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316 Research products

  • SDSN - Greece
  • 2014-2023
  • ES
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marsailidh M. Twigg; Chiara F. Di Marco; Elizabeth A. McGhee; Christine F. Braban; +21 Authors

    Under the EU Air Quality Directive (AQD) 2008/50/EC member states are required to undertake routine monitoring of PM2.5 composition at background stations. The AQD states for PM2.5 speciation this should include at least: nitrate (NO3−), sulfate (SO42−), chloride (Cl−), ammonium (NH4+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Until 2017, it was the responsibility of each country to determine the methodology used to report the composition for the inorganic components of PM2.5. In August 2017 a European standard method of measurement of PM2.5 inorganic chemical components (NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) as deposited on filters (EN16913:2017) was published. From August 2019 this then became the European standard method. This filter method is labour-intensive and provides limited time resolution and is prone to losses of volatile compounds. There is therefore increasing interest in the use of alternative automated methods. For example, the UK reports hourly PM2.5 chemical composition using the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA, Metrohm, NL). This study is a pre-assessment review of available data to demonstrate if or to what extent equivalence is possible using either the MARGA or other available automatic methods, including the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research Inc. US) and the Ambient Ion Monitor (AIM, URG, US). To demonstrate equivalence three objectives were to be met. The first two objectives focused on data capture and were met by all three instruments. The third objective was to have less than a 50% expanded uncertainty compared to the reference method for each species. Analysis of this objective was carried out using existing paired datasets available from different regions around the world. It was found that the MARGA (2006–2019 model) had the potential to demonstrate equivalence for all species in the standard, though it was only through a combination of case studies that it passed uncertainty criteria. The ACSM has the potential to demonstrate equivalence for NH4+, SO42−, and in some conditions NO3−, but did not for Cl− due to its inability to quantify refractory aerosol such as sea salt. The AIM has the potential for NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl− and Mg2+. Future investigations are required to determine if the AIM could be optimised to meet the expanded uncertainty criterion for Na+, K+ and Ca2+. The recommendation is that a second stage to demonstrate equivalence is required which would include both laboratory and field studies of the three candidate methods and any other technologies identified with the potential to report the required species. The authors would like to thank the UK Environment Agency who funded this study. The measurements in this study were funded by the following bodies: - All the UK datasets were funded by UK Environment Agency under the UK Eutrophying and Acidifying Pollutant Network and the UKs Particle Numbers and Concentrations Network. The Auchencorth Moss measurements are supported by NERC UK Status, change and Projections of the Environment UK-SCaPE (NE/R016429/1). - The Revin fieldsite is coordinated by IMT Nord Europe in collaboration with the regional monitoring network (Atmo Grand-Est) and the National Reference Laboratory for Air Quality Monitoring (LCSQA) and funded by the French Ministry of Environment. ACSM measurements were supported by the Labex CaPPA project, which is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the PIA (Programme d’Investissement d’Avenir) under contract ANR-11-LABX-0005-01, and were part of the COST COLOSSAL Action CA16109. - Measurements in Barcelona Palau Reial were funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through CAIAC project (PID2019-108990RB-I00) and FEDER funds, through EQC2018-004598-P. - Measurements at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are supported by the EPA-Ireland and the Department of Environment, Climate and Communications. - The Germany Federal Environment Agency (UBA) provided the financial support of this study and the deployment of the MARGA at the research station Melpitz under contracts No: 351 01 093 and 351 01 070. - The data from Kumpula was supported by the Academy of Finland as part of the Centre of Excellence program (project no 1118615). - US EPA gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Battelle and Wood (formerly Amec, Foster Wheeler) to the Research Triangle Park study. - The data from the San Pietro Capofiume was funded by the PEGASOS EU FP7 project. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Luna M. van der Loos; Quinten Bafort; Samuel Bosch; Enric Ballesteros; +40 Authors

