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1,517 Research products

  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2014-2023
  • FR
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
  • Hal-Diderot

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marsailidh M. Twigg; Chiara F. Di Marco; Elizabeth A. McGhee; Christine F. Braban; +21 Authors

    Under the EU Air Quality Directive (AQD) 2008/50/EC member states are required to undertake routine monitoring of PM2.5 composition at background stations. The AQD states for PM2.5 speciation this should include at least: nitrate (NO3−), sulfate (SO42−), chloride (Cl−), ammonium (NH4+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Until 2017, it was the responsibility of each country to determine the methodology used to report the composition for the inorganic components of PM2.5. In August 2017 a European standard method of measurement of PM2.5 inorganic chemical components (NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) as deposited on filters (EN16913:2017) was published. From August 2019 this then became the European standard method. This filter method is labour-intensive and provides limited time resolution and is prone to losses of volatile compounds. There is therefore increasing interest in the use of alternative automated methods. For example, the UK reports hourly PM2.5 chemical composition using the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA, Metrohm, NL). This study is a pre-assessment review of available data to demonstrate if or to what extent equivalence is possible using either the MARGA or other available automatic methods, including the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research Inc. US) and the Ambient Ion Monitor (AIM, URG, US). To demonstrate equivalence three objectives were to be met. The first two objectives focused on data capture and were met by all three instruments. The third objective was to have less than a 50% expanded uncertainty compared to the reference method for each species. Analysis of this objective was carried out using existing paired datasets available from different regions around the world. It was found that the MARGA (2006–2019 model) had the potential to demonstrate equivalence for all species in the standard, though it was only through a combination of case studies that it passed uncertainty criteria. The ACSM has the potential to demonstrate equivalence for NH4+, SO42−, and in some conditions NO3−, but did not for Cl− due to its inability to quantify refractory aerosol such as sea salt. The AIM has the potential for NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl− and Mg2+. Future investigations are required to determine if the AIM could be optimised to meet the expanded uncertainty criterion for Na+, K+ and Ca2+. The recommendation is that a second stage to demonstrate equivalence is required which would include both laboratory and field studies of the three candidate methods and any other technologies identified with the potential to report the required species. The authors would like to thank the UK Environment Agency who funded this study. The measurements in this study were funded by the following bodies: - All the UK datasets were funded by UK Environment Agency under the UK Eutrophying and Acidifying Pollutant Network and the UKs Particle Numbers and Concentrations Network. The Auchencorth Moss measurements are supported by NERC UK Status, change and Projections of the Environment UK-SCaPE (NE/R016429/1). - The Revin fieldsite is coordinated by IMT Nord Europe in collaboration with the regional monitoring network (Atmo Grand-Est) and the National Reference Laboratory for Air Quality Monitoring (LCSQA) and funded by the French Ministry of Environment. ACSM measurements were supported by the Labex CaPPA project, which is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the PIA (Programme d’Investissement d’Avenir) under contract ANR-11-LABX-0005-01, and were part of the COST COLOSSAL Action CA16109. - Measurements in Barcelona Palau Reial were funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through CAIAC project (PID2019-108990RB-I00) and FEDER funds, through EQC2018-004598-P. - Measurements at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are supported by the EPA-Ireland and the Department of Environment, Climate and Communications. - The Germany Federal Environment Agency (UBA) provided the financial support of this study and the deployment of the MARGA at the research station Melpitz under contracts No: 351 01 093 and 351 01 070. - The data from Kumpula was supported by the Academy of Finland as part of the Centre of Excellence program (project no 1118615). - US EPA gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Battelle and Wood (formerly Amec, Foster Wheeler) to the Research Triangle Park study. - The data from the San Pietro Capofiume was funded by the PEGASOS EU FP7 project. Peer reviewed

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Dunham-Cheatham, Sarrah; Allen, Natalie; Choma, Nicole; +7 Authors

