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4 Research products

  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2014-2023
  • Academy of Finland
  • ACCESS
  • FI

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schacht, Jacob; Heinold, Bernd; Quaas, Johannes; Backman, John; +10 Authors

    Aerosol particles can contribute to the Arctic amplification (AA) by direct and indirect radiative effects. Specifically, black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere, and when deposited on snow and sea ice, has a positive warming effect on the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance during the polar day. Current climate models, however, are still struggling to reproduce Arctic aerosol conditions. We present an evaluation study with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3 to examine emission-related uncertainties in the BC distribution and the direct radiative effect of BC. The model results are comprehensively compared against the latest ground and airborne aerosol observations for the period 2005–2017, with a focus on BC. Four different setups of air pollution emissions are tested. The simulations in general match well with the observed amount and temporal variability in near-surface BC in the Arctic. Using actual daily instead of fixed biomass burning emissions is crucial for reproducing individual pollution events but has only a small influence on the seasonal cycle of BC. Compared with commonly used fixed anthropogenic emissions for the year 2000, an up-to-date inventory with transient air pollution emissions results in up to a 30 % higher annual BC burden locally. This causes a higher annual mean all-sky net direct radiative effect of BC of over 0.1 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere over the Arctic region (60–90∘ N), being locally more than 0.2 W m−2 over the eastern Arctic Ocean. We estimate BC in the Arctic as leading to an annual net gain of 0.5 W m−2 averaged over the Arctic region but to a local gain of up to 0.8 W m−2 by the direct radiative effect of atmospheric BC plus the effect by the BC-in-snow albedo reduction. Long-range transport is identified as one of the main sources of uncertainties for ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3, leading to an overestimation of BC in atmospheric layers above 500 hPa, especially in summer. This is related to a misrepresentation in wet removal in one identified case at least, which was observed during the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) summer aircraft campaign. Overall, the current model version has significantly improved since previous intercomparison studies and now performs better than the multi-model average in the Aerosol Comparisons between Observation and Models (AEROCOM) initiative in terms of the spatial and temporal distribution of Arctic BC. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19 (17) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite; Sygma
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Preprint . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite; Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
      Preprint . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . Preprint
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      Data sources: UnpayWall
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schacht, Jacob; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina;

    All data as used in the Schacht et al. (2019) paper.This includes mothly means of:- BC sedimentation- BC drydeposition- BC wetdeposition- BC emissionMonthly Arctic fieldsums of:- SO4 emission- SO2 emission2005 to 2015 fieldmeans of:- BC burden- aerosol DRE (LW & SW, TOA & BOA)- aerosol DRE without bc (LW & SW, TOA & BOA)- DRE of BC-in-snow (SW, TOA & BOA)Timeseries of BC mass mixing ratios connected to measurements:- at Alert, Oulanka, Barrow, Ny-Alesund, Villum, Tiksi, Pallas, Summit, Zeppelin Station, Gates of the Arctic NP, Trapper Creek, Tuxedni, Simeonof and Denali NP- for the campaigns ACLOUD, Pamarcmip 2017, HIPPO, ACCESS and ARCTAS Supplement to: Schacht, Jacob; Heinold, Bernd; Quaas, Johannes; Backman, John; Cherian, Ribu; Ehrlich, André; Herber, Andreas; Huang, Wan Ting Katty; Kondo, Y; Massling, Andreas; Sinha, P R; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Zanatta, Marco; Tegen, Ina (2019): The importance of the representation of air pollution emissions for the modeled distribution and radiative effects of black carbon in the Arctic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19(17), 11159-11183

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2019
    Data sources: B2FIND
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    PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science
    Other dataset type . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2019
      Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science
      Other dataset type . 2019
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      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf; Debernard, Jens B.;

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77–0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02–0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. −0.22 W m−2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the climatic differences to the SPH experiment become very small. Finally, the impact of assumed snow grain shape on the radiative effects of absorbing aerosols in snow is discussed.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Petri Räisänen; Risto Makkonen; Alf Kirkevåg; Jens Boldingh Debernard;

    Abstract. Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77–0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02–0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. −0.22 W m−2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the climatic differences to the SPH experiment become very small. Finally, the impact of assumed snow grain shape on the radiative effects of absorbing aerosols in snow is discussed.