    Effective monitoring of non-indigenous seaweeds and combatting their effects relies on a solid confirmation of the non-indigenous status of the respective species. We critically analysed the status of presumed non-indigenous seaweed species reported from the Mediterranean Sea, the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Macaronesia, resulting in a list of 140 species whose non-indigenous nature is undisputed. For an additional 87 species it is unclear if they are native or non-indigenous (cryptogenic species) or their identity requires confirmation (data deficient species). We discuss the factors underlying both taxonomic and biogeographic uncertainties and outline recommendations to reduce uncertainty about the non-indigenous status of seaweeds. Our dataset consisted of over 19,000 distribution records, half of which can be attributed to only five species (Sargassum muticum, Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Asparagopsis armata, Caulerpa cylindracea and Colpomenia peregrina), while 56 species (40%) are recorded no more than once or twice. In addition, our analyses revealed considerable variation in the diversity of non-indigenous species between the geographic regions. The Eastern Mediterranean Sea is home to the largest fraction of non-indigenous seaweed species, the majority of which have a Red Sea or Indo-Pacific origin and have entered the Mediterranean Sea mostly via the Suez Canal. Non-indigenous seaweeds with native ranges situated in the Northwest Pacific make up a large fraction of the total in the Western Mediterranean Sea, Lusitania and Northern Europe, followed by non-indigenous species with a presumed Australasian origin. Uncertainty remains, however, regarding the native range of a substantial fraction of non-indigenous seaweeds in the study area. In so far as analyses of first detections can serve as a proxy for the introduction rate of non-indigenous seaweeds, these do not reveal a decrease in the introduction rate, indicating that the current measures and policies are insufficient to battle the introduction and spread of non-indigenous species in the study area. European Marine Biological Resource Centre Belgium [GOH3817N]; European Marine Biological Resource Centre Belgium [I001621N]; Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek [3F020119]; POR PUGLIA FESR-FSE 2014/2020 [Asse VI, Action 6.5]; RESTORESEAS [EU-BiodivERsA BiodivRestore-253]; Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution – Montpellier [ISEM 2023-173]; Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan [Mission 4, Component 2, ‘From research to business’: 1. NBFC, Investment 1.4, Project CN00000033]; IDEALG [ANR-10-BTBR-04; Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution – Montpellier Institut des Sciences de l’Évolution – Montpellier [ISEM 2023-173]. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    European Journal of Phycology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      European Journal of Phycology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Smith, Peter; Le Devendec, Laëtitia; Jouy, Eric; Larvor, Emeline; +26 Authors

    This work aims to generate the data needed to set epidemiological cut-off values for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc-diffusion zone measurements of Vibrio anguillarum. A total of 261 unique isolates were tested, applying standard methods specifying incubation at 28°C for 24-28 h. Aggregated MIC distributions for a total of 247 isolates were determined in 9 laboratories for 11 agents. Data aggregations of the disc zone for the 10 agents analysed contained between 157 and 218 observations made by 4 to 7 laboratories. Acceptable ranges for quality control (QC) reference strains were available for 7 agents and the related multi-laboratory aggregated data were censored, excluding the data of a laboratory that failed to meet QC requirements. Statistical methods were applied to calculate epidemiological cut-off values. Cut-off values for MIC data were calculated for florfenicol (≤1 µg ml-1), gentamicin (≤4 µg ml-1), oxytetracycline (≤0.25 µg ml-1) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (≤0.125/2.38 µg ml-1). The cut-off values for disc zone data were calculated for enrofloxacin (≥29 mm), florfenicol (≥27 mm), gentamicin (≥19 mm), oxolinic acid (≥24 mm), oxytetracycline (≥24 mm) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (≥26 mm). MIC and disc-diffusion zone data for the other agents where not supported by QC, thus yielding only provisional cut-off values (meropenem, ceftazidime). Regardless of whether QC is available, some of the aggregated MIC distributions (enrofloxacin, oxolinic acid), disc zone (sulfamethoxazole), and MIC and disc-diffusion distributions (ampicillin, chloramphenicol) did not meet the statistical requirements. The data produced will be submitted to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute for their consideration in setting international consensus epidemiological cut-off values.