    The Hg research community needs methods to more accurately measure atmospheric Hg concentrations and chemistry. The Reactive Mercury Active System (RMAS) uses cation exchange, nylon, and PTFE membranes to determine reactive mercury (RM), gaseous oxidized mercury, and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) concentrations and chemistry, respectively. New data for Atlanta, Georgia (NRGT) demonstrated that particulate-bound Hg was dominant and the chemistry was primarily N and S HgII compounds. At Great Salt Lake, Utah (GSL), RM was predominately PBM, with NS > organics > halogen > O HgII compounds. At Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas (GUMO), halogenated compound concentrations were lowest when air interacting with the site was primarily derived from the Midwest, and highest when the air was sourced from Mexico. At Amsterdam Island, Southern Indian Ocean, compounds were primarily halogenated with some N, S, and organic HgII compounds potentially associated with biological activity. The GEOS-Chem model was applied to see if it predicted measurements at five field sites. Model values were higher than observations at GSL, slightly lower at NRGT, and observations were an order of magnitude higher than modeled values for GUMO and Reno, Nevada. In general, data collected from 13 locations indicated that N, S, and organic RM compounds were associated with city and forest locations, halogenated compounds were sourced from the marine boundary layer, and O compounds were associated with long-range transport. Data being developed currently, and in the past, suggest there are multiple forms of RM that modelers must consider, and PBM is an important component of RM.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    The Science of The Total Environment
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      The Science of The Total Environment
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Luna M. van der Loos; Quinten Bafort; Samuel Bosch; Enric Ballesteros; +40 Authors

    Effective monitoring of non-indigenous seaweeds and combatting their effects relies on a solid confirmation of the non-indigenous status of the respective species. We critically analysed the status of presumed non-indigenous seaweed species reported from the Mediterranean Sea, the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Macaronesia, resulting in a list of 140 species whose non-indigenous nature is undisputed. For an additional 87 species it is unclear if they are native or non-indigenous (cryptogenic species) or their identity requires confirmation (data deficient species). We discuss the factors underlying both taxonomic and biogeographic uncertainties and outline recommendations to reduce uncertainty about the non-indigenous status of seaweeds. Our dataset consisted of over 19,000 distribution records, half of which can be attributed to only five species (Sargassum muticum, Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Asparagopsis armata, Caulerpa cylindracea and Colpomenia peregrina), while 56 species (40%) are recorded no more than once or twice. In addition, our analyses revealed considerable variation in the diversity of non-indigenous species between the geographic regions. The Eastern Mediterranean Sea is home to the largest fraction of non-indigenous seaweed species, the majority of which have a Red Sea or Indo-Pacific origin and have entered the Mediterranean Sea mostly via the Suez Canal. Non-indigenous seaweeds with native ranges situated in the Northwest Pacific make up a large fraction of the total in the Western Mediterranean Sea, Lusitania and Northern Europe, followed by non-indigenous species with a presumed Australasian origin. Uncertainty remains, however, regarding the native range of a substantial fraction of non-indigenous seaweeds in the study area. In so far as analyses of first detections can serve as a proxy for the introduction rate of non-indigenous seaweeds, these do not reveal a decrease in the introduction rate, indicating that the current measures and policies are insufficient to battle the introduction and spread of non-indigenous species in the study area. European Marine Biological Resource Centre Belgium [GOH3817N]; European Marine Biological Resource Centre Belgium [I001621N]; Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek [3F020119]; POR PUGLIA FESR-FSE 2014/2020 [Asse VI, Action 6.5]; RESTORESEAS [EU-BiodivERsA BiodivRestore-253]; Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution – Montpellier [ISEM 2023-173]; Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan [Mission 4, Component 2, ‘From research to business’: 1. NBFC, Investment 1.4, Project CN00000033]; IDEALG [ANR-10-BTBR-04; Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution – Montpellier Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution – Montpellier [ISEM 2023-173]. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    European Journal of Phycology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      European Journal of Phycology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Olivier Magand; Hélène Angot; Yann Bertrand; Jeroen E. Sonke; +5 Authors