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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
    Preprint . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
      Preprint . 2017
      License: CC BY
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      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . Preprint
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schacht, Jacob; Heinold, Bernd; Quaas, Johannes; Backman, John; +10 Authors

    Aerosol particles can contribute to the Arctic amplification (AA) by direct and indirect radiative effects. Specifically, black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere, and when deposited on snow and sea ice, has a positive warming effect on the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance during the polar day. Current climate models, however, are still struggling to reproduce Arctic aerosol conditions. We present an evaluation study with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3 to examine emission-related uncertainties in the BC distribution and the direct radiative effect of BC. The model results are comprehensively compared against the latest ground and airborne aerosol observations for the period 2005–2017, with a focus on BC. Four different setups of air pollution emissions are tested. The simulations in general match well with the observed amount and temporal variability in near-surface BC in the Arctic. Using actual daily instead of fixed biomass burning emissions is crucial for reproducing individual pollution events but has only a small influence on the seasonal cycle of BC. Compared with commonly used fixed anthropogenic emissions for the year 2000, an up-to-date inventory with transient air pollution emissions results in up to a 30 % higher annual BC burden locally. This causes a higher annual mean all-sky net direct radiative effect of BC of over 0.1 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere over the Arctic region (60–90∘ N), being locally more than 0.2 W m−2 over the eastern Arctic Ocean. We estimate BC in the Arctic as leading to an annual net gain of 0.5 W m−2 averaged over the Arctic region but to a local gain of up to 0.8 W m−2 by the direct radiative effect of atmospheric BC plus the effect by the BC-in-snow albedo reduction. Long-range transport is identified as one of the main sources of uncertainties for ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3, leading to an overestimation of BC in atmospheric layers above 500 hPa, especially in summer. This is related to a misrepresentation in wet removal in one identified case at least, which was observed during the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) summer aircraft campaign. Overall, the current model version has significantly improved since previous intercomparison studies and now performs better than the multi-model average in the Aerosol Comparisons between Observation and Models (AEROCOM) initiative in terms of the spatial and temporal distribution of Arctic BC. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19 (17) ISSN:1680-7375 ISSN:1680-7367

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite; Sygma
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
    Preprint . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
      Article . 2019
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2019
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite; Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20...
      Preprint . 2019
      License: CC BY
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schacht, Jacob; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina;

    All data as used in the Schacht et al. (2019) paper.This includes mothly means of:- BC sedimentation- BC drydeposition- BC wetdeposition- BC emissionMonthly Arctic fieldsums of:- SO4 emission- SO2 emission2005 to 2015 fieldmeans of:- BC burden- aerosol DRE (LW & SW, TOA & BOA)- aerosol DRE without bc (LW & SW, TOA & BOA)- DRE of BC-in-snow (SW, TOA & BOA)Timeseries of BC mass mixing ratios connected to measurements:- at Alert, Oulanka, Barrow, Ny-Alesund, Villum, Tiksi, Pallas, Summit, Zeppelin Station, Gates of the Arctic NP, Trapper Creek, Tuxedni, Simeonof and Denali NP- for the campaigns ACLOUD, Pamarcmip 2017, HIPPO, ACCESS and ARCTAS Supplement to: Schacht, Jacob; Heinold, Bernd; Quaas, Johannes; Backman, John; Cherian, Ribu; Ehrlich, André; Herber, Andreas; Huang, Wan Ting Katty; Kondo, Y; Massling, Andreas; Sinha, P R; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Zanatta, Marco; Tegen, Ina (2019): The importance of the representation of air pollution emissions for the modeled distribution and radiative effects of black carbon in the Arctic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19(17), 11159-11183

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2019
    Data sources: B2FIND
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    PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science
    Other dataset type . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2019
      Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science
      Other dataset type . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf; Debernard, Jens B.;

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77–0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02–0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. −0.22 W m−2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the climatic differences to the SPH experiment become very small. Finally, the impact of assumed snow grain shape on the radiative effects of absorbing aerosols in snow is discussed.

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    Authors: Petri Räisänen; Risto Makkonen; Alf Kirkevåg; Jens Boldingh Debernard;

    Abstract. Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77–0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02–0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. −0.22 W m−2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the climatic differences to the SPH experiment become very small. Finally, the impact of assumed snow grain shape on the radiative effects of absorbing aerosols in snow is discussed.

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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
    Preprint . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    The Cryosphere (TC)
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HELDA - Digital Repo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-201...
      Preprint . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      The Cryosphere (TC)
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
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