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    Research@WUR
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Research@WUR
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    Brage IMR
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: Brage IMR
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    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Research@WUR
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
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      Brage IMR
      Article . 2023
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      Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pons, Clara; Casals, Joan; Brouwer, Matthijs; Sacco, Adriana; +15 Authors

    European traditional tomato varieties have been selected by farmers given their consistent performance and adaptation to local growing conditions. Here we developed a multipurpose core collection, comprising 226 accessions representative of the genotypic, phenotypic, and geographical diversity present in European traditional tomatoes, to investigate the basis of their phenotypic variation, gene×environment interactions, and stability for 33 agro-morphological traits. Comparison of the traditional varieties with a modern reference panel revealed that some traditional varieties displayed excellent agronomic performance and high trait stability, as good as or better than that of their modern counterparts. We conducted genome-wide association and genome-wide environment interaction studies and detected 141 quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Out of those, 47 QTLs were associated with the phenotype mean (meanQTLs), 41 with stability (stbQTLs), and 53 QTL-by-environment interactions (QTIs). Most QTLs displayed additive gene actions, with the exception of stbQTLs, which were mostly recessive and overdominant QTLs. Both common and specific loci controlled the phenotype mean and stability variation in traditional tomato; however, a larger proportion of specific QTLs was observed, indicating that the stability gene regulatory model is the predominant one. Developmental genes tended to map close to meanQTLs, while genes involved in stress response, hormone metabolism, and signalling were found within regions affecting stability. A total of 137 marker–trait associations for phenotypic means and stability were novel, and therefore our study enhances the understanding of the genetic basis of valuable agronomic traits and opens up a new avenue for an exploitation of the allelic diversity available within European traditional tomato germplasm This work was supported by European Commission H2020 research and innovation program through TRADITOM grant agreement no. 634561, G2P-SOL, grant agreement no. 677379, and HARNESSTOM grant agreement no. 101000716. Networking activities were funded by COST Actions “EUROCAROTEN CA15136 and ‘RoxyCOST’ CA18210 ‘RoxyCOST

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    Research@WUR
    Other literature type . 2023
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    Journal of Experimental Botany
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      Research@WUR
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Research@WUR
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      Journal of Experimental Botany
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Gerald Hechter Taranto; José-Manuel González-Irusta; Carlos Dominguez-Carrió; Christopher K. Pham; +5 Authors

