used for simultaneous measurements of physical activity and ventilation rates. This allowed discrimination of FCR+ and FCR- groups according to their different behaviour and energy partitioning for growth and locomotor activity. Gene expression profiling of liver and white muscle was made using customized PCR-arrays of 44 and 29 genes, respectively. Up to 15 genes were differentially expressed in liver and muscle tissues highlighting a different metabolic scope of FCR+ and FCR- fish. Hepatic gene expression profile of FCR- fish displayed a lower lipogenic activity that was concurrent with a down-regulation of markers of mitochondrial activity and oxidative stress, as well as a reallocation of body fat depots with an enhanced flux of lipids towards skeletal muscle. Muscle gene expression profile of FCR- fish matched with stimulatory and inhibitory growth signals, and an activation of energy sensors and antioxidant defence as part of the operating mechanisms for a more efficient muscle growth. These new insights contribute to phenotype the genetically mediated differences in fish FCR thanks to the combination of transcriptomic and behavioural approaches that contribute to better understand the mechanisms involved in a reliable FCR improvement of farmed gilthead sea bream. This work was supported by the EU project PerformFISH (Integrating Innovative Approaches for Competitive and Sustainable Performance across the Mediterranean Aquaculture Value Chain) (H2020-SFS-2016–2017; 727610).

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    Aquaculture Reports
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Aquaculture Reports
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    Authors: Corentin Pinsard; Tiago G. Morais; Tiago Domingos; Francesco Accatino; +1 Authors

    International audience; The Alentejo region in Portugal is vital to the country's beef industry and is home to 60% of the Portuguese beef cattle population. Farmers increasingly rely on imported synthetic fertilizer and feed. The uncertainty of global oil supply and indirect inputs calls into question the robustness of the beef farming system in Alentejo, defined as the capacity of the system to maintain its function (beef production) in spite of a disturbance (decreased input availability). An additional challenge is the need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to meet decarbonization goals. At present, these challenges are being addressed through management practices such as expanding areas of high-yield sown biodiverse pastures and fattening steers partially on grass rather than concentrates. These practices have been shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but their effect on the robustness of beef production when inputs are scarce is unknown. To fill this gap, we adapted a dynamic nitrogen mass flow model to assess herd dynamics and calculate a greenhouse gas emissions balance. We applied the model for seven scenarios corresponding to different combinations of management practices over 50 years with increasing input constraints. We estimated, without changes and without constraints, a greenhouse gas balance of 55 kgCO(2)-e kg carcass(-1) year(-1) (100-years global warming potential). Without changes but faced with constraints, meat production dropped 60% (low long-term robustness) in 50 years while increasing by 17% the greenhouse gas balance. Our results showed that a combination of high-yield legume-rich pastures, maximization of grass intake, herd size reduction, and increased animal productivity allowed the smallest reduction of meat production (28%) and largest greenhouse gas emission reduction (30%, i.e., 38.9 kgCO(2)-e kg carcass(-1) year(-1)). This was the best, among the combination studied, at mitigating the trade-off between robust meat production and climate change mitigation.

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    Agronomy for Sustainable Development
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Agronomy for Sustainable Development
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  • Authors: Vandeputte, Marc;

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    Authors: Eleftherios Ioannidis; Kathy S. Law; Jean-Christophe Raut; Louis Marelle; +9 Authors

    Anthropogenic and natural emissions contribute to enhanced concentrations of aerosols in the Arctic winter and early spring, with most attention being paid to anthropogenic aerosols that contribute to so-called Arctic haze. Less-well-studied wintertime sea-spray aerosols (SSAs) under Arctic haze conditions are the focus of this study, since they can make an important contribution to wintertime Arctic aerosol abundances. Analysis of field campaign data shows evidence for enhanced local sources of SSAs, including marine organics at Utqiaġvik (formerly known as Barrow) in northern Alaska, United States, during winter 2014. Models tend to underestimate sub-micron SSAs and overestimate super-micron SSAs in the Arctic during winter, including the base version of the Weather Research Forecast coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model used here, which includes a widely used SSA source function based on Gong et al. (1997). Quasi-hemispheric simulations for winter 2014 including updated wind speed and sea-surface temperature (SST) SSA emission dependencies and sources of marine sea-salt organics and sea-salt sulfate lead to significantly improved model performance compared to observations at remote Arctic sites, notably for coarse-mode sodium and chloride, which are reduced. The improved model also simulates more realistic contributions of SSAs to inorganic aerosols at different sites, ranging from 20 %–93 % in the observations. Two-thirds of the improved model performance is from the inclusion of the dependence on SSTs. The simulation of nitrate aerosols is also improved due to less heterogeneous uptake of nitric acid on SSAs in the coarse mode and related increases in fine-mode nitrate. This highlights the importance of interactions between natural SSAs and inorganic anthropogenic aerosols that contribute to Arctic haze. Simulation of organic aerosols and the fraction of sea-salt sulfate are also improved compared to observations. However, the model underestimates episodes with elevated observed concentrations of SSA components and sub-micron non-sea-salt sulfate at some Arctic sites, notably at Utqiaġvik. Possible reasons are explored in higher-resolution runs over northern Alaska for periods corresponding to the Utqiaġvik field campaign in January and February 2014. The addition of a local source of sea-salt marine organics, based on the campaign data, increases modelled organic aerosols over northern Alaska. However, comparison with previous available data suggests that local natural sources from open leads, as well as local anthropogenic sources, are underestimated in the model. Missing local anthropogenic sources may also explain the low modelled (sub-micron) non-sea-salt sulfate at Utqiaġvik. The introduction of a higher wind speed dependence for sub-micron SSA emissions, also based on Arctic data, reduces biases in modelled sub-micron SSAs, while sea-ice fractions, including open leads, are shown to be an important factor controlling modelled super-micron, rather than sub-micron, SSAs over the north coast of Alaska. The regional results presented here show that modelled SSAs are more sensitive to wind speed dependence but that realistic modelling of sea-ice distributions is needed for the simulation of local SSAs, including marine organics. This study supports findings from the Utqiaġvik field campaign that open leads are the primary source of fresh and aged SSAs, including marine organic aerosols, during wintertime at Utqiaġvik; these findings do not suggest an influence from blowing snow and frost flowers. To improve model simulations of Arctic wintertime aerosols, new field data on processes that influence wintertime SSA production, in particular for fine-mode aerosols, are needed as is improved understanding about possible local anthropogenic sources.

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