    AbstractThe Minamata Convention, a global and legally binding treaty that entered into force in 2017, aims to protect human health and the environment from harmful mercury (Hg) effects by reducing anthropogenic Hg emissions and environmental levels. The Conference of the Parties is to periodically evaluate the Convention’s effectiveness, starting in 2023, using existing monitoring data and observed trends. Monitoring atmospheric Hg levels has been proposed as a key indicator. However, data gaps exist, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we present over a decade of atmospheric Hg monitoring data at Amsterdam Island (37.80°S, 77.55°E), in the remote southern Indian Ocean. Datasets include gaseous elemental and oxidised Hg species ambient air concentrations from either active/continuous or passive/discrete acquisition methods, and annual total Hg wet deposition fluxes. These datasets are made available to the community to support policy-making and further scientific advancements.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Dataarrow_drop_down
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    Scientific Data
    Article . 2023
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    Scientific Data
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Scientific Data
      Article . 2023
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      Scientific Data
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Anna Kłoczko-Gajewska; Agata Malak-Rawlikowska; Edward Majewski; Adam Wilkinson; +6 Authors

    International audience; Shortening food supply chains attracts increasing support from policymakers, to improve returns to farmers and stimulate rural development. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the impacts of short food supply chains on local economies. To address this, the article quantifies the impacts of short food supply chains on local economies, using the Keynesian-based Local Multiplier 3 method (LM3), applied to a unique dataset of 122 farm businesses from five European Union countries (France, Hungary, Italy, Poland and the United Kingdom). Estimations cover 305 market chains, comprising both short and long food supply chains, in which sampled farmers participate. The results indicate that the revenues from farm production remain largely within local economies, generating a substantial multiplier effect (LM3 > 2). This effect stems from purchases of farm inputs locally including, in the first instance, hiring local labour, as well as the expenditures of local suppliers that re-spend part of their revenues within the local area. The multiplier effects of short food supply chains are similar to long food supply chain equivalents as both use largely local labour and source tradable inputs locally. In shaping food chain policy a broader set of socioeconomic benefits to local development from selling through short food supply chains should be considered.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao European Urban and R...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    European Urban and Regional Studies
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao European Urban and R...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      European Urban and Regional Studies
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Milesi, Pascal; Kastally, Chedly; Dauphin, Benjamin; Cervantes, Sandra; +23 Authors

    Past environmental changes have shaped the demographic history and genetic diversity of natural populations, yet the timescale and strength of these effects have not been investigated systematically and simultaneously for multiple phylogenetically distant species. We performed comparative population genomic analyses and demographic inference for seven ecologically contrasting European tree species sampled across their ranges. While patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation were species-specific and best explained jointly by each species’ geographic range and dispersal ability, ancient population expansion events were shared and synchronous across species. Effective population sizes increased or remained stable over time, indicating that despite major changes in their geographic ranges, major forest tree species have been remarkably genetically resilient to the environmental challenges of repeated glacial cycles. One-Sentence Summary Population genomic analyses reveal demographic events across millions of years for seven forest tree species across Europe.

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    Authors: Machefert, C.; Robert-Granié, C.; Lagriffoul, G.; Parisot, S.; +5 Authors