    This work contributes to the PO2020 MapGES (Acores-01-0145-FEDER-000056) research project and to the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 678760 (ATLAS), No 818123 (iAtlantic) and No 824077 (EUROFLEETS+). This output reflects only the authors' views and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. We acknowledge all projects and programs that collected occurrence data of cold-water coral species in the Azores region. Records in the COLETA database were originally collected by fisheries observer programs during the CORAZON project (FCT No PTDC/MAR/72169/2006), HERMIONE project (FP7 No 226354) and CoralFISH (FP7 GA 213144) harbour sampling programs; CoralFISH, DiscardLess (H2020 No 633680), MERCES (H2020 No 689518) and SPONGES (H2020 No 679849). Records were also provided by the fisheries survey programs ARQDAÇO (1995–2019), OASIS (FP7 No EVK3-CT-2002-00073), CoralFISH, CONDOR (EEA grants No PT0040/2008), PESCPROF (Interreg IIIB/MAC/4.2/M12), DEECON (FCT EURODEEP/0002/2007) and BIOMETORE (EEA grants No PT02), and by the FISHOR experimental bottom trawl surveys. Finally, occurrence records were also made available by multiple ROV, submersible and towed video surveys such as those conducted within the MapGES, BIOMETORE, Estrutura de Missão para Extensão da Plataforma Continental (EMEPC; Cruzeiro Científico EMEPC/LUSO/Açores/2009), MEDWAVES (ATLAS No 678760, with logistic and technical assistance from the UTM –CSIC– and the financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitivity), Blue Azores 2018 (National Geographic Pristine Seas program, Oceano Azul Foundation, and Waitt Institute), NICO 12 Expedition and Pelagia Rainbow 2019 (64PE441, 64PE454, and 64PE456; Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO for funding and Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research NIOZ for organising the Netherlands Initiative Changing Oceans NICO expedition in 2018), TREASURE (RV Pelagia cruises 64PE388, 64PE398, 64PE412, NWO-TTW grant 13273 and Topsector Water), and iMAR 2021 (RV Pelagia ship-time was provided free of charge as part of the iMAR project which received funding from the European Union's H2020 Research & Innovation Programme under grant agreement No 824077 EUROFLEETS+). We deeply thank all fisheries observers, PIs, crews and scientists that participated in all these sampling programs. GHT was supported by the DRCT (M3.1. a/F/052/2015). TM was supported by Program Investigador FCT (IF/01194/2013), and the IFCT Exploratory Project (IF/01194/2013/CP1199/CT0002) from the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (POPH and QREN). TM and MCS were also supported by the FCT-IP Program Stimulus of Scientific Employment (CCCIND/03345/2020 and CCCIND/03346/2020, respectively) and the H2020 programme No 689518 (MERCES) and No 818123 (iAtlantic). CD-C was supported by the PO2020 projects MapGES and DeepWalls (Acores-01-0145-FEDER-000056 and Acores-01-0145-FEDER-000124) and by the FCT-IP Project UIDP/05634/2020. CKP received support from the Operational Program Azores 2020, through the Fund 01-0145-FEDER-000140 ″MarAZ Researchers: Consolidate a body of researchers in Marine Sciences in the Azores” of the European Union. We also acknowledge funds through the FCT – Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., under the project OKEANOS UIDB/05634/2020 and UIDP/05634/2020 and through the FCT Regional Government of the Azores under the project M1.1. A/REEQ.CIENTÍFICO UI&D/2021/010. Habitat-forming cold-water corals (CWCs) represent a key component of deep-sea benthic communities and a priority target for conservation. Although research efforts have been mounting to try and identify the drivers of CWC distributions, progress has been limited by the scarcity of ecological data. The present work employs habitat suitability models (HSMs) to estimate spatial distributions, environmental drivers and co-existence patterns of 14 habitat-forming CWCs in the Azores, an area considered a hotspot of coral diversity in the Atlantic. The modelled CWCs showed a strong bathymetric zonation, which seems to be determined by the vertical stratification of water masses in the region. In particular, the modelled CWCs can be clustered in four groups named after the isopycnal (vertical) layers in which Atlantic water masses are organized: species restricted to upper water masses, species extending down from upper water masses, species restricted to intermediate water masses and species extending up from deep water masses. Horizontal patterns further indicate that the Azores Current and different production regimes north and south of the archipelago likely influence the distribution of CWCs in sub-surface waters. Such results have important implications for the regional management of deep-sea benthic communities and, in particular, for the design of representative networks of protected areas. The combined habitat of all modelled species covered only 11%. Given that they all possess the characteristics of benthic foundation organisms and represent indicator taxa of vulnerable marine ecosystems all the modelled species should be viewed as important targets for conservation. The lace coral Errina dabneyi deserves particular attention since this species appears to be endemic to the Azores and has a very limited estimated distribution. Peer reviewed

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    Deep Sea Research Part I Oceanographic Research Papers
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    DIGITAL.CSIC
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Deep Sea Research Part I Oceanographic Research Papers
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: La Cono, Violetta; Messina, Enzo; Reva, Oleg; Smedile, Francesco; +14 Authors

    AbstractClimate change, desertification, salinisation of soils and the changing hydrology of the Earth are creating or modifying microbial habitats at all scales including the oceans, saline groundwaters and brine lakes. In environments that are saline or hypersaline, the biodegradation of recalcitrant plant and animal polysaccharides can be inhibited by salt‐induced microbial stress and/or by limitation of the metabolic capabilities of halophilic microbes. We recently demonstrated that the chitinolytic haloarchaeon Halomicrobium can serve as the host for an ectosymbiont, nanohaloarchaeon ‘Candidatus Nanohalobium constans’. Here, we consider whether nanohaloarchaea can benefit from the haloarchaea‐mediated degradation of xylan, a major hemicellulose component of wood. Using samples of natural evaporitic brines and anthropogenic solar salterns, we describe genome‐inferred trophic relations in two extremely halophilic xylan‐degrading three‐member consortia. We succeeded in genome assembly and closure for all members of both xylan‐degrading cultures and elucidated the respective food chains within these consortia. We provide evidence that ectosymbiontic nanohaloarchaea is an active ecophysiological component of extremely halophilic xylan‐degrading communities (although by proxy) in hypersaline environments. In each consortium, nanohaloarchaea occur as ectosymbionts of Haloferax, which in turn act as scavenger of oligosaccharides produced by xylan‐hydrolysing Halorhabdus. We further obtained and characterised the nanohaloarchaea–host associations using microscopy, multi‐omics and cultivation approaches. The current study also doubled culturable nanohaloarchaeal symbionts and demonstrated that these enigmatic nano‐sized archaea can be readily isolated in binary co‐cultures using an appropriate enrichment strategy. We discuss the implications of xylan degradation by halophiles in biotechnology and for the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals.

