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  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2018-2022
  • Academy of Finland
  • Novel Assessment of Black Carbon in...
  • FI
  • NO
  • English

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    Authors: Luoma, Krista; Virkkula, Aki; Aalto, Pasi; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; +2 Authors

    We present a comparison between three absorption photometers that measured the absorption coefficient (sigma(abs)) of ambient aerosol particles in 2012-2017 at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II), a measurement station located in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The comparison included an Aethalometer (AE31), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). These optical instruments measured particles collected on a filter, which is a source of systematic errors, since in addition to the particles, the filter fibers also interact with light. To overcome this problem, several algorithms have been suggested to correct the AE31 and PSAP measurements. The aim of this study was to research how the different correction algorithms affected the derived optical properties. We applied the different correction algorithms to the AE31 and PSAP data and compared the results against the reference measurements conducted by the MAAP. The comparison between the MAAP and AE31 resulted in a multiple-scattering correction factor (C-ref) that is used in AE31 correction algorithms to compensate for the light scattering by filter fibers. C-ref varies between different environments, and our results are applicable to a boreal environment. We observed a clear seasonal cycle in C-ref, which was probably due to variations in aerosol optical properties, such as the backscatter fraction and single-scattering albedo, and also due to variations in the relative humidity (RH). The results showed that the filter-based absorption photometers seemed to be rather sensitive to the RH even if the RH was kept below the recommended value of 40 %. The instruments correlated well (R approximate to 0.98), but the slopes of the regression lines varied between the instruments and correction algorithms: compared to the MAAP, the AE31 underestimated sigma(abs) only slightly (the slopes varied between 0.96-1.00) and the PSAP overestimated sigma(abs) only a little (the slopes varied between 1.01-1.04 for a recommended filter transmittance >0.7). The instruments and correction algorithms had a notable influence on the absorption angstrom ngstrom exponent: the median absorption Angstrom exponent varied between 0.93-1.54 for the different algorithms and instruments. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: K. Luoma; A. Virkkula; P. Aalto; K. Lehtipalo; +3 Authors

    We present a comparison between three absorption photometers that measured the absorption coefficient (σabs) of ambient aerosol particles in 2012–2017 at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations II), a measurement station located in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The comparison included an Aethalometer (AE31), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). These optical instruments measured particles collected on a filter, which is a source of systematic errors, since in addition to the particles, the filter fibers also interact with light. To overcome this problem, several algorithms have been suggested to correct the AE31 and PSAP measurements. The aim of this study was to research how the different correction algorithms affected the derived optical properties. We applied the different correction algorithms to the AE31 and PSAP data and compared the results against the reference measurements conducted by the MAAP. The comparison between the MAAP and AE31 resulted in a multiple-scattering correction factor (Cref) that is used in AE31 correction algorithms to compensate for the light scattering by filter fibers. Cref varies between different environments, and our results are applicable to a boreal environment. We observed a clear seasonal cycle in Cref, which was probably due to variations in aerosol optical properties, such as the backscatter fraction and single-scattering albedo, and also due to variations in the relative humidity (RH). The results showed that the filter-based absorption photometers seemed to be rather sensitive to the RH even if the RH was kept below the recommended value of 40 %. The instruments correlated well (R≈0.98), but the slopes of the regression lines varied between the instruments and correction algorithms: compared to the MAAP, the AE31 underestimated σabs only slightly (the slopes varied between 0.96–1.00) and the PSAP overestimated σabs only a little (the slopes varied between 1.01–1.04 for a recommended filter transmittance >0.7). The instruments and correction algorithms had a notable influence on the absorption Ångström exponent: the median absorption Ångström exponent varied between 0.93–1.54 for the different algorithms and instruments.