    International audience; The collective economic and environmental interest of the whole dairy sheep sector is to reduce feedcosts and the negative impact of milk production on the environment. Thus, this study focused on thecharacterisation and genetic selection potential of feed efficiency in the Lacaune breed. Estimates for feedefficiency in dairy ewes are limited, mainly due to a lack of individual feed intake measurements in thesheepfold or in the pasture. We estimated the genetic parameters for two approximated (not entirelybased on individual data) feed efficiency traits (lactation feed conversion ratio (LFCR) and residual energyintake (REI)) and daily milk yield (DMY) at different stages of lactation and throughout lactation. Theaccuracy of the efficiency traits was first evaluated on samples from Lacaune dairy ewes that were mon-itored individually, especially for their feed intake. Then, feed efficiency estimation methods were appliedon eight commercial farms corresponding to 4 680 Lacaune dairy ewes over two milk lactations (30 854records). Animals were collectively (for a large part of feed intake) or individually (for milk performanceand dynamics of body fat reserves) monitored at different lactation stages. The heritabilities of LFCR andREI were estimated over lactations at 0.10 ± 0.01 and 0.11 ± 0.01, respectively. High genetic correlationswere observed between the two efficiency traits and milk production traits, with a genetic correlationbetween LFCR and DMY of 0.74 ± 0.04 and between REI and DMY of 0.79 ± 0.04. A strong influenceof environmental factors such as farm, year of milk production and lactation stage affected the geneticlink between REI and milk production traits. Efficiency values observed in early lactation when animalswere bred in the sheepfold were less genetically correlated with values obtained later in lactation whenanimals were grass-fed. However, individual characterisation of feed efficiency remains difficult due tothe collective feeding context in dairy ewe farms.

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    Animal
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    Animal
    Article . 2023
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      Animal
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      Animal
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Smith, Peter; Le Devendec, Laëtitia; Jouy, Eric; Larvor, Emeline; +26 Authors

    This work aims to generate the data needed to set epidemiological cut-off values for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc-diffusion zone measurements of Vibrio anguillarum. A total of 261 unique isolates were tested, applying standard methods specifying incubation at 28°C for 24-28 h. Aggregated MIC distributions for a total of 247 isolates were determined in 9 laboratories for 11 agents. Data aggregations of the disc zone for the 10 agents analysed contained between 157 and 218 observations made by 4 to 7 laboratories. Acceptable ranges for quality control (QC) reference strains were available for 7 agents and the related multi-laboratory aggregated data were censored, excluding the data of a laboratory that failed to meet QC requirements. Statistical methods were applied to calculate epidemiological cut-off values. Cut-off values for MIC data were calculated for florfenicol (≤1 µg ml-1), gentamicin (≤4 µg ml-1), oxytetracycline (≤0.25 µg ml-1) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (≤0.125/2.38 µg ml-1). The cut-off values for disc zone data were calculated for enrofloxacin (≥29 mm), florfenicol (≥27 mm), gentamicin (≥19 mm), oxolinic acid (≥24 mm), oxytetracycline (≥24 mm) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (≥26 mm). MIC and disc-diffusion zone data for the other agents where not supported by QC, thus yielding only provisional cut-off values (meropenem, ceftazidime). Regardless of whether QC is available, some of the aggregated MIC distributions (enrofloxacin, oxolinic acid), disc zone (sulfamethoxazole), and MIC and disc-diffusion distributions (ampicillin, chloramphenicol) did not meet the statistical requirements. The data produced will be submitted to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute for their consideration in setting international consensus epidemiological cut-off values.

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    Research@WUR
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Research@WUR
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    Brage IMR
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: Brage IMR
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    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Research@WUR
      Other literature type . 2023
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      Brage IMR
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: Brage IMR
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      Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Rémi Vezy; Sebastian Munz; Noémie Gaudio; Marie Launay; +3 Authors