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
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    Microbial Biotechnology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      ZENODO
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      Microbial Biotechnology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mytilinaios, Michail; Basart, Sara; Ciamprone, Sergio; Cuesta, Juan; +9 Authors

    Aerosol reanalysis datasets are model-based, observationally constrained, continuous 3D aerosol fields with a relatively high temporal frequency that can be used to assess aerosol variations and trends, climate effects, and impacts on socioeconomic sectors, such as health. Here we compare and assess the recently published MONARCH (Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry) high-resolution regional desert dust reanalysis over northern Africa, the Middle East, and Europe (NAMEE) with a combination of ground-based observations and space-based dust retrievals and products. In particular, we compare the total and coarse dust optical depth (DOD) from the new reanalysis with DOD products derived from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), and IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) spaceborne instruments. Despite the larger uncertainties, satellite-based datasets provide a better geographical coverage than ground-based observations, and the use of different retrievals and products allows at least partially overcoming some single-product weaknesses in the comparison. Nevertheless, limitations and uncertainties due to the type of sensor, its operating principle, its sensitivity, its temporal and spatial resolution, and the methodology for retrieving or further deriving dust products are factors that bias the reanalysis assessment. We, therefore, also use ground-based DOD observations provided by 238 stations of the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) located within the NAMEE region as a reference evaluation dataset. In particular, prior to the reanalysis assessment, the satellite datasets were evaluated against AERONET, showing moderate underestimations in the vicinities of dust sources and downwind regions, whereas small or significant overestimations, depending on the dataset, can be found in the remote regions. Taking these results into consideration, the MONARCH reanalysis assessment shows that total and coarse-DOD simulations are consistent with satellite- and ground-based data, qualitatively capturing the major dust sources in the area in addition to the dust transport patterns. Moreover, the MONARCH reanalysis reproduces the seasonal dust cycle, identifying the increased dust activity that occurred in the NAMEE region during spring and summer. The quantitative comparison between the MONARCH reanalysis DOD and satellite multi-sensor products shows that the reanalysis tends to slightly overestimate the desert dust that is emitted from the source regions and underestimate the transported dust over the outflow regions, implying that the model's removal of dust particles from the atmosphere, through deposition processes, is too effective. More specifically, small positive biases are found over the Sahara desert (0.04) and negative biases over the Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea (−0.04), which constitute the main pathways of the long-range dust transport. Considering the DOD values recorded on average there, such discrepancies can be considered low, as the low relative bias in the Sahara desert (< 50 %) and over the adjacent maritime regions (< 100 %) certifies. Similarly, over areas with intense dust activity, the linear correlation coefficient between the MONARCH reanalysis simulations and the ensemble of the satellite products is significantly high for both total and coarse DOD, reaching 0.8 over the Middle East, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Arabian Sea and exceeding it over the African continent. Moreover, the low relative biases and high correlations are associated with regions for which large numbers of observations are available, thus allowing for robust reanalysis assessment.