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    Authors: Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf; Debernard, Jens B.;

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77–0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02–0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. −0.22 W m−2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the climatic differences to the SPH experiment become very small. Finally, the impact of assumed snow grain shape on the radiative effects of absorbing aerosols in snow is discussed.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Luoma, Krista; Virkkula, Aki; Aalto, Pasi; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; +2 Authors

    We present a comparison between three absorption photometers that measured the absorption coefficient (sigma(abs)) of ambient aerosol particles in 2012-2017 at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II), a measurement station located in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The comparison included an Aethalometer (AE31), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). These optical instruments measured particles collected on a filter, which is a source of systematic errors, since in addition to the particles, the filter fibers also interact with light. To overcome this problem, several algorithms have been suggested to correct the AE31 and PSAP measurements. The aim of this study was to research how the different correction algorithms affected the derived optical properties. We applied the different correction algorithms to the AE31 and PSAP data and compared the results against the reference measurements conducted by the MAAP. The comparison between the MAAP and AE31 resulted in a multiple-scattering correction factor (C-ref) that is used in AE31 correction algorithms to compensate for the light scattering by filter fibers. C-ref varies between different environments, and our results are applicable to a boreal environment. We observed a clear seasonal cycle in C-ref, which was probably due to variations in aerosol optical properties, such as the backscatter fraction and single-scattering albedo, and also due to variations in the relative humidity (RH). The results showed that the filter-based absorption photometers seemed to be rather sensitive to the RH even if the RH was kept below the recommended value of 40 %. The instruments correlated well (R approximate to 0.98), but the slopes of the regression lines varied between the instruments and correction algorithms: compared to the MAAP, the AE31 underestimated sigma(abs) only slightly (the slopes varied between 0.96-1.00) and the PSAP overestimated sigma(abs) only a little (the slopes varied between 1.01-1.04 for a recommended filter transmittance >0.7). The instruments and correction algorithms had a notable influence on the absorption angstrom ngstrom exponent: the median absorption Angstrom exponent varied between 0.93-1.54 for the different algorithms and instruments. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: K. Luoma; A. Virkkula; P. Aalto; K. Lehtipalo; +3 Authors

    We present a comparison between three absorption photometers that measured the absorption coefficient (σabs) of ambient aerosol particles in 2012–2017 at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations II), a measurement station located in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The comparison included an Aethalometer (AE31), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). These optical instruments measured particles collected on a filter, which is a source of systematic errors, since in addition to the particles, the filter fibers also interact with light. To overcome this problem, several algorithms have been suggested to correct the AE31 and PSAP measurements. The aim of this study was to research how the different correction algorithms affected the derived optical properties. We applied the different correction algorithms to the AE31 and PSAP data and compared the results against the reference measurements conducted by the MAAP. The comparison between the MAAP and AE31 resulted in a multiple-scattering correction factor (Cref) that is used in AE31 correction algorithms to compensate for the light scattering by filter fibers. Cref varies between different environments, and our results are applicable to a boreal environment. We observed a clear seasonal cycle in Cref, which was probably due to variations in aerosol optical properties, such as the backscatter fraction and single-scattering albedo, and also due to variations in the relative humidity (RH). The results showed that the filter-based absorption photometers seemed to be rather sensitive to the RH even if the RH was kept below the recommended value of 40 %. The instruments correlated well (R≈0.98), but the slopes of the regression lines varied between the instruments and correction algorithms: compared to the MAAP, the AE31 underestimated σabs only slightly (the slopes varied between 0.96–1.00) and the PSAP overestimated σabs only a little (the slopes varied between 1.01–1.04 for a recommended filter transmittance >0.7). The instruments and correction algorithms had a notable influence on the absorption Ångström exponent: the median absorption Ångström exponent varied between 0.93–1.54 for the different algorithms and instruments.

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    Authors: Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf; Debernard, Jens B.;

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77–0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02–0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. −0.22 W m−2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the climatic differences to the SPH experiment become very small. Finally, the impact of assumed snow grain shape on the radiative effects of absorbing aerosols in snow is discussed.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copernicus Publicati...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2018
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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