    The growing demand for sustainable agriculture is raising interest in intercropping for its multiple potential benefits to avoid or limit the use of chemical inputs or increase the production per surface unit. Predicting the existence and magnitude of those benefits remains a challenge given the numerous interactions between interspecific plant-plant relationships, their environment, and the agricultural practices. Soil-crop models are critical in understanding these interactions in dynamics during the whole growing season, but few models are capable of accurately simulating intercropping systems. In this study, we propose a set of simple and generic formalisms (i.e. the structure and mathematical representation necessary for designing a model) for simulating key interactions in bi-specific intercropping systems that can be readily included into existing dynamic crop models. This requires simulating important processes such as development, light interception, plant growth, N and water balance, and yield formation in response to management practices, soil conditions, and climate. These formalisms were integrated into the STICS soil-crop model and evaluated using observed data of intercropping systems of cereal and legumes mixtures, including Faba bean-Wheat, Pea-Barley, Soybean-Sunflower, and Wheat-Pea mixtures. We demonstrate that the proposed formalisms provide a comprehensive simulation of soil-plant interactions in various types of bispecific intercrops. The model was found consistent and generic under a range of spring and winter intercrops (nRMSE = 25% for maximum leaf area index, 23% for shoot biomass at harvest, and 18% for grain yield). This is the first time a complete set of formalisms has been developed and published for simulating bi-specific intercropping systems and integrated into a soil-crop model. With its emphasis on being generic, sufficiently accurate, simple, and easy to parameterize, STICS is well-suited to help researchers designing in silico the agroecological transition by virtually pre-screening sustainable, manageable intercrop systems adapted to local conditions.

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    Agritrop
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: Agritrop
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Agronomy for Sustainable Development
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer Nature TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Agritrop
      Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Agronomy for Sustainable Development
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Smith, Peter; Cortinovis, Luana; Pretto, Tobia; Manfrin, Amedeo; +10 Authors

    The lack of internationally harmonised criteria for interpreting the data generated by standardised susceptibility testing methods presents a serious obstacle for the development of prudent use of antimicrobials in aquaculture. The data required to set epidemiological cut-off values for minimum inhibitory concentrations for antibiotic agents against Vibrio harveyi was determined using a standard microdilution method that specified the use of cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth and incubation at 28°C for 24 to 28 h. In total, 120 observations were made in 4 independent laboratories from 109 unique isolates. The aggregated data from these laboratories were analysed by the normalised resistance method and by ECOFFinder to calculate epidemiological cut-off values. The data for chloramphenicol, meropenem and sulfamethoxazole were not considered as suitable for analysis. The data for ampicillin indicated that this species is innately resistant to this agent. No acceptable ranges for quality control strains have been set for ceftazidime and, therefore, only provisional cut-off values could be generated for this agent. The epidemiological cut-off values were, however, calculated for the other 6 agents. These values were ≤0.5 µg ml-1 for enrofloxacin, ≤1 µg ml-1 for florfenicol, oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline, ≤4 µg ml-1 for gentamicin and ≤0.5/9.5 µg ml-1 for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Evidence is presented demonstrating that the data for these 6 antimicrobial agents was of sufficient quantity and quality that they could be used by the relevant authorities to set internationally harmonised, consensus epidemiological cut-off values for V. harveyi.

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    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marsailidh M. Twigg; Chiara F. Di Marco; Elizabeth A. McGhee; Christine F. Braban; +21 Authors