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    Authors: Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Rosell-Moll, Enrique; Besson, Mathieu; Vergnet, Alain; +6 Authors

    Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an important trait to target in fish breeding programs, and the aim of the present study is to underline how the genetic improvement of FCR in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) drives to changes in transcriptional and behavioural patterns. Groups of fish with high (FCR+) and low (FCR-) individual FCR were established at the juvenile stage (161–315 dph) by rearing isolated fish on a restricted ration. Fish were then grouped on the basis of their individual FCR and they grew up until behavioural monitoring and gene expression analyses were done at 420 dph. The AEFishBIT datalogger (externally attached to operculum) was used for simultaneous measurements of physical activity and ventilation rates. This allowed discrimination of FCR+ and FCR- groups according to their different behaviour and energy partitioning for growth and locomotor activity. Gene expression profiling of liver and white muscle was made using customized PCR-arrays of 44 and 29 genes, respectively. Up to 15 genes were differentially expressed in liver and muscle tissues highlighting a different metabolic scope of FCR+ and FCR- fish. Hepatic gene expression profile of FCR- fish displayed a lower lipogenic activity that was concurrent with a down-regulation of markers of mitochondrial activity and oxidative stress, as well as a reallocation of body fat depots with an enhanced flux of lipids towards skeletal muscle. Muscle gene expression profile of FCR- fish matched with stimulatory and inhibitory growth signals, and an activation of energy sensors and antioxidant defence as part of the operating mechanisms for a more efficient muscle growth. These new insights contribute to phenotype the genetically mediated differences in fish FCR thanks to the combination of transcriptomic and behavioural approaches that contribute to better understand the mechanisms involved in a reliable FCR improvement of farmed gilthead sea bream. This work was supported by the EU project PerformFISH (Integrating Innovative Approaches for Competitive and Sustainable Performance across the Mediterranean Aquaculture Value Chain) (H2020-SFS-2016–2017; 727610).

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    Aquaculture Reports
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Aquaculture Reports
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    Authors: Rubiales, Diego; Enjalbert, Jerome; Hohmann, Pierre; Anten, Nils P.R.; +1 Authors

    Intercropping, also known as mixed cropping, consists on simultaneously growing more than one species on a field. It has a great potential for enhancing water- and nutrientuse efficiency and improving plant productivity, yield stability and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress, including those triggered by climate change. Despite their manifold benefits, the practice of intercropping has not risen above its niche status in many regions of the world. The selection of varieties specifically adapted to intercropping remains a major practical challenge to its widespread deployment. This Editorial of a Research Topic hosted at Frontiers in Plant Sciences entitled “Breeding for intercropping” gathers a series of articles covering new insights in the areas of quantitative genetics, ecology, ecophysiology and agronomy integrating theoretical, experimental as well as participatory approaches.

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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
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    Epsilon Open Archive
    Other literature type . 2023
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    Frontiers in Plant Science
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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    Frontiers in Plant Science
    Other literature type . 2023
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      Other literature type . Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
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      Epsilon Open Archive
      Other literature type . 2023
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: ZENODO
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      Frontiers in Plant Science
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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      Frontiers in Plant Science
      Other literature type . 2023
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    Authors: Olsson, Sanna; Dauphin, Benjamin; Jorge, Véronique; Grivet, Delphine; +15 Authors

    Delivering material selected for breeding purposes into the wild in the context of sustainable forest management might reduce the levels of genetic diversity of future forests in comparison to that of natural populations. Another consequence might be a reduction of their resilience under uncertain future climatic and socio-economic conditions if these new populations lack adaptability. Despite the long tradition of breeding activities in Europe, there is still a need to assess the impact of genetically enriched material on forests’ resilience. In this study, we address (1) the genetic diversity of selected material compared to its wild ancestors, and (2) how to enrich breeding material to support forests’ resilience under changing socio-environmental conditions. We analysed 16 study cases of selected material delivered from breeding activities in four European forest tree species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus pinaster Ait. and Populus nigra L.) with different levels of breeding. To answer these two questions, we first assessed and compared the genetic diversity of selected material versus natural populations using both putatively neutral and adaptive (based on diverging selection) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). We then suggest how to enrich these populations for resilience under future climatic conditions by defining a core collection for each species including material from populations that will likely disappear under future conditions. Thanks to the large SNP datasets available for our focal species, we were able to detect some trends in our data. Expected and observed heterozygosity values for selected populations were almost always identical. The selected material showed small but significant genetic differentiation from their original population and their inbreeding coefficient was generally lower. However, the level of genetic improvement (i.e. low vs high) was not correlated with the observed genetic differences between selected material and natural populations.The genetic characterization of natural populations distributed across the species range, and the future projection of their range stability, made it possible to identify core-collections that would significantly enrich breeding populations under uncertain future environmental conditions. This work was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 676876-Gentree “Optimizing the management and sustainable use of forest genetic resources in Europe”; the Spanish Ministry of Science [Grant No RTI2018-094691-B-C32]. Peer reviewed 11 Pág.

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    Forest Ecology and Management; CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Forest Ecology and Management; CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marsailidh M. Twigg; Chiara F. Di Marco; Elizabeth A. McGhee; Christine F. Braban; +21 Authors

    Under the EU Air Quality Directive (AQD) 2008/50/EC member states are required to undertake routine monitoring of PM2.5 composition at background stations. The AQD states for PM2.5 speciation this should include at least: nitrate (NO3−), sulfate (SO42−), chloride (Cl−), ammonium (NH4+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Until 2017, it was the responsibility of each country to determine the methodology used to report the composition for the inorganic components of PM2.5. In August 2017 a European standard method of measurement of PM2.5 inorganic chemical components (NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) as deposited on filters (EN16913:2017) was published. From August 2019 this then became the European standard method. This filter method is labour-intensive and provides limited time resolution and is prone to losses of volatile compounds. There is therefore increasing interest in the use of alternative automated methods. For example, the UK reports hourly PM2.5 chemical composition using the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA, Metrohm, NL). This study is a pre-assessment review of available data to demonstrate if or to what extent equivalence is possible using either the MARGA or other available automatic methods, including the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research Inc. US) and the Ambient Ion Monitor (AIM, URG, US). To demonstrate equivalence three objectives were to be met. The first two objectives focused on data capture and were met by all three instruments. The third objective was to have less than a 50% expanded uncertainty compared to the reference method for each species. Analysis of this objective was carried out using existing paired datasets available from different regions around the world. It was found that the MARGA (2006–2019 model) had the potential to demonstrate equivalence for all species in the standard, though it was only through a combination of case studies that it passed uncertainty criteria. The ACSM has the potential to demonstrate equivalence for NH4+, SO42−, and in some conditions NO3−, but did not for Cl− due to its inability to quantify refractory aerosol such as sea salt. The AIM has the potential for NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl− and Mg2+. Future investigations are required to determine if the AIM could be optimised to meet the expanded uncertainty criterion for Na+, K+ and Ca2+. The recommendation is that a second stage to demonstrate equivalence is required which would include both laboratory and field studies of the three candidate methods and any other technologies identified with the potential to report the required species. The authors would like to thank the UK Environment Agency who funded this study. The measurements in this study were funded by the following bodies: - All the UK datasets were funded by UK Environment Agency under the UK Eutrophying and Acidifying Pollutant Network and the UKs Particle Numbers and Concentrations Network. The Auchencorth Moss measurements are supported by NERC UK Status, change and Projections of the Environment UK-SCaPE (NE/R016429/1). - The Revin fieldsite is coordinated by IMT Nord Europe in collaboration with the regional monitoring network (Atmo Grand-Est) and the National Reference Laboratory for Air Quality Monitoring (LCSQA) and funded by the French Ministry of Environment. ACSM measurements were supported by the Labex CaPPA project, which is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the PIA (Programme d’Investissement d’Avenir) under contract ANR-11-LABX-0005-01, and were part of the COST COLOSSAL Action CA16109. - Measurements in Barcelona Palau Reial were funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through CAIAC project (PID2019-108990RB-I00) and FEDER funds, through EQC2018-004598-P. - Measurements at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are supported by the EPA-Ireland and the Department of Environment, Climate and Communications. - The Germany Federal Environment Agency (UBA) provided the financial support of this study and the deployment of the MARGA at the research station Melpitz under contracts No: 351 01 093 and 351 01 070. - The data from Kumpula was supported by the Academy of Finland as part of the Centre of Excellence program (project no 1118615). - US EPA gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Battelle and Wood (formerly Amec, Foster Wheeler) to the Research Triangle Park study. - The data from the San Pietro Capofiume was funded by the PEGASOS EU FP7 project. Peer reviewed

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