    Under the EU Air Quality Directive (AQD) 2008/50/EC member states are required to undertake routine monitoring of PM2.5 composition at background stations. The AQD states for PM2.5 speciation this should include at least: nitrate (NO3−), sulfate (SO42−), chloride (Cl−), ammonium (NH4+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Until 2017, it was the responsibility of each country to determine the methodology used to report the composition for the inorganic components of PM2.5. In August 2017 a European standard method of measurement of PM2.5 inorganic chemical components (NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) as deposited on filters (EN16913:2017) was published. From August 2019 this then became the European standard method. This filter method is labour-intensive and provides limited time resolution and is prone to losses of volatile compounds. There is therefore increasing interest in the use of alternative automated methods. For example, the UK reports hourly PM2.5 chemical composition using the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA, Metrohm, NL). This study is a pre-assessment review of available data to demonstrate if or to what extent equivalence is possible using either the MARGA or other available automatic methods, including the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research Inc. US) and the Ambient Ion Monitor (AIM, URG, US). To demonstrate equivalence three objectives were to be met. The first two objectives focused on data capture and were met by all three instruments. The third objective was to have less than a 50% expanded uncertainty compared to the reference method for each species. Analysis of this objective was carried out using existing paired datasets available from different regions around the world. It was found that the MARGA (2006–2019 model) had the potential to demonstrate equivalence for all species in the standard, though it was only through a combination of case studies that it passed uncertainty criteria. The ACSM has the potential to demonstrate equivalence for NH4+, SO42−, and in some conditions NO3−, but did not for Cl− due to its inability to quantify refractory aerosol such as sea salt. The AIM has the potential for NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl− and Mg2+. Future investigations are required to determine if the AIM could be optimised to meet the expanded uncertainty criterion for Na+, K+ and Ca2+. The recommendation is that a second stage to demonstrate equivalence is required which would include both laboratory and field studies of the three candidate methods and any other technologies identified with the potential to report the required species. The authors would like to thank the UK Environment Agency who funded this study. The measurements in this study were funded by the following bodies: - All the UK datasets were funded by UK Environment Agency under the UK Eutrophying and Acidifying Pollutant Network and the UKs Particle Numbers and Concentrations Network. The Auchencorth Moss measurements are supported by NERC UK Status, change and Projections of the Environment UK-SCaPE (NE/R016429/1). - The Revin fieldsite is coordinated by IMT Nord Europe in collaboration with the regional monitoring network (Atmo Grand-Est) and the National Reference Laboratory for Air Quality Monitoring (LCSQA) and funded by the French Ministry of Environment. ACSM measurements were supported by the Labex CaPPA project, which is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the PIA (Programme d’Investissement d’Avenir) under contract ANR-11-LABX-0005-01, and were part of the COST COLOSSAL Action CA16109. - Measurements in Barcelona Palau Reial were funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through CAIAC project (PID2019-108990RB-I00) and FEDER funds, through EQC2018-004598-P. - Measurements at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are supported by the EPA-Ireland and the Department of Environment, Climate and Communications. - The Germany Federal Environment Agency (UBA) provided the financial support of this study and the deployment of the MARGA at the research station Melpitz under contracts No: 351 01 093 and 351 01 070. - The data from Kumpula was supported by the Academy of Finland as part of the Centre of Excellence program (project no 1118615). - US EPA gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Battelle and Wood (formerly Amec, Foster Wheeler) to the Research Triangle Park study. - The data from the San Pietro Capofiume was funded by the PEGASOS EU FP7 project. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Dunham-Cheatham, Sarrah; Allen, Natalie; Choma, Nicole; +7 Authors

    The Hg research community needs methods to more accurately measure atmospheric Hg concentrations and chemistry. The Reactive Mercury Active System (RMAS) uses cation exchange, nylon, and PTFE membranes to determine reactive mercury (RM), gaseous oxidized mercury, and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) concentrations and chemistry, respectively. New data for Atlanta, Georgia (NRGT) demonstrated that particulate-bound Hg was dominant and the chemistry was primarily N and S HgII compounds. At Great Salt Lake, Utah (GSL), RM was predominately PBM, with NS > organics > halogen > O HgII compounds. At Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas (GUMO), halogenated compound concentrations were lowest when air interacting with the site was primarily derived from the Midwest, and highest when the air was sourced from Mexico. At Amsterdam Island, Southern Indian Ocean, compounds were primarily halogenated with some N, S, and organic HgII compounds potentially associated with biological activity. The GEOS-Chem model was applied to see if it predicted measurements at five field sites. Model values were higher than observations at GSL, slightly lower at NRGT, and observations were an order of magnitude higher than modeled values for GUMO and Reno, Nevada. In general, data collected from 13 locations indicated that N, S, and organic RM compounds were associated with city and forest locations, halogenated compounds were sourced from the marine boundary layer, and O compounds were associated with long-range transport. Data being developed currently, and in the past, suggest there are multiple forms of RM that modelers must consider, and PBM is an important component of RM.

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    The Science of The Total Environment
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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